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A Wiki as a Resource for Not-for-Profit Translation

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  • 1. Lisandro Caravaca Universidad Europea de Madrid Facultad de Artes y Comunicación Departamento de Periodismo y Comunicación Intercultural Design and Implementation of a Wiki as a Resource for Not-for-Profit Translation Tutor: Dra. Celia Rico Final project Lisandro Raúl Caravaca Bayo Year 2011 - 2012
  • 2. Lisandro Caravaca
  • 3. Lisandro Caravaca Universidad Europea de Madrid Facultad de Artes y Comunicación Departamento de Periodismo y Comunicación Intercultural Design and Implementation of a Wiki as a Resource for Not-for-Profit Translation Tutor: Dra. Celia Rico Final project Lisandro Raúl Caravaca Bayo Year 2011 - 2012
  • 4. Lisandro CaravacaI would like to thank my family fortheir help, love, support and advice.I thank my tutor for her confidence andwillingness.
  • 5. Lisandro Caravaca Considera siempre qué es lo principal y qué es lo accesorio (Emilio Caravaca) y trabaja siempre de lo general a lo específico (Celia Rico). Always consider what is principal and what is accessory (Emilio Caravaca, my father) and always work from the most general to the most specific concept (Celia Rico, my tutor).
  • 6. Lisandro Caravaca INDEX 1. Introduction. Rationale and Project’s Objectives …………… page 8 2. A Brief History of Translation Technology ………………… page 10 2.1 The Origins 2.2 The Development of Online Translation 2.3 Web Applications 2.4 The Future 3. Translation 2.0. Trick or Treat? …………………………… … page 13 3.1 Collaborative Environments. Crowdsourcing. Web 2.0. 3.2 Human Translators vs Machine Translation 3.3 Professional Translators (experts) vs Amateur Translators (crowd) 4. Translation. Resources. Immigration ………………………. page 18 4.1 What Kind of Resources Do Translators Need? 4.2 Translation. Immigration and Public Services in Spain. 4.3 Do We Use Translation Resources in the Context of Immigration? 4.4 Collaborative Translation Frameworks. Overview and Good Practices. 5. Description of the Wiki ………………………………………. page 27 5.1 What Is a Wiki and How it Is Used in a Translation Context. 5.2 Development of my Wiki. 5.3 Content of the Wiki. 6. Conclusion ……………………………………………………. page 36 7. Bibliography ………………………………………….. .. page 38
  • 7. Lisandro Caravaca
  • 8. Lisandro Caravaca 22 KEYWORDS OF THE PROJECTMachine Translation technology wiki wikispaces tools immigration Public Services Computer-Aided Translation Spain translationcrowdsourcing resources collaborative Grupo Inmigra Interculturalmediator Web 2.0 innovation volunteer translation memoryCommunity translation terminology database Information Technology 8
  • 9. Lisandro Caravaca 1. Introduction. Rationale and Project’s Objectives The aim of my project is the design and implementation of a wiki as a way to explorethe participation and content sharing in an online free collaborative translationenvironment. This platform has been created to enhance translation tasks for professionalsin the field of immigration. Therefore, I have created a wiki as a resource for not-for-profitpurposes1. This project is accomplished within the frame of a research group calledInmigra2007-CM2. Inmigra2007-CM is implemented in the Comunidad de Madrid(Spain). The main objective of the Inmigra research is the multidisciplinary study of theimmigrant community in the Comunidad de Madrid. The study encloses an research aboutlinguistics, translation, applied linguistics, etc. Inmigra2007-CM includes specific goalswhich contain a rich display of resources and activities. It embraces, among others, thefollowing purposes: To implement linguistic studies related to the immigrant population and society. To find information about language and immigration. To develop resources for linguistic purposes; for instance, a multilingual corpora on immigration, a terminological database (Inmigra-TERM) and a collaborative translation environment (a wiki). To understand the linguistic, sociolinguistic and communicative reality of the immigrant community. To facilitate an integration process for immigrants in the Comunidad de Madrid. To organize seminars and events: such as for example a Seminar regarding Collaborative Translation for Not-for-Profit Organizations on 14th November 2011 at Universidad Europea de Madrid). The Inmigra2007-CM project emerges in a complex scenario. It is a difficult contextfor translators in the field of immigration: lack of resources, lack of specific tools, mostly1 You will find more details in point 5. You can check my wiki here: http://www.inmigra2007cm.wikispaces.com2 Please, find more information (written in Spanish) in this link: http://www.grupoinmigra-imasd.es/home 9
  • 10. Lisandro Caravacavolunteer work and specific text typology. Thus, there is still a big gap to be filled in termsof research and development basically. The project is led by three universities: Universidad Europea de Madrid (Dr. CeliaRico Pérez and Dr. Luis Guerra Salas), Universidad de Alcalá (Florentino Paredes García)and Universidad Nebrija (Marta Baralo Ottonello). This research has a length of four years(2008 – 2011). My assigned work, as I have already mentioned, includes the creation of an onlineresource for not-for-profit collaborative translation purposes in the field of immigration. Inaddition, I have investigated about translation and technology; I have looked for thedifferent resources available for translators and I have learnt about the use of specifictools. Moreover, I invite you to discover in the next pages what I have produced. 10
  • 11. Lisandro Caravaca 2. A Brief History of Translation Technology2.1 The Origins The history of translation technology probably dates back to the XVII century, whenphilosophers (such as Leibniz and Descartes) proposed a series of codes which wouldconnect words between languages in order to create a universal language. In the timeswhen computers were not discovered yet, all of these ideas were not put into practice. The first trace of "translating machines" came up in the 1930s. One proposal, by theFrench-Armenian Georges Artsrouni was the creation of an automatic bilingual dictionaryusing paper tape or punched tape, an old method of data recording (see Picture 1). Theother proposal, by the Russian Peter Troyanskii, was more specific: it included both thebilingual dictionary and a method for coding grammatical roles between languages basedon Esperanto. Troyanskii’s system had three stages: in the first stage a native-speakingeditor structured the words in a syntactic and logic manner in the source language; in thesecond stage the machine "translated" these forms into the target language; on the thirdstage, a native-speaking editor normalized this output in the target language. Picture 1: Punched tape or paper tape Nevertheless, research into translation technology started in for real in 1954 with theIBM - Georgetown Experiment. The project was developed in New York by anassociation between the University of Georgetown and IBM who provided a model 701 toserve as the “brain” for the translation. This experiment completed the translation of morethan sixty Russian sentences into English (in the years of the Cold War), and it was proved 11
  • 12. Lisandro Caravacato be a huge success within the American scientific community. It is also important to bearin mind that this experiment took place at a time when computers were just beingintroduced to the world, so the results were incredible and sometimes frightening. Thesuccess led to more funding from the US government. The publication of the ALPAC (Automatic Language Processing AdvisoryCommittee) Report in 1966 was only a dream. Experts accepted that human translationswere still more accurate, quicker and cheaper than MT (Machine Translation). Eventhough, the ALPAC Report suggested that tools such as automatic dictionaries should bedeveloped in order to help humans. The 1970s decade was slow for the progression of translation technologies.Universities began researching into the concept of TM (translation memory). In the 1980s, there were important advances of the translation software. Thedevelopment of computing technology led to many companies in Japan (Fujitsu, Toshibaand Mitsubishi to name a few) to begin investing in translation programs. In the 1990s, the evolution continued as the low-cost and powerful PC revolutionenabled translation technologies to reach the crowd. Internet arrived and made possible thecreation of free translation websites such as Google Language Tools and Alta Vista’sBabel Fish.2.2 The Development of Online Translation In the first decade of the XXI century, the boom of Internet increased thepossibilities of online translation companies. This rise of opportunities made easier toconnect networks of freelance translators in order to meet the need of their clients. Sincethat time, crowdsourcing projects and collaborative platforms have become veryimportant. In the field of translation, it is remarkable to mention that social networks suchas Facebook and Twitter have been turned multilingual by their own users. In section 4.4there are some examples of on-going translation projects for not-for-profit purposes. 12
  • 13. Lisandro Caravaca2.3 Web Applications In this section, I shall focus in the emerging technology of mobile media. The mobilerevolution on the Internet, which is increasingly important, has provided interestingopportunities for leading companies to produce innovative translation technologies.Google, for example, has launched an application for Android which translates almost atthe same time as you speak. Another free mobile application, MediBabble, allows hospitalstaff to ask recorded medical questions in different languages.2.4 The Future It is becoming a requirement for society to cope with the explosion of content which isappearing due to an increased globalization. Technology evolves very quickly and it is ourduty to take advantage of it as well as we can. In this respect, I would like to include inthis learning process some assertions and predictions about the future of translation. Raymond Kurzweil (quoted from Kelly, N: 2011), a world-renowned inventor, author,and futurist believes that by 2029, machines will reach human levels of translation.However, he states that even major technological advances in translation will not replacethe need for language learning. Kurzweil points out that very few people can actuallydominate more than a handful of languages, and that ultimately, we will expand ourintelligence through technologies that enable us to learn other languages more quickly.Nevertheless, Kurzweil (op. cit.) does not believe that translation technologies will replacehuman translators and interpreters: "These technologies dont replace whole fields; ingeneral, what they do is replace a certain way of applying them." While some peoplepredict that the future of human translation seems to be... proofreading computer output(Champollion, Y. 2001), I certainly agree with those who believe that humans are and willalways be essential for translation purposes. Human translation is not perfect and will never be due to the many cultural concepts and parts of language which are "untranslatable." However, if databases are expanded, shared and used, the quality should continue to increase over time. Raymond Kurzweil 13
  • 14. Lisandro Caravaca3. Translation 2.0. Trick or Treat? In this new section I am going to introduce the reader to the world of collaborativeenvironments. I am going to distinguish between translators and machines that are used tosubstitute humans and we will see the different means of collaboration in order tounderstand how translators cope with new technologies as well. I will focus on translationas it is the field I am interested in, but notice that IT is not the only industry affected by theInternet revolution (also music, literature and business to name a few). In this situation, I will try to explain and define a few concepts before we approachmore complex issues. First, I find very important to establish a difference betweenMachine Translation programs, Online Collaborative Translation platforms, and ComputerAssisted Translation tools: Machine Translation programs such as Deja Vu or Trados, are a kind of software designed to translate, “facilitate” and sometimes substitute human’s work. Online Collaborative Translation platforms such as TraduWiki for instance, are websites in which users (professional and amateur) can participate and translate documents all together. Computer-Assisted Translation tools (CAT tools) is a wide term which covers a variety of tools such as terminology databases, dictionaries, terminology managers, translation memory tools and alignment software.3.1 Collaborative environments. Crowdsourcing. Web 2.0 Whilst translation technologies evolved, translators were already using printed toolsand computers. Translators used (and still do) glossaries, dictionaries, translationmemories, etc. Translators asked their doubts via telephone call or by fax. However, oneday, Internet appeared, and things changed. We moved from the usage of closedcommercial systems in the 1980s to the development of collaborative environments (inwhich we create wikis, blogs, discussion groups, social networking and many other 14
  • 15. Lisandro Caravacainteractive interfaces) in the XXI century. Everything has turned into an open sourceinnovation process and many important terms have appeared: Crowdsourcing is “the act of taking a job traditionally performed by a designated employee and outsourcing it to undefined, generally large groups of people in the form of an open call” by Jeff Howe (2006). Web 2.0 describes the “number of services which enable todays Internet users to interact and share information efficiently” coined by Tim OReilly (2005). This concept also comprises the development of ideas and the fact of putting them into practice in a collaborative environment. Commons-based peer production is a phenomenon made possible by Web 2.0. It is a term coined by Professor Yochai Benkler (2006) from the Harvard Law School. Benkler defines it as “a socio-economic system of production that is emerging in the digitally networked environment”. In this situation, roles are generally not hierarchically assigned, and users can volunteer according to their availability and their level of expertise (Perrino, S: n.d.). Internet has turned into a complex tool which modifies the work and life structures ofits users. Therefore, in the field of translation, it seems that there is less amount of workavailable to professional translators on the Internet. At the moment, web developments arefrequently linked to crowdsourcing, (as we have mentioned, those tasks that werepreviously done by professionals and which are now performed by unpaid volunteers). Translation is one of the typical areas in which the crowd is replacing the professionalworker. As there is a shortage of professional work available, translators are affected bytwo different and strategic facts: massive collaboration and machine translation. Inaccordance with the previous ideas, in my opinion, human translators are in trouble. Theyhave to deal with machines and with other humans. This matter is reflected in thefollowing epigraph. 15
  • 16. Lisandro Caravaca3.2 Human Translators vs Machine Translation Translation and other subjects are being modified by technological advances. In thisevolution, some people are for and others against the use of MT. In the followingparagraphs I shall introduce both points of view. I have already explained what “machinetranslation” is so let us go straight to the idea: It is very complicated for me (and I believe for experts too) to determine whethermachines are simply useful tools or indispensable processes. On one hand, technology,translation and society follow the same path in terms of evolution. We are very connectednow and people need to communicate, perform tasks and solve problems very quickly. Onthe other hand, users must not take for granted or underestimate the importance oftranslation. Translation is an essential component in the information process and must beconsidered as one of the main factors influencing the outcome of the research process(Rico, C. 2003). There is uncertainty with MT when the output may or may not need to be modified.When it is decided that no post-edition is required, MT often substitutes human’s workwhereas if post-edition is required, it transforms translators into proofreaders. At the sametime, researchers still find trouble to solve problems such as structural ambiguity,anaphora resolution or quantifier scope, calling for some kind of reasoning (Rico, C: op.cit.). Besides, Ignacio García (2010) states that “MT results will not be elegant, but mayhelp users who do not share a common language, or poor bilinguals, to communicate, ifusers are prepared to put in the extra effort often required to repair poor grammarstructures and wrong word choice”. In my opinion, we should concentrate on how we can take advantage of newdiscoveries rather than thinking how can we replace people by using technology andmachines. Do not forget that humans have the power to decide what to do in this field.Some researchers such as Désilets (2007) believe that “MT systems may know quite a lotabout language, but they know absolutely nothing about the world we talk about throughlanguage”. I do agree with this and it has been proved that there have been many try outs 16
  • 17. Lisandro Caravacato teach machines facts about the world. The most disappointing sample is the CYCproject initiated by Doug Lenat in 1984 which aims at developing a system that wouldexhibit human level common sense and understanding (Yuret, D: 1996). The projectstarted more than twenty years ago and has not guaranteed the results they expected. As a conclusion of this idea, I would like to include a quote from Celia Rico (2003):“Computers do not have sense of right, judgment or will. In other words, they do not thinknor feel; they do not have the ability to create or manage abstract ideas expressed withwords or to adapt to different situations”. Remember, machines are simply very usefultools but, above all, machines.3.3 Professional Translators (Experts) vs Amateur Translators (Crowd) Non-professional collaborative translation environments and crowdsourcing practicesappeared in the XXI century and have led to a progressive underestimation of languageservice providers and professional translators. Massive online collaboration is revolutionizing the way in which content is beingproduced and consumed worldwide (Désilets, op. cit.). Internet has enabled thedevelopment of human cooperation and interaction in businesses but also in public andfree-access platforms such as Wikipedia. Désilets (op. cit.) points out that this new way ofconnecting people is a new strategy for quality assurance, based not on the opinion of theexpert, but on votes, on the judgment of people. “A central difference between the old world and this new massive online collaborationenvironment is that, in the new world, content is not mandated, it just happens,contributors are volunteers” (Forte and Bruckman: 2005). Content is divided into smallchunks and deadlines are more flexible but the quality control is difficult to keep. In spite of the fact that online content is growing quickly, it seems that there is no placefor paid professional translation. Furthermore translators blame today’s economic crisisand a bunch of unstoppable technological advances. Professional translators might haveobjections about the quality of non-professional performance but that will do nothing toreverse the process. 17
  • 18. Lisandro Caravaca “Community translation is a process that, overall, may well be good for society, if not for the profession” (Ignacio García, University of Western Sidney, 2010). Translation as a skill is becoming more popular. It is a reinvestment of translationtechnology by humans (Cronin, M: 2010). “Sooner rather than later, the professionalsector will collide with non-professionals taking their jobs or with seeing those jobsdisappear due to the evolution of machine translation software” (García, I: 2010). However, we can also do a positive balance. Massive online collaboration does notonly introduce new challenges and problems. It may also enable new and better solutionsto old problems. (Désilets, op. cit.). In particular, community translation is helping to theimprovement of terminology databases (TD) and translation memories (TM), for example. In my opinion, this new phenomenon has created a problem of content credibility (highquality versus poor quality) for professional translators but not for the rest of the peoplewho are taking part in the process. Furthermore, one of the most criticized aspects oftodays Internet is the impossibility of verifying the effective authorship of online content.Communities which are based on anonymity should (at least for these purposes) shift theirmode to pseudo-anonymous accounts, as in many platforms, where you have an identitybehind an invented nickname. Meanwhile, some action is being taken by internationalcommunities in order to protect authorship and content. In conclusion, the advent of online collaboration has quickly developed different newsituations that we (professional translators) do not know how to deal with. The consumerhas turned into an active producer or prosumer (Cronin, M. 2010). The new processreveals that even if top quality is not top priority, crowdsourcing projects still work out.Globalization has enabled the participation of community members and the rules of thegame have changed. I take advantage of this technological chapter to introduce a new concept: “cloudcomputing”. I believe it is very interesting for translators. It is a virtual interface used tosave content online. Users do not need to know the physical location of the informationthey have saved or they are looking for. Information is accessible through a web browserand more applications are still under research. I am using DropBox at the moment. 18
  • 19. Lisandro Caravaca4. Translation. Resources. Immigration “Our technology has just given us access to the smaller building blocks of language, and it would be a shame not to use those”. Zetzsche, J. 2011 – “Building Blocks” Translation Journal4.1 What Kind of Resources Do Translators Need? Above and beyond all other considerations, I truly believe it is important to make adistinction between a resource and a tool. In my opinion, a translation resource issomething generic (a terminological database, for example) and a translation tool, frommy point of view, is something more specific (TermStar or SDL Multiterm are tools usedto create databases). Furthermore, another good example is the following one: localizationis a resource in which we adapt translations for a specific country of region and we usetools such as Catalyst or Passolo. In the last two decades or so - even before localization and modern tools appeared -translators have changed their way of working. They still make good use of traditionalresources (printed) but they combine these with new strategies of reaching and classifyingcontent: online resources and cloud-computing software. Translators are now consideredIT (Information Technology) professionals. In this context, it is assumed that they knowhow to solve translation doubts effectively and they should also know how to takeadvantage of new technologies in order to work much faster, be more efficient and, whatseems to be more important, comply with the deadlines. Translators must investigate andchoose cost-effective professional programs to work with. Therefore, computers havebecome one of the most important tools for translators (apart from their personal skills). Intheir computer, translators must set up a range of basic tools such as: a word processor(featuring a good grammar and spell checker); a word counter (Anycount, for instance), aPDF reader, creator, converter and editor; a file compressor (Win Zip, Win Rar); aproofreading tool (such as Highlight Tool, Foxit Reader Pro); an image editor and others. Once the user reaches Internet, everything turns slightly more complicated but it is stillfeasible to anybody. At some time, users will need to choose a web browser (Mozilla, 19
  • 20. Lisandro CaravacaInternet Explorer, Google Chrome…) and a search engine (Google, of course), which is afree server that make things easier when looking for information on the Internet. Ifsomeone wants to communicate with another person via Internet, they will certainly needan e-mail account (Gmail is working quite well at the moment, Hotmail or Yahoo). If the computer user (and the reader of this work) happens to be a translator, he or shemight find useful the resources I am going to mention in the following paragraphs: Professional translators use a range of resources known as CAT tools (ComputerAided Translation) which include glossaries, thesaurus, dictionaries and encyclopedias(could be monolingual, bilingual, specialized), translation memories, corpora, terminologydatabases and the controversial tool of machine translation. I take this opportunity to makea distinction between CAT and MT (both are translation tools). “On one hand, whenusing Machine Translation, the computer controls the translating process and the humantranslator is a source of information required from the computer. On the other hand,Computer Assisted Translation means software that is used to assist the translator, who isin control of the translation process”3. In the table below (Table 1) there are some examples of the resources mentioned:Resources ToolsCorpora Translational English Corpus; IMS Open Corpus WorkbenchDatabases Multi Term; Term Star; IATE; UNTERM; TermiumGlossaries, dictionaries Online or printed / Monolingual or bilingual / Specialized or& encyclopedias not specialized. The most famous: Wikipedia.Translation memories Trados; Déjà Vu; Transit; WordfastThesaurus Historial Thesaurus of the Oxford English Dictionary; Eurovoc.Table 1: Examples of resources and tools3 Crosson, Furmanek and Wray (2001). Careers in languages. [online resource]http://lrc.wfu.edu/careersinlanguages/main/translator.htm 20
  • 21. Lisandro Caravaca Furthermore, translators sometimes require the help of other translators in order tosolve their translation difficulties. This is when they use and look for comments andconversations on different platforms, wikis, forums, chats, blogs, videoconferences andonline co-working private groups. I am going to repeat the same process as I did before. In the table below (Table 2) thereare some examples of translation resources which are developed through platforms on theInternet:Resources ToolsWikis Wikipedia; Wikispaces; PBWiki; MediaWiki, WetPaintForum/ discussion groups ProZ; Translator’s Café; LinkedIn groups; WordreferenceVideoconferences Skype, Elluminate, Yugma.Team and project management TeamBox, Zyncro, DropBox.Table 2. Examples of resources and tools useful for groups and crowdsourcing platforms. It is important to notice that, even if translators help each other in order to solve anydoubt through forums, translators still do their own text; whereas in “communitytranslation”, users contribute all together to the translation of the same text. I have alreadyexplained the former idea and in section 4.4, I will give more details about the latter. In conclusion, I have tried to establish a difference between basic resources forcomputer users and those resources created for translation purposes. Furthermore I haveclassified several examples of resources and tools. In the following epigraphs I shallreview how translation is conceived in public services and what type of resources fit forthis matter. In addition I will give a brief overview of community translation and somegood examples. 21
  • 22. Lisandro Caravaca4.2 Translation, Immigration and Public Services in Spain 4.2.1 Introduction It is assumed that we live in a multicultural society with different religions, languagesand customs. The massive movement of population in the XX and XXI centuries hasdeveloped the need of a profession in which someone enables the communication betweenforeigners and local communities at police stations, immigration offices, courts, healthcarecenters, social care centers, schools and others. Therefore, organizations and authoritiesshould be working in order to guarantee an integration of immigrants and a bettercoexistence with local communities. However, the truth is that, in numerous times,linguistic and cultural barriers between newcomers and local citizens and authorities haveled to misunderstanding situations. Although there is an increasing necessity of fully-qualified professional mediators, thelimits and the name of this new ocuppation have not been established. Is it called aninterpreter or a cultural mediator? This need is still underestimated in many countries. Italso depends on the political organization, the time in History, the quality of the publicadministration, etc. Moreover, in Europe, the attitude of public administrations is different.In some countries of Eastern Europe, authorities reject the need of translation andinterpreting in public services. Spain and Italy provide ad hoc services. Countries such asAustralia, Sweden and United Kingdom have included official training programs and anational title.. 4.2.2 The Role and Profile of the Professional Mediator Translation and intercultural mediation (also known as “community interpreting” and“liaison interpreting”) are the first steps for integration. The intercultural mediator doesnot only transmit a message, but also takes an active role in monitoring the action carriedby that message which concerns the immigrant (this action might be hosting, jobsearching, counselling, etc.). Sometimes they deal with complex situations in which asimple understanding of a language is not enough. 22
  • 23. Lisandro Caravaca From my point of view, and considering all the activities they carry out everyday, Ibelieve that intercultural mediators are a combination of a psychologist, an interpreter anda social worker (paraphrasing Hassan Saharaui, interpreter-in-chief at the Court inMadrid). The lack of mediators has negative consequences: outlander’s disorientationunjustified decision, failure of justice – to name a few. Subsequently, there is a relevantimportance of the interpreter or translator (or intercultural mediator). In conclusion, theprofessional profile of the person in charge of the mediation between service providers andservice users must be someone with full knowledge of: the languages involved in theprocess, the terminology and jargon of the sector, the cultures involved, somecommunicational and analytical skills which might be brought to the proof in difficultsituations. 4.2.3 Who Is the User of these Services? Those who are going to be in need of an intercultural mediator are not only immigrantsbut also tourists, international students, refugees, etc. There are three main areas wheremediation is required: education, health and the legal environment. Incomers mightunderstand and speak the foreign language but it will be difficult for them to understandwhat a medical diagnosis or a judge’s decision means. This is why authorities mustguarantee equal opportunities and security, and must promote social inclusion andcoexistence for everyone. 4.2.4 What Is Going on in Spain? Spain has not taken action as it was expected. Public administrations often fall back onprivate companies in order to “get the job done”. However, there are groups dedicated toresearch and development (R&D) which are collecting and sharing data. Some of thegroups in Spain are Red Comunica4, Grupo Inmigra, Grupo FITISPOS5, Grupo GRETI6,4 Red Comunica. [online resource] http://www2.uah.es/traduccion/red_comunica.html5 Grupo FITISPOS [online resource] http://www2.uah.es/traduccion/grupo_fitispos.html 23
  • 24. Lisandro CaravacaGrupo CRIT7 and Grupo MIRAS8. A few universities have included seminars andacademic degrees oriented towards translation and public services. In my opinion, translators need to take advantage of the resources and tools availablein order to accomplish their translation performance in this field. However, I certainlyagree with those who believe that prior to the discussion of whether tools are important ornecessary, there is something that must change and that is the lack of information,formation and consensus between countries and organizations. In the second decade of theXXI century, hospitals are a good example to bear in mind. Some healthcare centers areadopting new systems of data storage, communication networks and translation programs.I believe that it is necessary to gather information about migration in dictionaries,glossaries, corpora, translation memories, forums and wikis and share it with thetranslators and interpreters who are working in this field. Technology enables theevolution of data storage and consequently translation. I think it is important for us todevelop the profession of translation in the context of immigration and to increase thecommitment with society. This is another reason why I have created this wiki.4.3 Do We Use Translation Resources in the Context of Migration? I have probably answered this question in the paragraph above. In my opinion,translators need more resources and tools when dealing with translations related toimmigration. It is important to share all the information and knowledge available. Apartfrom all the resources abovementioned in section 4.1 and section 4.2.4, other possiblefeatures that I consider resources for translators are events (conferences and congresses),presentations of other speakers, journals and magazines (Translation Journal), seminarsand courses. Furthermore, in-house experience (working experience) in not-for-profitorganizations, hospitals and courts is also important. In Spain, there is a very specificprogram to take into account which is conducted by FITISPos Group and it is called inSpanish “Programa de Formación en Traducción e Interpretación en los Servicios Públicosde la Universidad de Alcalá de Henares”. The FITISPos Group is the creator and6 Grupo GRETI [online resource] http://www.ugr.es/~greti/7 Grupo CRIT [online resource] http://www.crit.uji.es/8 Grupo MIRAS [online resource] http://grupsderecerca.uab.cat/miras/es/content/grupo-miras 24
  • 25. Lisandro Caravacacoordinator of Red Comunica, which is composed by research groups from Spain and whoaim at helping to the development of translation and interpreting in Social Services.4.4 Collaborative Translation Frameworks. Overview and good practices. 4.4.1 Overview Collaboration has become very important for crowd. This process enables people togenerate ideas and to build scientific discovery and research. Wikipedia has gathered in 9years the content that would have taken 100 years. That is the power of the crowd. In myopinion, the power of people should be used to strengthen not-for-profit organizationsrather than big companies which only look for their own benefit. Facebook is the exampleof massive crowdsourcing projects for the company’s profit. According to Alain Désilets(Seminar about Collaborative Translation in Madrid, 2011) collaborative translationpractices include: technical documentation, video transcript, humanitarian aid content,software user interface and data gathering for MT and research. At the seminar, Désilets,Research Officer at the National Research Council of Canada, mentioned several types ofcollaboration: Collaborative Terminology Resources: Wikipedia-like platforms, Wiktionary, ProZ, Urban Dictionary, Reverso, TermWiki, TikiWiki. Translation Memory Sharing: Even if it is not explicitly collaborative, people add their content online for others to use too. Examples: Google Translator Toolkit, WeBiText, TAUS Data Association. Online marketplaces for translators: open call sourcing. Examples: ProZ, Translator’s Café, Translated.net. Agile translation teamware: there is not a product that supports this; it is an idea of a large team of translators working together (I suggested the idea of an intranet and he approved it). It is based on agile rather than sequential working methods. 25
  • 26. Lisandro Caravaca Furthermore, before we zoom in on the best practices in collaborative translation, it isimportant to understand why members of a community might contribute to a collaborativetranslation initiative (I also took the following idea from Désilets at the CollaborativeTranslation Seminar 14th November, Madrid): Collaborative translation purposes are often attached to emotional bonds with thecontent (who does not want to take part in TedTalks or Facebook translation process?);prestige of the content (translation practices at UNICEF for instance); pride in one’s nativelanguage; some people translate in order to improve their second language skills; otherstry to make a go at professional translation career (kiva.org) and last but not least, otherslook for monetary benefits. 4.4.2 Best practices Celia Rico (2011) shares some information about the best examples of how to developtranslation practices in the field of immigration: The Rosetta Foundation9 “supports the not-for-profit activities of the localization and translation communities. It works, internationally, with those who want to provide equal access to information across languages, independent of economic or market considerations, including localization and translation companies, technology developers, not-for-profit and non-governmental organizations”. For this purpose, The Rosetta Foundation is working towards the development of a platform that helps automate the translation processes (creation, translation, review, storage and management of global content), in an open source environment using Globalsight and Crowdsight backbone. Translators Without Borders’10 goal is to create “a worldwide, web-based platform where volunteer translators interact directly with the humanitarian organizations who need their help. This self-managing community will connect through a simple technology platform that will allow them to work in a crowd-9 The Rosetta Foundation. [online resource] http://www.therosettafoundation.org/ [last consulted] 21/11/1110 Translators Without Borders. [online resource] http://translatorswithoutborders.com/ [last consulted] 21/11/11 26
  • 27. Lisandro Caravaca sourced environment, no matter where in the world they live, or what language they speak”. In addition, I believe that translation specialists in the field of migration need to gettogether and create a global net in which they share their opinion, knowledge and content.Moreover, social networks and new technologies enable a fast development of contentsharing and an increasing availability of resources and communication betweenresearchers and organizations. For this purpose, three universities in Madrid havedeveloped a network called Inmigra2007-CM and my duty in this project is to create acollaborative resource for translators. 27
  • 28. Lisandro Caravaca5. Description of the Wiki5.1 What Is a Wiki and How it Is Used in a Translation Context? A wiki is a website where users can add, edit and remove content related to a specificfield. It is a very common practice for people to surf the net and modify content. Wikis areknown as one of the tools of choice for large, multiple-participant projects. Wikipedia isthe world’s most popular community-edited wiki. “Wiki” means “quick” in Hawaiian. The first platform, known as WikiWikiWeb, wascreated by Ward Cunningham in 1995 as an accessory to the Portland Pattern Repository.Cunningham is a computer programmer and he defines the word “wiki” as “the simplestonline database that could possibly work”. Numerous collaboration resources have preceded wikis and most of them are still inuse: discussion forums, online chats, newsgroups... Wikis are classified under the spectacular buzzword Web 2.0. That is precisely why Iwould like to establish the differences (from my point of view) between the diverseresources and tools which are considered part of this umbrella term. Each of theseresources, at the beginning, was designed for a purpose: collaborate, share content, giveadvice and recommendation, etc. Blogs are more personal in a way, and are not consideredas a genuine multi-participant tool; users can share their opinion but they are not allowedto modify content. Wikis are public and anyone can take part and be the author; ingeneral, there is not an editorial surveillance so anyone can delete content and rewrite it,user-generated content is very fast and constant. Moreover, the point of view tends to bereflexive rather than impulsive. Social networks are tools designed to updaterelationships. Social networks are normally used for a wide range of purposes: Facebookis more personal (despite Facebook pages); LinkedIn is used for business; Tuenti is usedin only used in Spain for amusement and the users are mainly teenagers. 28
  • 29. Lisandro Caravaca Wikis are used for collaborative learning, academic purposes and collaborativeworking. Envirowiki, for instance, is a good choice. According to envirowiki.com/info it isa “place designed to share theoretical, scientific and practical knowledge aboutenvironmental issues”. Wikis are very extended and common in US: WikischolarsColumbia is one example of learning and academic procedures. Wikis foster team work.Wikis are also created in order to develop an enterprise social collaborative strategyalthough companies tend to use intranets for this purpose, instead. I have created an onlineopen source community for translators focused in the field of immigration. In the field of wikis, there are plenty of different platforms and each platform hasspecific options and widgets: users can embed videos, upload files, etc. According to Bey,Boilet and Kageura (2007), BEYTrans – Better Environment for your Translation – is thefirst free online computer-aided translation environment. Moreover, we are interested inthose wikis which have been created in order to help translation tasks such as: Der MundoSocial Translation Network (formerly known as Worldwide Lexicon), Cucumis,TraduWiki (Creative Commons), Wiki Translate, TikiWiki and Cross Lingual WikiEngine project. There are other collaborative translation platforms slightly different from wikis suchas: Professional translators’ network (ProZ, Translators Café, LinkedIn groups);translation, transcription and subtitle platforms (Dot Sub); user-generated dictionaries(Word Reference). There are many platforms in order to create wikis: XWiki.com, TWiki (15-day freetrial), PBWorks or MediaWiki. I have chosen Wikispaces (in the next page I explain why).5.2 Development of the Wiki Above and beyond all other considerations, I would like to show you the steps I havefollowed in order to create this wiki.Step 1: Define the aim of the wiki. In this particular case, the aim is to create acollaborative translation tool for translators in the field of immigration. At the moment,this is a BETA version; however, users will be free to edit, post and access. 29
  • 30. Lisandro CaravacaStep 2: Choose the platform. I have chosen Wikispaces. I believe it is a very attractive andgood-looking platform. Tutorials are very useful. Content is easy to submit. Changes aresaved effectively and it is very intuitive and fun. In conclusion, the wiki is easy to use andincludes many options and widgets.Step 3: Sign in and register your personal details: username and password. Once I verifymy registration, I will choose the web address and I will receive the link of the wiki whichis: http://inmigra2007cm.wikispaces.com/Step 4: Wiki setup and implementation of the different features. For this purpose, once Ihave registered my user details I have read carefully the Welcome page (Picture 2) fromWikispaces and I have watched the tutorials available which are very useful as they give adetailed description of the process. Find more details here:http://www.wikispaces.com/content/wiki-tourPicture 2. Wikispaces. Welcome PageStep 5: Investigate all the options and settings available. Make sure you “hide changes” ifthere is any option to do so. 30
  • 31. Lisandro CaravacaStep 6: Set the options the way you like. For example: Let Wikispaces know that you donot want to send notifications to the users every week.Step 7: Create the pages and resources necessary in order to add some content.Step 8: Add content. There are no language restrictions but we would like to give priorityto the Spanish and English languages.Step 9: Invite new contacts and users. Promote and share your wiki.Tips to Promote A Wiki There are many useful and interesting ways to promote an interface, a website or abrand on the Internet. In the oral presentation I will explain to the audience some of theseoptions. In the following lines I will show and describe a few methods. First of all, it willbe good if users use and write keywords and repeat the most appropiate words so thesearch engines will help people to find your wiki much easier. Install RSS feed and letpeople know. Create social network profiles and groups. Share your wiki with relevantassociations and people. Open a blog and add the link to the wiki.5.3 Content of the Wiki In the following paragraphs, I am going to explain what my project is all about.Remember that this platform is part of a research led by Inmigra Group. My wiki11includes different folders and sections according to the needs that a translator working inthe field of public services might require. The first image of the wiki is the “Home page”(Picture 3) in which the user can read and follow the instructions to participate. In theHome Page, the user can edit the information, search on the pages and get to know what isthis project about. In addition, I have created eight pages to wit:11 This wiki can be found at: http://inmigra2007cm.wikispaces.com/ 31
  • 32. Lisandro CaravacaPicture 3. Home Page. Inmigra2007-CM. Wiki 1. Bilingual glossary: This folder has been created in order to elaborate a collaborative bilingual glossary of terms related to immigration. The purpose is to create a wider database on the wiki and then include the most appropriate terms to the consolidated glossary of the Inmigra Project which is Inmigra-TERM12.Picture 4. Bilingual Glossary. Inmigra2007-CM. Wiki12 Inmigra Group. Inmigra TERM. [online resource] http://inmigra.atril.com/TMServer/Client/ [last consulted] 21//11/11 32
  • 33. Lisandro Caravaca 2. Discussion group: Each folder has a discussion group on the top but I have created this page to use this forum as the general debating section.Picture 5. Discussion Group. Inmigra2007-CM. Wiki 3. News: I have created a Google Calendar in which users can find events related to translation. The only problem is that I have used my Google account which means that I am the only one who can submit events. This feature would need further research if the wiki would be made public for a long period of time.Picture 6. News. Inmigra2007-CM. Wiki 33
  • 34. Lisandro Caravaca 4. Resources: There are useful resources about associations, organizations and more. Some of the resources are generic and others are related to immigration. Most of the resources are Spanish websites. Users are welcome to complete the list and publish more links.Picture 7. Resources. Inmigra2007-CM. Wiki 5. Texts: The purpose of this section is to upload documents and compare sentences and words. Documents must be written in Spanish and English. Documents must be always related to immigration and public servicesPicture 8. Texts. Inmigra2007-CM. Wiki 34
  • 35. Lisandro Caravaca 6. Translation Tools: We want to understand and learn from other translators so we invite them to share their tools with us.Picture 9. Translation Tools. Inmigra2007-CM. Wiki 7. Videos and presentations: Users are free to upload and embed their favorite videos in the field of collaborative translation and immigration.Picture 10. Videos and Presentations. Inmigra2007-CM. Wiki 35
  • 36. Lisandro Caravaca 8. Collaborative Translation: This folder includes texts in English about immigration which have not been translated before. I have previously requested permission to the owners of these texts. The aim is to share ideas and create a translation all together.Picture 11. Collaborative Translation. Inmigra2007-CM. Wiki6. CONCLUSION 36
  • 37. Lisandro Caravaca When I first thought about creating my final project, my idea was the elaboration of analternative project. I have always desired to develop something different, somethingcreative. In this context, I spoke with Celia Rico, my tutor, and she offered me thepossibility to take part in the Inmigra Group. I found this chance as something veryinteresting because I had the opportunity to belong to a research group. I accepted thechallenge. In addition to that, in the next paragraph, I would like to summarize what I havestudied and reflected on this project. In my opinion, I have clearly distinguished the chapters of this project. Furthermore, Ihave worked from the most generic ideas to those which are more specific. I haveestablished the guidelines of a collaborative environment for translators in the field ofimmigration. Then, I have given a brief overview of the history of technologies applied tothe field of translation. I have written about translation in the XXI century and the newways of content production: machines and crowdsourcing. I have described all thedifferent resources that translators need and I have shared several examples of translationtools. Moreover, I have analyzed which resources would those translators dedicated to thefield of immigration need (information and training, collaborative environments,terminological databases, glossaries, etc.). I have designed and implemented a wiki inwhich professional translators might take advantage of tools and content but also, thisplatform will never be useful unless users participate and share their knowledge andexperience. In this time in which I have been studying the purposes of collaboration, translationand immigration, I have come to the conclusion that more research is needed. Associations 37
  • 38. Lisandro Caravacaneed to get together and discuss the different possibilities of translation and interpreting inpublic services. Thus, those in charge of public administrations will appreciate theimportance of professional people and they will take into consideration the need ofspecific training programs. In conclusion, in order to complete this study, it will be necessary to do a case study inthe future in order to test the experience of the users; to see how useful the interface is, andlast but not least, to understand the willingness of the users to participate and shareinteresting content. However, this final idea must be the subject of a different study whichgoes beyond the point of the objectives of my project. In the oral presentation, I will expose the main ideas that should be taken into accountin the future and I will certainly explore the ways to promote a collaborative environmenton the Internet. Information is everywhere and does not always belong only to you. Share it. Thanks for reading, Lisandro R. Caravaca Bayo 7. BIBLIOGRAPHY 38
  • 39. Lisandro CaravacaB, Justin. Spanish Translation.Us. The Georgetown Experiment. [online resource]http://spanish-translation-blog.spanishtranslation.us/the-georgetown-experiment-2009-05-05.html/comment-page-1#comment-2879 [last consulted 29/09/11]Bardaji, A. Traducción e Interpretación en los Servicios Públicos. Universidad Autónomade Barcelona. 2010. [online resource] http://grupsderecerca.uab.cat/miras/es/node/151[last consulted] 11/11/11Benkler, Y. Commons-based Peer Production and Virtue. [online resource – pdf file]http://www.nyu.edu/projects/nissenbaum/papers/jopp_235.pdf [last consulted] 05/09/11Bey, Boilet and Kageura (2007). BEYTrans. A Wiki-based environment for helping onlinevolunteer translators. Chapter 9 [printed resource] [last consulted] 15/09/10BrightSightGroup. Jeff Howe – Crowdsourcing [online resource – video]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F0-UtNg3ots&feature=related [last consulted] 05/10/11Champollion, Y. Machine translation and the Future of the Translation Industry [onlineresource] http://translationjournal.net/journal/15mt.htm [last consulted] 28/09/11Cronin, Michael. The Translation Crowd. Revista Tradumática [online resource]http://www.fti.uab.cat/tradumatica/revista/num8/articles/04/04.pdf [last consulted 09/10/11]Crosson, Furmanek and Wray (2001). Careers in languages. [online resource]http://lrc.wfu.edu/careersinlanguages/main/translator.htm [last consulted] 26/10/11Désilets, A (2007) Translation Wikified: How will Massive Online Collaboration Impactthe World of Translation? [online resource] http://nparc.cisti-icist.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/npsi/ctrl?action=rtdoc&an=8913226 [last consulted] 30/09/11Envirowiki. [online resource] http://www.envirowiki.com/info [last consulted] 11/11/11Forte, A. and Bruckman A. (2005) “Why do people write for Wikipedia? Incentives tocontribute to open-content publishing. Group 05 workshop: Sustaining community: Therole of design of incentive mechanisms in online systems. Sanibel Island, FL. 39
  • 40. Lisandro CaravacaGarcía, I. The Proper Place of Professionals (and Non-professionals and Machines) inWeb Translation [online resource] http://www.fti.uab.cat/tradumatica/revista/num8/sumari.htm[last consulted] 30/09/11Glaser, M. Your Guide to Wikis. Picture Ward Cunningham [online resource]http://www.pbs.org/mediashift/2006/11/your-guide-to-wikis305.html [last consulted] 10/10/11Grupo CRIT [online resource] http://www.crit.uji.es/ [last consulted] 08/12/11Grupo FITISPOS [online resource] http://www2.uah.es/traduccion/grupo_fitispos.html[last consulted] 08/12/11Grupo GRETI [online resource] http://www.ugr.es/~greti/ [last consulted] 08/12/11Grupo Inmigra. [online resource] http://www.grupoinmigra-imasd.es/home [lastconsulted] 11/11/11Grupo Inmigra. Inmigra TERM. [online resource] http://inmigra.atril.com/TMServer/Client/[last consulted] 21//11/11Grupo MIRAS [online resource] http://grupsderecerca.uab.cat/miras/es/content/grupo-miras [last consulted] 08/12/11Hutchins, J (2005). The History of Machine Translation in a Nutshell. [online resource –pdf file] http://www.hutchinsweb.me.uk/Nutshell-2005.pdf [last consulted] 29/09/11Howe, J. (2006). Crowdsourcing: A definition. [online resource]http://crowdsourcing.typepad.com/cs/2006/06/crowdsourcing_a.html [last consulted] 08/12/11Inmigra Wiki. Wikispaces [online resource] http://inmigra2007cm.wikispaces.com/ [lastconsulted 07/12/11 40
  • 41. Lisandro CaravacaKelly, N. Ray Kurzweil on Translation Technology [online resource]http://www.huffingtonpost.com/nataly-kelly/ray-kurzweil-on-translati_b_875745.html [lastconsulted] 28/09/11Lagrich, S. Reflexiones sobre la mediación intercultural y experiencias desde laComunidad Valenciana. Revista electrónica de estudios filológicos [online resource]http://www.um.es/tonosdigital/znum8/estudios/11-Salou.htm [last consulted] 22/10/11Lu (2009) Collaborating with wikis. [online resource]http://www.adb.org/Documents/Information/Knowledge-Solutions/Collaboration-with-Wikis.pdf [last consulted] 22/06/11Muñoz, P. Electronic Tools for Translators in the 21st Century (2006). [online resource]http://translationjournal.net/journal/38tools.htm [last consulted] 26/10/11O’Reilly, T. What is Web 2.0 [online resource] http://oreilly.com/web2/archive/what-is-web-20.html [last consulted] 04/10/11O’Reilly Network. Wiki. [online resource]http://www.oreillynet.com/network/2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki.html [last consulted] 07/11/10Perrino, S. User-generated Translation: The Future of Translation in a Web 2.0Environment [online resource] http://www.jostrans.org/issue12/art_perrino.php [lastconsulted] 29/09/11Red Comunica. Observatorio Permanente sobre Traducción e Interpretación en losServicios Públicos [online resource] http://red-comunica.blogspot.com/ [last consulted]05/11/11Red Comunica. [online resource] http://www2.uah.es/traduccion/red_comunica.html [lastconsulted] 08/12/11 41
  • 42. Lisandro CaravacaRed Inmigra. Collaborative Translation in Not-for-Profit Organizations. 2011 [onlineresource] www.collaborateandtranslate.wordpress.com [last consulted] 1/11/11Rico, C. Speaking in Tongues. Language across Contexts and Users. Chapter 9 pages 185-200. [printed resource] ISBN: 84-370-5848-1Train, Matt. The Evolution of Translation Technology. [online resource]http://technorati.com/technology/article/the-evolution-of-translation-technology/[lastconsulted] 26/09/11The Rosetta Foundation. [online resource] http://www.therosettafoundation.org/ [lastconsulted] 21/11/11Translators Without Borders. [online resource] http://translatorswithoutborders.com/ [lastconsulted] 21/11/11Valero, C. Translation as Mediation or How to Bridge Linguistic and Cultural Gaps.Universidad de Alcalá. PDF file. [online resource]http://www.segundaslenguaseinmigracion.org/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=78&Itemid=26 [last consulted] 19/10/11Wikis in Plain English [online resource] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-dnL00TdmLY [last consulted] 09/09/11Wikispaces. Wiki Tour [online resource] http://www.wikispaces.com/content/wiki-tour[last consulted 05/11/11Yuret, D. The Binding Roots of Symbolic AI. A Brief Summary of the CYC Project. [onlineresource. PDF file] www.citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/ [last consulted] 6/10/11Zetzsche, J. Building Blocks. Translation Journal. October 2011. [online resource]http://translationjournal.net/journal/58blocks.htm [last consulted] 22/10/11 42
  • 43. Lisandro Caravaca Author: Lisandro Caravaca Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License 43

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