Understanding and      Reversing Underachievement in   Gifted StudentsLisa DaVia Rubenstein      IAGC 2012
"It is not impossibilitieswhich fill us with the deepest  despair, but possibilities  which we have failed to          real...
Importance• McCall, Evahn, & Kratzer  (1992): School Achievement  Matters• Peterson & Colangelo (1996):  Persistent Patter...
Problems?• 18-25% of high school  dropouts are in the gifted  range (Solorzano 1983;  Renzulli & Park, 2000)• Underachieve...
Identification
Most Popular Definition (Reis & McCoach, 2000)  “Underachievers are students who exhibit a severe  discrepancy between exp...
Are we allunderachievers in   some areas?
Identification               Problems• Duration• Degree• Different for gifted students and regular students• Standardized ...
2006 Study Findings5.003.75                         Implementation2.50                     No Implementation1.25   0  PreG...
2011 Study Findings
Create anidentificationplan.
Understanding the Underachieving            Student
Characteristics• Anecdotal reports from counselors• Qualitative studies• Quantitative studies
Possible  Characteristics ofGifted Underachievers          May be dependent          May develop coping          mechanism...
Characteristics ofGifted Underachievers             The most common           characteristic is low self-                 ...
But wait...a challenge?• McCoach & Siegle: academic  self-perceptions was equal  between the 2 groups• Difference between ...
A model of motivation:    Achievement Orientation Model
Possess theAdequate  SkillsFrom Del Siegle and Betsy McCoach
Possess theAdequate  Skills     Confidence in Ability       to Perform Task         Self EfficacyFrom Del Siegle and Betsy M...
Flexible               ORStable/Fixed
Types of Praise
Perfectionism
How to Build Self-         Efficacy• Complement of skills they develop• Practice lack-of-effort explanations for poor  per...
A Balancing Act          InterestAbility              Effort
Expect to Succeed                           Environmental PerceptionPossess theAdequate  Skills     Confidence in Ability  ...
School Climate• Lack of respect for individual child• Negative expectations• Strongly competitive environment• Inflexibilit...
School Perception• Identify faulty cognitions   • I must perform well all the time.   • Everyone must treat me well all th...
School Perception                       Choice Theory• All behavior is chosen and the only person whose  behavior we can c...
Expect to Succeed                           Environmental PerceptionPossess theAdequate  Skills                        Mot...
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi              On Flow
From Get Off My Brain, by Randy McCutcheon, illustrated by Pete Wagner
Whenever there is a problem to solve…that                         is good for me…. I get really interested in             ...
Ive ended up getting lower grades than myclassmates many times because I didnt feellike the course was challenging enough ...
Goal Valuation                       Intrinsic Value•   Interest enhancing activities (games, challenges,    anecdotes)•  ...
Goal Valuation                                    Utility Value•   Explain purpose•   Connect to current wants or future g...
Teachers                              Expect to Succeed                           Environmental PerceptionPossess theAdequ...
Classroom Practices          StudyTeachers reported that theynever had any training inmeeting the needs of giftedstudents....
Classroom Practices     Observational StudyStudents experienced no instructional or curriculardifferentiation in 84% of th...
No DifferentiationAdvanced ContentAdvanced ProcessAdvanced Product  Indep. Study w/   Assigned Topic  Indep. Study w/Self-...
Matching Effort with                 Outcome                                  Possible Outcomes                           ...
Teachers
Teachers                                       Peers                              Expect to Succeed                       ...
66%
Teachers                                       Peers                              Expect to Succeed                       ...
Family Characteristics  Uncontrollable• Poor family morale• Family disruption  Controllable• Parent overprotection• Author...
Family Issues     Affecting Academic     Underachievement• Family dysfunction/ Power patterns• Strained relations with fam...
Parental         Considerations• DON’Ts: Do not put them in their place or foster  learned helplessness. Avoid excessive p...
Teachers                                       Peers                              Expect to Succeed                       ...
Self-Regulated LearningZimmerman (1989) defines self-regulated learning as involving the regulation ofthree general aspects...
Self-Regulation              Strategies• Setting Short and Long Term Goals• Identifying Rewards for Work Completed and Goa...
Achievement and                                                        Engagement          Teachers                       ...
Don’t mistake activity  for achievement.         John Wooden
Achievement and                                                        Engagement          Teachers                       ...
ResearchedInterventions
Students’ Perceptions               (Linda J. Emerick’s Study)• Out of School Interests• Parents• The Class• Goals• Teache...
Interventions• Whitmore (1980)• Supplee (1990)• Baum, Renzulli, & Hébert (1995)• Siegle, Reis, & McCoach (2006)• Rubenstei...
U                           A  Study  to  Increase                            Academic  Achievement                       ...
Basic Assumption:       Students Underachieve for a Variety of Reasons  They based their interventions on five different t...
Monitor               Student’s              Academic        l   Achievement (n=24)   nt ro Co                         Goa...
2006 Study Findings5.003.75                         Implementation2.50                     No Implementation1.25   0  PreG...
2006 Study Findings
2006 Study Findings
Implementation of        StrategiesResource for all strategies: www.gifted.uconn.edu/NRCGT.html• Click on Underachievement...
Project ATLAS
20% 50%
Student understands       standards.                        Content                        Process                        ...
Daniel• Family• Peers• Interests• Expectations
Jason        • Family        • Peers        • Interests        • Expectations
Ginger• Family• Peers• Interests• Expectations
ResultsStandard Mean DifferencesDaniel      0.45   1.93 Jason     -1.78   0.35Ginger     -0.52
Findings• Students’	  home	  lives	  have	  a	  large	  effect	  on	  students’	  school	    lives.• A	  caring	  individu...
Call for Action
Call for Action                Mentorships            Community Partnerships                 Autonomy  Action         Coun...
Thank You.lmrubenstein@bsu.edu
Iagc 2012 underachievement2_slideshare
Iagc 2012 underachievement2_slideshare
Iagc 2012 underachievement2_slideshare
Iagc 2012 underachievement2_slideshare
Iagc 2012 underachievement2_slideshare
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Iagc 2012 underachievement2_slideshare

211

Published on

Here are the slides I used when I presented at IAGC 2012. I hope you find them helpful.

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
211
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Iagc 2012 underachievement2_slideshare

  1. 1. Understanding and Reversing Underachievement in Gifted StudentsLisa DaVia Rubenstein IAGC 2012
  2. 2. "It is not impossibilitieswhich fill us with the deepest despair, but possibilities which we have failed to realize." — Robert Mallet
  3. 3. Importance• McCall, Evahn, & Kratzer (1992): School Achievement Matters• Peterson & Colangelo (1996): Persistent Patterns  
  4. 4. Problems?• 18-25% of high school dropouts are in the gifted range (Solorzano 1983; Renzulli & Park, 2000)• Underachievement becomes a pattern - only 26% of high school underachievers are able to reverse the pattern in college (Peterson, 2000)
  5. 5. Identification
  6. 6. Most Popular Definition (Reis & McCoach, 2000) “Underachievers are students who exhibit a severe discrepancy between expected achievement (as measured by standardized achievement test scores or cognitive or intellectual ability assessments) and actual achievement (as measured by class grades and teacher evaluations). To be classified as an underachiever, the discrepancy between expected and actual achievement must not be the direct result of a diagnosed learning disability and must persist over an extended period of time. Gifted underachievers are underachievers who exhibit superior scores on measures of expected achievement (i.e., standardized achievement test scores or cognitive or intellectual ability assessments).” (p. 157).
  7. 7. Are we allunderachievers in some areas?
  8. 8. Identification Problems• Duration• Degree• Different for gifted students and regular students• Standardized test scores/ IQ test scores• Twice exceptionality• Selectivity
  9. 9. 2006 Study Findings5.003.75 Implementation2.50 No Implementation1.25 0 PreGrade PostGrade
  10. 10. 2011 Study Findings
  11. 11. Create anidentificationplan.
  12. 12. Understanding the Underachieving Student
  13. 13. Characteristics• Anecdotal reports from counselors• Qualitative studies• Quantitative studies
  14. 14. Possible Characteristics ofGifted Underachievers May be dependent May develop coping mechanisms which successfully reduce short term stress, but which inhibit long term success. May be socially immature May be antisocial or rebellious ..........
  15. 15. Characteristics ofGifted Underachievers The most common characteristic is low self- esteem. Sometimes these students don’t believe they are capable of accomplishing what their families and teachers expect.
  16. 16. But wait...a challenge?• McCoach & Siegle: academic self-perceptions was equal between the 2 groups• Difference between qualitative and quantitative• Largest predictors: Motivation and task valuation
  17. 17. A model of motivation: Achievement Orientation Model
  18. 18. Possess theAdequate SkillsFrom Del Siegle and Betsy McCoach
  19. 19. Possess theAdequate Skills Confidence in Ability to Perform Task Self EfficacyFrom Del Siegle and Betsy McCoach
  20. 20. Flexible ORStable/Fixed
  21. 21. Types of Praise
  22. 22. Perfectionism
  23. 23. How to Build Self- Efficacy• Complement of skills they develop• Practice lack-of-effort explanations for poor performance• Avoid the appearance of unsolicited help• Recognize progress during a lesson• Help students to set goals, document their growth• Peer models and self-model
  24. 24. A Balancing Act InterestAbility Effort
  25. 25. Expect to Succeed Environmental PerceptionPossess theAdequate Skills Confidence in Ability to Perform Task Self EfficacyFrom Del Siegle and Betsy McCoach
  26. 26. School Climate• Lack of respect for individual child• Negative expectations• Strongly competitive environment• Inflexibility, rigidity• Exaggerated attention to errors• Unrewarding curriculum• Peer pressure
  27. 27. School Perception• Identify faulty cognitions • I must perform well all the time. • Everyone must treat me well all the time. • Conditions must be favorable all the time.• Categories • What events occur • Attributions about why events occur • Expectancies or predictions of what will occur • Assumptions about the nature of the world • Belief what should be• Is it valid and/or reasonable to have this thought?• Are their distortions blocking what is true? (Examples include overgeneralizations, minimization, catastrophizing, absolute thinking)
  28. 28. School Perception Choice Theory• All behavior is chosen and the only person whose behavior we can control is our own.• No thing, event, or person makes us to anything. Solutions• Set good goals that are positive, in the student’s own words, current, specific, and in the student’s control.• Start small, in the present and focus on how to actively change it. Point out successes. Follow up.
  29. 29. Expect to Succeed Environmental PerceptionPossess theAdequate Skills Motivation Confidence in Ability Value the Task to Perform Task Meaningfulness/Goal Self Efficacy ValuationFrom Del Siegle and Betsy McCoach
  30. 30. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi On Flow
  31. 31. From Get Off My Brain, by Randy McCutcheon, illustrated by Pete Wagner
  32. 32. Whenever there is a problem to solve…that is good for me…. I get really interested in current events and ethics and morality…I remember when I first connected something from scienceand literature and psychology. It was so exciting!...I wasseeing something, how things were working in the world,and I wasn’t just looking for a test. ...where if you are playing a team that’s worse than you, you kind of stoop down to their level...that’s how I felt in a lot of my classes...because the ones that didn’t challenge me were the ones I didn’t try at all in.
  33. 33. Ive ended up getting lower grades than myclassmates many times because I didnt feellike the course was challenging enough totry in.  Then, when a test did come, therewere times I was unprepared because Ivealways had a hard time believing I needed tostudy for a test. That shaped my work ethic,even in college to believing that I can getthrough any class without external studyingor preparation.
  34. 34. Goal Valuation Intrinsic Value• Interest enhancing activities (games, challenges, anecdotes)• Choices• Pre-assessment and matched challenges (AP)• Immediate feedback• Enthusiasm and equal treatment of students Attainment Value• Authentic and significant tasks• Personally meaningful• Provide models who value academic achievement
  35. 35. Goal Valuation Utility Value• Explain purpose• Connect to current wants or future goals• Real world applications• Personal stories• Connections between prior, current, and future learning Rewards• Reward for reaching a specific instructional goal Conferences• Constructive confrontation• Active listening• Clarify goals• Make plans to achieve goals
  36. 36. Teachers Expect to Succeed Environmental PerceptionPossess theAdequate Skills Motivation Confidence in Ability Value the Task to Perform Task Meaningfulness/Goal Self Efficacy ValuationFrom Del Siegle and Betsy McCoach
  37. 37. Classroom Practices StudyTeachers reported that theynever had any training inmeeting the needs of giftedstudents. 61% public school teachers 54% private school teachers Archambault, F. X., Jr., Westberg, K. L., Brown, S. W., Hallmark, B. W., Emmons, C. L., & Zhang, W. (1993). Regular classroom practices with gifted students: Results of a national survey of classroom teachers (Research Monograph 93102). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut.
  38. 38. Classroom Practices Observational StudyStudents experienced no instructional or curriculardifferentiation in 84% of the activities in which theyparticipated: Reading Language Arts Mathematics Social Studies Science Westberg, K. L., Archambault, F. X., Jr., Dobyns, S. M., & Salvin, T. J. (1993). An observational study of instructional and curricular practices used with gifted and talented students in regular classroom (Research Monograph 93104). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut.
  39. 39. No DifferentiationAdvanced ContentAdvanced ProcessAdvanced Product Indep. Study w/ Assigned Topic Indep. Study w/Self-selected Topic Other Differentiation Gifted Students Were Involved Types of Differentiation in Which
  40. 40. Matching Effort with Outcome Possible Outcomes Positive Negative Positive Achievers Underachievers Possible EffortNegative Underachievers Underachievers
  41. 41. Teachers
  42. 42. Teachers Peers Expect to Succeed Environmental PerceptionPossess theAdequate Skills Motivation Confidence in Ability Value the Task to Perform Task Meaningfulness/Goal Self Efficacy ValuationFrom Del Siegle and Betsy McCoach
  43. 43. 66%
  44. 44. Teachers Peers Expect to Succeed Environmental PerceptionPossess theAdequate Skills Motivation Confidence in Ability Value the Task to Perform Task Meaningfulness/Goal Self Efficacy Valuation Parents/FamilyFrom Del Siegle and Betsy McCoach
  45. 45. Family Characteristics Uncontrollable• Poor family morale• Family disruption Controllable• Parent overprotection• Authoritarian• Excessive permissiveness• Inconsistencies between parents
  46. 46. Family Issues Affecting Academic Underachievement• Family dysfunction/ Power patterns• Strained relations with family members• Problems with siblings and sibling rivalry• Inconsistent role models and value systems in the family• Minimal/Hyper paternal academic monitoring, guidance, and expectations
  47. 47. Parental Considerations• DON’Ts: Do not put them in their place or foster learned helplessness. Avoid excessive pressure or conveying too much power. Don’t use their talent as an excuse.• DOs: Show them attitudes of respect, compromise, and working together to solve a problem. Negotiate a fair contract and stick to it. Model intrinsic and independent learning, positive commitment to career, and respect for school and teachers.
  48. 48. Teachers Peers Expect to Succeed Environmental Perception RealisticPossess the Expectations andAdequate Appropriate Skills Motivation Strategies (Self Regulation) Confidence in Ability Value the Task to Perform Task Meaningfulness/Goal Self Efficacy Valuation Parents/FamilyFrom Del Siegle and Betsy McCoach
  49. 49. Self-Regulated LearningZimmerman (1989) defines self-regulated learning as involving the regulation ofthree general aspects of academic learning.1. Control of Resources(control their time, their study environment- the place in which they study, andtheir use of others such as peers and faculty members to help them)2. Control of Motivation and Emotions(control self-efficacy and goal orientation to adapt to the demands of school andcontrol emotions and affect (such as anxiety) in ways that improve learning)3. Control of Cognitive Strategies(decide upon processing strategies that result in better learning and increasedperformance such as outlining or highlighting or creating pictures)
  50. 50. Self-Regulation Strategies• Setting Short and Long Term Goals• Identifying Rewards for Work Completed and Goals Met• Time Management/Organization Strategies• Study and Learning Strategies (Flash cards, testing yourself, finding the right environment, chunking study time over several days)• Test-taking Strategies (Comparing class notes with material from the book, meeting with friends to brainstorm questions, arranging time with teachers for review)• Developing an Individual Plan to Be More Successful in School• Reflecting on What Has Occurred and Evaluating Progress
  51. 51. Achievement and Engagement Teachers Peers Expect to Succeed Environmental Perception RealisticPossess the Expectations andAdequate Appropriate Skills Motivation Strategies (Self Regulation) Confidence in Ability Value the Task to Perform Task Meaningfulness/Goal Self Efficacy Valuation Parents/FamilyFrom Del Siegle and Betsy McCoach
  52. 52. Don’t mistake activity for achievement. John Wooden
  53. 53. Achievement and Engagement Teachers Peers Expect to Succeed Environmental Perception RealisticPossess the Expectations andAdequate Appropriate Skills Motivation Strategies (Self Regulation) Confidence in Ability Value the Task to Perform Task Meaningfulness/Goal Self Efficacy Valuation Parents/FamilyFrom Del Siegle and Betsy McCoach
  54. 54. ResearchedInterventions
  55. 55. Students’ Perceptions (Linda J. Emerick’s Study)• Out of School Interests• Parents• The Class• Goals• Teacher• Self
  56. 56. Interventions• Whitmore (1980)• Supplee (1990)• Baum, Renzulli, & Hébert (1995)• Siegle, Reis, & McCoach (2006)• Rubenstein (2011)
  57. 57. U A  Study  to  Increase   Academic  Achievement   for nderachieving GIFTED STUDENTS from The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented Principal Investigators: Del Siegle and Sally M. Reis Study Development Team: Del Siegle, Sally M. Reis, and D. Betsy McCoachIntervention Development Team: Del Siegle, Sally M. Reis, Meredith Greene, D. Betsy McCoach, and Ric Schreiber Field Test Team: D. Betsy McCoach and Del Siegle Study Implementation Team: Del Siegle, Sally M. Reis, Becky Mann, and Scott Davie
  58. 58. Basic Assumption: Students Underachieve for a Variety of Reasons They based their interventions on five different types of underachievers:Those who…… believe the environment is at fault(environmental perception)… don’t value the goals of school (goal valuation)… don’t believe they have the ability to do well(self-efficacy)… are not challenged by the curriculum(curriculum-compacting and Type IIIs)… lack organization and study skills (self-regulation)
  59. 59. Monitor Student’s Academic l Achievement (n=24) nt ro Co Goal Valuation (n=22) Self-Efficacy (n=27) School Percept (n=8)Treatment Curriculum Compacting and Type IIIs (n=21) Self-Regulation (n=36)
  60. 60. 2006 Study Findings5.003.75 Implementation2.50 No Implementation1.25 0 PreGrade PostGrade
  61. 61. 2006 Study Findings
  62. 62. 2006 Study Findings
  63. 63. Implementation of StrategiesResource for all strategies: www.gifted.uconn.edu/NRCGT.html• Click on Underachievement Study.• Each strategy has its own module.• There are also lesson plans, worksheets, and videos.
  64. 64. Project ATLAS
  65. 65. 20% 50%
  66. 66. Student understands standards. Content Process ProductProjectATLAS Student proposes assignment...for engagement.
  67. 67. Daniel• Family• Peers• Interests• Expectations
  68. 68. Jason • Family • Peers • Interests • Expectations
  69. 69. Ginger• Family• Peers• Interests• Expectations
  70. 70. ResultsStandard Mean DifferencesDaniel 0.45 1.93 Jason -1.78 0.35Ginger -0.52
  71. 71. Findings• Students’  home  lives  have  a  large  effect  on  students’  school   lives.• A  caring  individual  who  takes  an  interest  in  a  student’s  life   can  make  a  difference  for  that  student.  Signing  the   permission  form  may  have  affected  the  students’   performance.• Underachievement  interventions  must  be  student  speci=ic,   and  Project  ATLAS  may  be  effective  for  some  students.• In  Mrs.  Hemmingway’s  class,  students  rarely  had  an   opportunity  for  active  engagement,  and  when  they  did,  the   underachieving  males  in  the  study,  both  Jason  and  Daniel   found  it  challenging  to  use  that  time  appropriately.
  72. 72. Call for Action
  73. 73. Call for Action Mentorships Community Partnerships Autonomy Action Counseling Quality Curriculum Research Technology Social Justice Acceleration Try something...
  74. 74. Thank You.lmrubenstein@bsu.edu

×