Differentiation to Promote High Ability Student Growth

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Differentiation to Promote High Ability Student Growth

  1. 1. June 5, 2014 Differentiating to Promote Growth for High Ability Students Lisa Rubenstein, Ph.D.
  2. 2. Fluid Agenda ✤ 9:00 - 9:30 Session 1: Overview ✤ 9:30 - 10:30 Session 2: Pre-Assessments ✤ 10:30 - 10:40 BREAK ✤ 10:40 - 11:45 Session 3: Creating Tiered Lessons/Complex Questions ✤ 11:45 - 12:15 LUNCH ✤ 12:15 - 1:35 Session 4: Integrating Interests: For Real ✤ 1:35-1:45 BREAK ✤ 1:45 - 2:15 Session 5: Utilizing Technology ✤ 2:15 - 2:45 Session 6: Classroom Management/Grades ✤ 2:45 - 3:00 Evaluation and Questions
  3. 3. Session 1: Experiential Overview
  4. 4. Graph Me Reading Math Board Games Sewing Running Building Dancing
  5. 5. 78th How do you know?
  6. 6. Fibonacci 51 Diophantus 55 Kovelevsky 57
  7. 7. What are the some of the principles of differentiation? What are essential characteristics of differentiation?
  8. 8. Big Ideas from the Lesson ✤ Groups are flexible. ✤ All students are treated as practicing professionals. ✤ They all receive honorable tasks. ✤ Everyone can contribute to the discussion at the end. ✤ Students have an opportunity to work with others who will challenge their thinking. ✤ Pre-assessment matched the lesson.
  9. 9. Differentiation is not... ✤ Individualized instruction. ✤ Chaotic. ✤ Tracking.
  10. 10. Differentiation is... ✤ Proactive. ✤ Qualitatively different. ✤ Rooted in assessment. ✤ Multi-dimensional. ✤ Student centered. ✤ Anchored in standards.
  11. 11. Session 2: Pre-Assessments
  12. 12. Sixth Grade AlgebraicThinking
  13. 13. Student 1 Student 2
  14. 14. Student 3
  15. 15. Second GradeTime
  16. 16. 18
  17. 17. 19
  18. 18. 20
  19. 19. 21
  20. 20. 22
  21. 21. 23
  22. 22. What is the purpose of a pre- assessment?
  23. 23. Why pre-assess? ✤ Informs of starting levels of knowledge and pre-existing conditions ✤ Informs of misconceptions ✤ Measures growth ✤ Allows for internal consistency within our units
  24. 24. Using the samples, what are some principles about constructing pre- assessments? What are the characteristics of a good pre-assessment?
  25. 25. Principles of Pre-Assessment Design ✤ High (enough) ceiling ✤ Directly connected with lessons/objectives ✤ Open (enough) ✤ Range of difficulty ✤ Avoid situated cognition
  26. 26. Objectives Pre- Assessment Post- Assessment Learning Experiences Internal Consistency of Instructional Design
  27. 27. Pre-Assessment Strategies
  28. 28. Pre-Assessment Planning Guide ✤ What do you want your students to be able to do? What do they need to know? ✤ What are the different misconceptions students might have? ✤ What are the various ways to represent this information? ✤ Why is this important? ✤ What comes next?
  29. 29. Objectives ✤ Estimating length to the nearest inch. ✤ Measuring and drawing line segments to the nearest inch. ✤ Drawing congruent line segments. ✤ Using appropriate units and tools to measure length, temperature, and weight. What do you want students to know, be able to do, and understand?
  30. 30. Misconceptions
  31. 31. Misconceptions ✤ Everything they will measure will be an exact number. ✤ That you can only measure objects with a ruler. ✤ 25 inches is a quarter inch. ✤ You have to start at the 0 part of the ruler to measure an object.
  32. 32. Representations
  33. 33. Representations ✤ Various ways to introduce the content: songs, discovery, lecture... ✤ Various ways to represent the content: different rulers, different objects, when are estimates acceptable? different units of measure
  34. 34. Importance
  35. 35. Why is this important? Put the content in context.
  36. 36. What comes next?
  37. 37. What comes next? ✤ What is the next level? How can we increase the depth or complexity of the content? ✤ Is making the numbers or objects bigger the only way to do this? At what point does this lose its power? ✤ Thoughtful questions could be used to prompt students to take the content to the next level. Could they consider estimation v. actual? What about why we use inches and we don’t measure items with pencils? Cat applied it to geometry... ✤ Define test ceiling.
  38. 38. Create the pre-assessment using that information. What does the pre-assessment have to include?
  39. 39. Question 1: How long is this object? Pre-Assessment Example Question 2: Draw a line segment that is congruent to the line segment below. Question 3: How long are the line segments below?
  40. 40. Pre-Assessment Planning Guide ✤ What do you want your students to be able to do? What do they need to know? ✤ What are the different misconceptions students might have? ✤ What are the various ways to represent this information? ✤ Why is this important? ✤ What comes next?
  41. 41. Other Pre-Assessment Formats ✤ Unit tests ✤ Informal assessments (e.g., conferences, KWL charts) ✤ Homework/journals/stoplight learning ✤ Open-ended assignments (e.g., concept maps, graphic organizers, lists) ✤ Exit/entrance cards ✤ Metacognition self-checks
  42. 42. Stoplight Learning
  43. 43. Graphic Organizers
  44. 44. POLYGON What  is  a  polygon? Draw  a  shape  that  is   NOT  a  polygon Name  the  three  types   of  polygons Draw  a  polygon  that  is  concave Geometry-­‐ Polygons        (Chapter  1  Lesson  6) Name: Draw  a  polygon  that  is  convex Megan  Walleske,  2011
  45. 45. Brittany Ravas, 2011
  46. 46. 3 Things I learned about differentiation... 2 Ways I will apply it in my classroom... 1 Question I still have...
  47. 47. Metacognition
  48. 48. Google “EVALUATION TREE” From Ms. Konigbacher’s Class
  49. 49. Readiness Groups Group 1: Students who understand the concept Group 2: Students who almost understand the concept Group 3: Students who show no comprehension Flexible Grouping Then what?
  50. 50. Session 3: Creating Tiered Lessons & Complex Questions
  51. 51. Dan Meyer
  52. 52. What can we learn from this video? Can we apply it to differentiation? How?
  53. 53. Now What? Pace of Study, Pace of Thought
  54. 54. Pace of Study, Pace of Thought
  55. 55. Now What? Pace of Study, Pace of Thought Tangible. Literal. Physical Manipulation. Symbolical. Hold in mind.
  56. 56. Now What? Pace of Study, Pace of Thought Common vocabulary. Accessible. Combine. Complex vocabulary.
  57. 57. Simple/Complex
  58. 58. Pace of Study, Pace of Thought
  59. 59. Now What? Pace of Study, Pace of Thought
  60. 60. Varying the Lesson ✤ Concrete v. abstract ✤ Simple v. complex ✤ Structured v. open ✤ Varied independence
  61. 61. From measurement example ✤ Abstract: Create your own ruler. Which objects are the easiest to measure? What strategies do you use to measure challenging objects? How accurate are you? What would help you be more accurate? Use cubes to measure. ✤ Complexity: Why do you think we use inches rather than centimeters? Which should we use for this example? Why do we use inches to measure things? Why an inch? Why not a foot? Or a coffee cup? What problems do we need to solve that require measurement? Provide different rulers and ask them what is different and which one they would prefer to use. ✤ Open-ended: When is it important to be exact? What are all the ways you could measure a football field? List everything that is about 3 inches. ✤ Independence: Encourage students to write their own problems. Measure their own objects. ✤ Metacognition Questions: How do I know if an estimate is reasonable? How do I know if an estimate is close to the actual measurement?
  62. 62. Apply the questions to your lesson. ✤ Abstract? ✤ Complex? ✤ Open-ended? ✤ Independence? ✤ Metacognition? Brainstorm with a partner.
  63. 63. DesigningTiered Assignments ✤ Be clear about goals. What has to be constant? What is variable? ✤ Tier by complexity, content, process, products. ✤ Introduce all activities with equal enthusiasm. ✤ Remember different not more. ✤ Design for equally engaging and fair in terms of time expectations. Think about the patterns lesson.
  64. 64. What about flexibility and time?
  65. 65. Quick Strategy: Be less helpful. ✤ Think about all the scaffolding you provide. ✤ Take that scaffolding away. ✤ Provide it if they need it.
  66. 66. Hint Cards
  67. 67. Card Game Capers Tens Place Ones Place Discarded Number Goal Make the largest number possible by drawing numbers 0-9 out of a bag.
  68. 68. Exploration ✤ What if you are trying to get the largest number and the first number drawn is a 4? Where should you put it? Why? ✤ How many different two digit numbers are possible if the two digits cannot be 0? How would you figure this out without writing every possibility? How do you you know you have them all?
  69. 69. Hint Cards
  70. 70. Challenge Cards
  71. 71. Less is more...
  72. 72. What hint or challenge cards could you develop for your lesson?
  73. 73. Session 4: Integrating Interests
  74. 74. What does this mean for our students? In 1 Minute
  75. 75. Connecting Sharing Accessing Knowledge Students have incredible opportunities for..
  76. 76. Why does wikipedia work?
  77. 77. Motivation? Growth? Differentiation?
  78. 78. Interest Sharing Is it this simple?
  79. 79. Think... ✤ What is something you are good at? ✤ How much do you think your ability level plays a role in how good you are? ✤ How much do you think your effort plays a role in how good you are? ✤ How much do you think your interest plays a role in how good you are? 1 10
  80. 80. Sternberg’s Intelligences CreativePractical Analytical I like... • Designing new things • Coming up with ideas • Using my imagination • Playing make-believe and pretend games • Thinking of alternative solutions • Noticing things people usually tend to ignore • Thinking in pictures and images • Inventing (new recipes, words, games) • Supposing that things were different • Thinking about what would have happened if certain aspects of the world were different • Composing (new songs, melodies) • Acting and role playing I like... • Analyzing characters when I’m reading or listening to a story • Comparing & contrasting points of view • Criticizing my own & others’ work • Thinking clearly & analytically • Evaluating my & others’ points of view • Appealing to logic • Judging my & others’ behavior • Explaining difficult problems to others • Solving logical problems • Making inferences & deriving conclusions • Sorting & classifying • Thinking about things I like... • Advising my friends on their problems • Convincing someone to do something • Learning by interacting with others • Applying my knowledge • Working and being with others • Adapting to new situations • Taking things apart and fixing them • Learning through hands on activities • Making and maintaining friends • Understanding and respecting others • Putting into practice things I learned • Resolving conflicts Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2000
  81. 81. Migration Example • Analytical – Find two animals that share a similar migration pattern. Chart their similarities and differences. Be sure to include information on each animal’s characteristics, habitat(s), adaptations, needs, migratory path, movement time frames, etc., as well as the reasoning behind these facts. Include an explanation as to why you think they share this pattern. • Practical – National Geographic has asked you to research the migratory habits of _________ (your choice). They would like you to share your findings with other scientists AND to offer them recommendations about the best manner of observing in the future. Be sure to include information on the animal’s characteristics, habitat(s), adaptations, needs, migratory path, movement time frames, etc., as well as the reasoning behind these facts. Include a “How To” checklist for future scientists to use in their research pursuits of this animal. • Creative – You have just discovered a new species of ____________. You have been given the honor of naming this new creature and sharing the fruits of your investigation with the scientific world via a journal article or presentation. Be sure to include information on this newly-discovered animal’s characteristics, habitat(s), adaptations, needs, migratory path, movement time frames, etc., as well as the reasoning behind these facts. Include a picture of the animal detailed enough that other scientists will be able to recognize it. Kristi Doubet (2005)
  82. 82. Feudal System Raft Role Audience Format Topic King The Subjects Proclamation Read My Lips, New Taxes Knight Squire Job Description Chivalry, Is it for You? Lord King Contract Let’s Make a Deal Serf Animals Lament Poem My So Called Life Monk Masses Illuminated Manuscript Do As I Say, Not As I Do Lady Pages Song ABC, 123 Following the RAFT activity, students will share their research and perspectives in mixed role groups of approximately five. Groups will have a “discussion agenda” to guide their conversation. -Kathryn Seaman
  83. 83. 91
  84. 84. Gentry’s Choice Study What makes a choice a choice?
  85. 85. Interest & Questions
  86. 86. Which line represents reading, writing, and question asking?
  87. 87. Essential Questions Model asking them. Encourage students to ask. Build in time for exploration.
  88. 88. Good job.
  89. 89. Good job. That is an interesting thought.
  90. 90. Change OneThing ✤ Teachers design a question focus. ✤ Students produce questions. ✤ Students improve their questions. ✤ Students prioritize their questions. ✤ Students and teachers decide on next steps. ✤ Students reflect upon what they have learned.
  91. 91. Change OneThing ✤ Teachers design a question focus. ✤ Students produce questions. ✤ Students improve their questions. ✤ Students prioritize their questions. ✤ Students and teachers decide on next steps. ✤ Students reflect upon what they have learned. Build in authentic sharing.
  92. 92. What is a good question?
  93. 93. What is a good question? Are we asking them? Are our students asking them?
  94. 94. Essential Questions ✤ Arguable ✤ Heart of the discipline ✤ Engage interest ✤ Recur in professional life ✤ Meaningful ✤ Require analysis, evaluation, synthesis These inevitably promote differentiation.
  95. 95. Developing Habits of Mind ✤ Evidence: How do we know? ✤ Viewpoint: How might this look if we examined this from a different perspective? ✤ Connection: Is there a pattern? Have we seen something like this before? ✤ Conjecture: What if it were different? ✤ Relevance: Why does this matter?
  96. 96. Blooms Revised
  97. 97. Session 5: Utilizing Technology
  98. 98. What does technology bring to differentiation?
  99. 99. Technology and Differentiation ✤ Technology can provide different content and types of products to meet different students’ needs. ✤ Technology can provide you the tools to organize multiple levels. ✤ Technology can provide inspiration.
  100. 100. Content
  101. 101. TED-ED
  102. 102. Content Collections
  103. 103. Newsela
  104. 104. NRICH Maths
  105. 105. DocsTeach
  106. 106. Content Creation/Directions
  107. 107. Tools
  108. 108. CollaborationTools
  109. 109. OrganizationTools
  110. 110. Inspiration
  111. 111. Product Differentiation
  112. 112. Webquests
  113. 113. Product Display
  114. 114. What inspires you?
  115. 115. What else is like this? How can I use this?
  116. 116. Session 6: Classroom Management and Grades
  117. 117. Prepare to Differentiate StudentsClassroomParents Differentiate Evaluate the Differentiation StudentsTeacher DoneLost Management Components Off-Task
  118. 118. Preparing parents ✤ Consider their perspective ✤ Provide information/support...Brochures/Blogs for Records and Questions/Parent Night ✤ Transition Nights ✤ Partners (2 way sharing) ✤ IAG (IMAGES, bi-monthly) ✤ NAGC (Parenting for High Potential) ✤ Mile Markers ✤ Hoagies Parents
  119. 119. Just wondering... ✤ Have you noticed any new interests? ✤ What does your child mention when you ask him/her about school? ✤ Do you have any additional information that may be helpful?
  120. 120. Create a system. ✤ Management system (How to group, what happens in groups or during group time?) ✤ Classroom flow (Where do they submit assignments, what happens when they are done? ✤ Expectations and Grades
  121. 121. ✤ Signal for quiet. Signal for no interruptions except for...Batter’s Box (shared by Megan Walleske), Princess Crown (shared by Beth Hoeing), Notebook/Journal ✤ Folders and organization. ✤ Desk drill-patterns of movement ✤ Red Cards or Question Chips ✤ Scheduled “Office Hours” or Group Meeting Times (3Bs) ✤ Routines for materials... ✤ System for grouping (table tent, pocket chart, tickets, verbal, instantaneous, stampers on exit cards) Classroom Organization Classroom
  122. 122. Students ✤ Explicit discussion. Graph activity. ✤ Convey the system. ✤ Do a brief sample and evaluate. ✤ Independence takes time: whole group, small group, partner, individual... ✤ Explicit behavior expectations including sound levels. Have a way to signal without interrupting. ✤ Procedure checklists and goals. ✤ Personal agendas Students
  123. 123. During Differentiation: OffTask... ✤ Workcards with step-by-step directions ✤ Checklist with time stamps ✤ Goal setting modeling ✤ You may need an individual conference: why the student is not working, how you and he/she could work together to change the environment, assure him/her that you think he/she can achieve, provide something for the student to look forward to everyday, think short term achievable goals. Off-Task
  124. 124. Clear Anchoring Activities ✤ Before, during, or after instruction ✤ It is always safe...assurance. ✤ Not busy work, foster autonomy ✤ Organization: file folders, shoe organizer, bulletin board ✤ Generic examples...
  125. 125. During Differentiation: I’m Confused... ✤ Creation of a support system: a rotating expert-may have an object on their desks, a teacher’s aide, ask 3 before me, red cards...it comes back to quality pre-preparation and student practice. ✤ Access to electronic help. This could be timed (http:// www.superteachertools.com/counter/#countdown). ✤ Direction could be presented both verbally and visually. ✤ Study Buddy for directions and quick guidance
  126. 126. During Differentiation: I’m Done... ✤ Resident Expert, Independent Projects, Wonderwall ✤ Anchor Activities (variety) ✤ Challenge Cards ✤ Computer Options ✤ One possibility: grade a partner’s work, immediate feedback, discussion ✤ Sharing Opportunities (online, to the class, with a small group..)
  127. 127. During Differentiation: Grouping ✤ Always have a reason for grouping. ✤ To get the most out of grouping, groups should be doing different things. ✤ Grouping doesn’t have to be a physical concept. ✤ Vary groups.
  128. 128. Why Grades Stink ✤ Bare minimum: Little evidence that grades motivate students to learn (Kohn, 1993; Tomlinson & Allan, 2000) ✤ Little evidence that grades communicate in meaningful or accurate ways to students or parents, grades are equivocal ✤ Grades based on other students’ performances ensures that some students will not work
  129. 129. Grading? ✤ STRATEGY 2: Multiple Grades...1 for content mastery, 1 for effort. They may be separate or averaged. Additional thoughts to follow... ✤ STRATEGY 3: Safety...Grade for content mastery and encourage extra perhaps using extra credit or intrinsically motivated projects, perhaps holistic, qualitative comments ✦ STRATEGY 1: Grade As Is...Straight A Danger- Perfectionism, Performance Oriented, Scaffold with Discussions (Parents and Kids)
  130. 130. Students’ Role in Evaluation ✤ Keep track of work logs, checklist participation: They are involved in monitoring themselves every step. ✤ Peer review ✤ Timelines and checkpoints: Importance of doable to-do lists... ✤ Reflection component: Journals? ✤ Discuss progress with parents.
  131. 131. What are 2 things you could implement? How?
  132. 132. Thank you! Please email if you need anything! lmrubenstein@bsu.edu

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