You can use the boxes as indicators of individual steps: setting up the problem, creating a number sentence, calculting the answer, and describing the meaning.\n
Circle people that go with individual standards\n
Dewey (1913) categorized inter- est as either &#x201C;mental&#x201D; or &#x201C;material,&#x201D; indicating that interest either came from within the individual or was inspired by the material provided to the individual.\n\nThis research illustrates that interest posi- tively affects the ability to comprehend a text in-depth and use knowledge from that text. Interest was shown to lead to a deeper processing of the text, to the formation of connections and cross-references, and to the acquisition of better long-term memory (Entwistle & Ramsden, 1983; Nolen, 1988; Tobias, 1994). According to Schiefele, Krapp, and Winteler (1992), interest accounts for 10% of the observed achievement variance across different subjects, types of schools, and age groups. Interest begins to be more pronounced as grade levels increase and as students develop,\n\n
Human beings create, learn, share, and adapt to culture. The study of culture examines the socially transmitted beliefs, values, institutions, behaviors, traditions and way of life of a group of people; it also encompasses other cultural attributes and products, such as language, literature, music, arts and artifacts, and foods. Students come to understand that human cultures exhibit both similarities and differences, and they learn to see themselves both as individuals and as members of a particular culture that shares similarities with other cultural groups, but is also distinctive. In a multicultural, democratic society and globally connected world, students need to understand the multiple perspectives that derive from different cultural vantage points.\n
A specific explorer operates like this... compared to an explorer in general. \n
Hundreds chart v. thought patterns of letters\n
Examine 1 part. Look at multiple pieces. ask for multiple answers, connections...interdisciplinary..\n\nCharacter sketch...multiple pieces of the character ability to problem solve and show empathy whereas other students may just look at the ability to problem solve...\n
Example Dan Meyer&#x2019;s math sky lift question.\n\n\nHuman beings create, learn, share, and adapt to culture. The study of culture examines the socially transmitted beliefs, values, institutions, behaviors, traditions and way of life of a group of people; it also encompasses other cultural attributes and products, such as language, literature, music, arts and artifacts, and foods. Students come to understand that human cultures exhibit both similarities and differences, and they learn to see themselves both as individuals and as members of a particular culture that shares similarities with other cultural groups, but is also distinctive. In a multicultural, democratic society and globally connected world, students need to understand the multiple perspectives that derive from different cultural vantage points.\n
For example, you may want some students to examine 1 battle the cause and outcome and then you may want a different group of students to evaluate the battle in terms of it relationship to the war. what difference did it make? Why did it matter? \n\nAnother example could be what are the causes of conflict in this situation as well as in general...what are the causes of this conflict.\n
Writing a unit or a story. You may give them a story map or you may give more freedom to write like in writers workshop.\n
You can always start with one row and increase complexity throughout the school year. \n
Discuss how it is possible to jigsaw these roles...\n
Challenge of not bragging but getting their students&#x2019; needs met, hard place, they also are concerned when students are not getting the same work...Parent night-Ask the parents to take some sort of a pre-assessment...\n
Bottom line is you have a discipline system in place and you use it.\n
Add to the ideas of princess crown and batter boxes, a red card-I am unavailable, but I care.\n
Her advice offers a quick review of most of the things we talked about today...\n
Differentiation St. Richard’s Episcopal School June 4, 2012 Lisa DaVia Rubenstein, Ph.D.
What is Differentiation?• Not individualized instruction of the 70s• Not chaotic• Not another way to homogeneous group
What is Differentiation?• Proactive• Qualitative (vs. quantitative)• Multiple approaches to content, process, and product• Student centered• A blend of grouping options• Organic
Research on Differentiation• Achievement gains in reading and math across economic lines in effectively differentiated classrooms (Brimijoin, 2001)• First grade in Columbia: Fewer oral reading errors, higher comprehension scores, and fewer students below grade level and more students above grade level that control students (Marulanda, Giraldo, & Lopez, 2006.
Research on Readiness• Increased achievement, study habits, social interaction, cooperation, attitude toward school, and general mental health (Anderson & Pavan, 1993)• The longer students were in these tailored programs, the greater the effect was.
Research on Interest• Linked to motivation, productivity and achievement (Amabile, 1983; Torrance, 1995)• Increased reading performance (Carbonaro & Gamoran, 2002)• SEM-R
Research on Learning Profile• Achievement beneﬁts to addressing intelligence or thinking preference during learning...even if the ﬁnal assessment is not in the preferred mode (Grigorenko & Sternberg, 1997)• Increases in attitude (Sullivan, 1993)• Positive affects across diverse populations (Dunn & Griggs, 1995; Garcia, 1995; Ladson-Billings, 1994)
Reminders• Teaching in the dark is a questionable practice.• Informs teachers of starting levels of knowledge and pre- existing conditions• Ceiling issue• Measures growth• Origins of a ﬂuid movement through the material into the post test
One more example of pre-assessment of readiness Knowledge Rating Chart1. I’ve never heard of this before2. I’ve heard of this, but am not sure how it works3. I know about this and how to use it _____ Direct object _____ Direct object pronoun _____ Indirect object _____ Indirect object pronoun _____ Object of a preposition _____ Adjective _____ Interrogative adjective 30
Exit CardsPurpose: Assessment of studentunderstanding to guide furtherinstructionExit or Entrance?Vary the number for different gradelevels.
Name:Exit Card • How is a decimal like a fraction?Samples • How are they different? • What’s a light bulb moment for you as you’ve thought about fractions and decimals?Name:• Draw the orbit of the earth around the sun. Label your drawing.• What causes the seasons?• Why is it warmer in the summer than in the winter?
More Exit Card Samples• Name:• Draw a graph & label the “x” and “y” axes• Graph a line with the endpoints (3,5) (7,2)• Graph a line with the endpoints (-3,-5) (7,2)• Provide two ways of writing the equation for a line.
3-2-1 Card SampleName:• 3 things I learned from the friction lab…• 2 questions I still have about friction…• 1 thing way I see friction working in the world around me….
A little Research• Reading Studies (Entwistle & Ramsden, 1983; Nolen, 1988; Tobias, 1994). • Comprehension a text in-depth • Use information from the text • Deeper processing, including the formation of connections and cross references • Better long-term memory• Achievement Variance: 10% of observed variance and more pronounced as students’ age (Schiefele, Krapp, & Winteler, 1992).
Now What?• Interest Groups• Enrichment Clusters• Speciality Teams• Choices• Interests can manifest in content, process, or product.
Example from a unit on Rome (Tomlinson, 2001):These are some of the topics we will be studying in our unit on Ancient Rome. We want to know what you want to learn about. Number your choices from 1 to 8. Make sure that 1 is your favorite and 8 is your least favorite.____ geography____ government (laws)____ agriculture (foods they grew)____ architecture (buildings)____ music and art____ religion and sports____ roles of men, women, and children
Poetry Poll1. Have you ever studied poetry? If you answer yes to question 1, answer question 2 and 3.2. When did you study poetry?3. Did you enjoy the poetry unit or writing poetry in general? Why or why not?4. Have you ever written a poem you were proud of?5. Which do you like better? _____poetry that has a rhyme scheme _____free verse poetry6. Rate the following items in order of personal enjoyment using 1-3 _____writing original poetry _____reading poetry aloud to others _____reading and listening to poetry7. In your opinion, what is the most difficult part of writing a poem? Circle one. Following a given pattern Coming up with at topic of the poem Making sense Coming up other___________________________8. What is your favorite poem? Who is your favorite poet?9. On a scale from 1-10, 10 being the most, how well do you think you will do during this unit? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1010. Circle the kinds of poems you are already familiar with: Acrostic, haiku, cinquain, limerick, free verse, couplet, other________11. On the back, list some activities you would like to do in this unit. -Kristie Sumpter, English
More Ideas for Using Interest• Involve students in the process. Write a problem that highlights how ... are used in your speciality.• Wonderwall...• Sharing Opportunities• Independent Studies• Webquests
How Do You Like to Learn?1. I study best when it is quiet. Yes No2. I am able to ignore the noise of other people talking while I am working. Yes No3. I like to work at a table or desk. Yes No4. I like to work on the ﬂoor. Yes No5. I work hard by myself. Yes No6. I work hard for my parents or teacher. Yes No7. I will work on an assignment until it is completed, no matter what. Yes No8. Sometimes I get frustrated with my work and do not ﬁnish it. Yes No9. When my teacher gives an assignment, I like to have exact steps on how to complete it. Yes No10. When my teacher gives an assignment, I like to create my own steps on how to complete it. Yes No11. I like to work by myself. Yes No12. I like to work in pairs or in groups. Yes No13. I like to have unlimited amount of time to work on an assignment. Yes No14. I like to have a certain amount of time to work on an assignment. Yes No 59
Types Remember: Not all at once or• Group Orientation all the time!• Cognitive Styles• Learning Environment• Intelligence Preference
Sternberg’s Intelligences Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2000 Practical CreativeI like... Analytical I like... • Designing new things • Advising my friends on their problems • Coming up with ideas I like... • Convincing someone to do • Using my imagination • Analyzing characters when I’m something reading or listening to a story • Playing make-believe and • Learning by interacting with pretend games • Comparing & contrasting points others • Thinking of alternative solutions of view • Applying my knowledge • Criticizing my own & others’ • Noticing things people usually • Working and being with others tend to ignore work • Adapting to new situations • Thinking in pictures and images • Thinking clearly & analytically• Taking things apart and ﬁxing • Inventing (new recipes, words, • Evaluating my & others’ points them games) of view• Learning through hands on • Supposing that things were • Appealing to logic activities different • Judging my & others’ behavior• Making and maintaining friends • Thinking about what would have • Explaining difﬁcult problems to• Understanding and respecting others happened if certain aspects of the others • Solving logical problems world were different• Putting into practice things I • Making inferences & deriving • Composing (new songs, learned conclusions melodies)• Resolving conﬂicts • Sorting & classifying • Acting and role playing • Thinking about things
Evaluating Plot ExamplePractical Task•A local TV station wants to air teen-produced digital videos based on well known works. Select and storyboardyour choice for a video. Be sure your storyboards at least have a clear and believable plot structure, a logicalsequence of events, compelling characters and a convincing resolution. Note other criteria on which you feel theplot’s effectiveness should also be judged. Make a case that your choice is a winner based on these and othercriteria you state.Creative Task•Propose an original story you feel has a clear and believable plot structure, a logical sequence of events,compelling characters, and a convincing resolution. You may write it, storyboard it, or make a ﬂow chart of it.Find a way to demonstrate that your story achieves these criteria as well as any others you note as important.Analytical Task•Experts suggest that an effective plot is: believable, has events that follow a logical and energizing sequence,has compelling characters and has a convincing resolution.•Select a story that you believe does have an effective plot based on these three criteria as well as others youstate. Provide speciﬁc support from the story for your positions. OR•Select a story you believe has an effective plot in spite of the fact that it does not meet these criteria. Establishthe criteria you believe made the story’s plot effective. Make a case, using speciﬁc illustrations from the story,that “your” criteria describes an effective plot.
Migration Example• Analytical – Find two animals that share a similar migration pattern. Chart their similarities and differences. Be sure to include information on each animal’s characteristics, habitat(s), adaptations, needs, migratory path, movement time frames, etc., as well as the reasoning behind these facts. Include an explanation as to why you think they share this pattern.• Practical – National Geographic has asked you to research the migratory habits of _________ (your choice). They would like you to share your ﬁndings with other scientists AND to offer them recommendations about the best manner of observing in the future. Be sure to include information on the animal’s characteristics, habitat(s), adaptations, needs, migratory path, movement time frames, etc., as well as the reasoning behind these facts. Include a “How To” checklist for future scientists to use in their research pursuits of this animal.• Creative – You have just discovered a new species of ____________. You have been given the honor of naming this new creature and sharing the fruits of your investigation with the scientiﬁc world via a journal article or presentation. Be sure to include information on this newly-discovered animal’s characteristics, habitat(s), adaptations, needs, migratory path, movement time frames, etc., as well as the reasoning behind these facts. Include a picture of the animal detailed enough that other scientists will be able to recognize it. Kristi Doubet (2005)
The Good Life… Making Choices About Tobacco UseAll Products Must… Use key facts from class and research Make a complete case Provide defensible evidence for the case Health & PE Weigh varied viewpoints Product Be appropriate/useful for the target audience Give evidence of revision & quality in content & presentation Be though-provoking rather than predictable VISUAL KINESTHETIC • Story boards for TV “ad” using few/no • Pantomime a struggle of “will” regarding smoking words to make the point – including a decision with rationale • Comic book parody with smoking super • Act out a skit on pressures to smoke and reasons not to smoke heroes/heroines WRITTEN ORAL • Brochure for a pediatrician’s office – patients • Radio-spot (public information with music 9-16 as target audience timed, lead-in) • Research and write an editorial that compares • Nightline (T. Koppel, C. Roberts with teen the relative costs and benefits of tobacco to who smokes, tobacco farmer, tobacco CEO, NC – submit for publication person with emphysema)
Examples of Product Differentiation• RAFTs• Choices• Independent Study
A RAFT is…• … an engaging, high level strategy that encourages writing across the curriculum• … a way to encourage students to… – …assume a role – …consider their audience, while – …examine a topic from their chosen perspective, and – …writing in a particular format• All of the above can serve as motivators by giving students choice, appealing to their interests and learning profiles, and adapting to student readiness levels.
Sample RAFT Strips Role Audience Format Topic Middle School Diary Entry I Wish You Really Understood Semicolon Where I BelongLanguage Arts N.Y. Times Public Op Ed piece How our Language Deﬁnes Who We Are Huck Finn Tom Sawyer Note hidden in a tree A Few Things You Should Know knot Rain Drop Future Droplets Advice Column The Beauty of Cycles Lung Owner Owner’s Guide To Maximize Product LifeScience Rain Forest John Q. Citizen Paste Up “Ransom” Before It’s Too Late Note Reporter Public Obituary Hitler is Dead Martin Luther King TV audience of 2010 Speech The Dream RevisitedHistory Thomas Jefferson Current Residents of Full page newspaper If I could Talk to You Now Virginia ad Fractions Whole numbers Petition To Be Considered A Part of the FamilyMath A word problem Students in your class Set of directions How to Get to Know Me 93 Format based on the work of Doug Buehl cited in Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me Then Who?, Billmeyer and Martin, 1998
RAFT EXAMPLE (Tomlinson, 2003)This RAFT is designed to be used by student in a second grade class as they arelearning about endangered and extinct animals in science and natural resources insocial studies. Students have been studying both topics for a number of daysbefore they do the RAFT. The activity serves as a culmination to this period ofstudy.Know:•Basic needs of plants and animals Primary RAFT Example•The role of natural resources in lives of people and animalsUnderstand: ROLE AUDIENCE FORMAT TOPIC•Our actions affect the balance of life on Earth.•Animals become endangered or extinct when natural The Earth Aliens who might A written set of What you need to resources they need are damaged or limited. want to live on rules with know and do if you•Natural resources are not unlimited and must be earth reasons want to live here used wisely.Be Able To: An endangered Humans A exhibit poster Why I need you•Identify causes of problems with misuse of animal and how you can helpnatural resources.•Propose a useful solution to the problems. A natural Our class A speech What people need resource to know about using us and why that matters
Menu Planner Use this template to help you plan a menu for your classroomMenu: ____________________Due: All items in the main dish and the specified number of side dishes must be completed by thedue date. You may select among the side dishes and you may decide to do some of the dessert itemsas well...........................................................Main Dish (complete all)♦♦.........................................................Side Dish (select ____)♦♦.........................................................Dessert♦♦ Winning Strategies for Classroom Management 97
Learning Contract—Menu Planner-- Fantasyland Destination: Fantasyland Due: 2 week Main Dish: (Complete all) Select one fairy tale. Read it to yourself to one other person ______________________(name) Complete a story map (to show characters; setting; problem; solution). Find ﬁve new, interesting words. Write a sentence for each word. Side Dish – Learning Centers (Choose 1 or more) Comparing center: Compare this fairy tale to another story you have read. How are they alike?How are they different? Choose your design: trifold, ﬂip book, or mini-book. Tape Center: Record your favorite part of the fairy tale on the recorder. Art Center: Illustrate the most important event in your fairy tale. Dessert Listening post: Listen to a fairy tale tape of your choice. Title:__________________________________ Library corner: Find another fairy tale to read. Title:__________________________________ 99
2-5-8 MenuThe students must complete a total of 10 points. 2 5 8
Menu and List Ideas• Use odd or even numbering to differentiate between challenge level.• Be more prescriptive with students who need it.• Heacox (2002) suggests using Bloom’s Taxonomy or Gardner to design list ideas.• Menus are lists with more criteria. The wording is ﬂexible. 102
ent agem tsMan onenC omp Prepare to Differentiate Parents Classroom Students Differentiate Lost Done Evaluate the Differentiation Teacher Students
Parents✦ Their Struggles✦ Brochures/Blogs for Records and Questions/ Parent Night✦ Transition Nights✦ Partners (2 way sharing) ✦ IAG (IMAGES, bi-monthly) ✦ NAGC (Parenting for High Potential) ✦ Mile Markers ✦ Hoagies
Classroom Organization✦ Signal for quiet. Signal for no interruptions except for...✦ Folders and organization. Desk drill-patterns of movement✦ Red Cards or Question Chips✦ Scheduled “Ofﬁce Hours” or Group Meeting Times✦ Routines for materials...✦ System for grouping (table tent, pocket chart, tickets, verbal, instantaneous...)
Students ✦ Explicit discussion. Graph activity? Line activity-How well? ✦ Do a brief sample and evaluate. ✦ Independence takes time: whole group, small group, partner, individual... ✦ Explicit behavior expectations including sound levels. Have a way to signal without interrupting. ✦ Procedure checklists and goals. ✦ Personal Agendas
During Differentiation: Off Task...✦ Workcards with step-by-step directions✦ Checklist with time stamps✦ Goal setting modeling✦ You may need an individual conference: why the student is not working, how you and he/she could work together to change the environment, assure him/her that you think he/she can achieve, provide something for the student to look forward to everyday, think short term achievable goals.
During Differentiation: I’m Confused...✦ Creation of a support system: a rotating expert- may have an object on their desks, a teacher’s aide, ask 3 before me, red cards...it comes back to quality pre-preparation and student practice.✦ Access to electronic help. This could be timed (http://www.superteachertools.com/counter/ #countdown).✦ Direction could be presented both verbally and visually.✦ Study buddy for directions and quick guidance
During Differentiation: I’m Done...✦ Resident Expert, Independent Projects✦ Anchor Activities (variety)✦ Challenge Cards✦ Computer Options✦ One possibility: grade a partner’s work, immediate feedback, discussion✦ Sharing Opportunities (online, to the class, with a small group..)
During Differentiation: Grouping✦ Always have a reason for grouping.✦ Groups should be doing different things.✦ Grouping doesn’t have to be a physical concept.✦ Vary groups.
Grading?✦ STRATEGY 1: Grade As Is...Straight A Danger- Perfectionism, Performance Oriented, Scaffold with Discussions (Parents and Kids)✦ STRATEGY 2: Multiple Grades...1 for content mastery, 1 for effort. They may be separate or averaged. Additional thoughts to follow...✦ STRATEGY 3: Safety...Grade for content mastery and encourage extra perhaps using extra credit or intrinsically motivated projects, perhaps holistic, qualitative comments
Students’ Role in Evaluation✦ Keep track of work logs, checklist participation: They are involved in monitoring themselves every step.✦ Peer review✦ Timelines and checkpoints: Importance of doable to-do lists...✦ Reﬂection component: Journals?✦ Discuss progress with parents.
Basic Tomlinson Advice✦ Envision how the activity will look.✦ Step back and reﬂect.✦ Give thoughtful directions. (Tape record directions?)✦ Introduce formats in whole group settings.✦ Routines for getting help.✦ Stay aware and organized.✦ Involve everyone.
Concluding Thoughts‣Start small.‣Experiment.‣Use the equalizer to develop meaningful and effective projects.‣All students need differentiation.