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Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca
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Lisa stormcon presentation number one ieca

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  • Multiple Processes for Public In put There may be several public outreach efforts occurring simultaneously, for example comprehensive planning, transportation planning sponsored by the state DOT, public outreach for water quality (think of utility bills inserts) as well as Phase II planning. Most planning efforts come with deadlines, so merging the requirements of a land use plan with those of Phase II may be tricky. Data Needs – Certainly science drives a lot of what needs to be included in a Phase II plan. However, the timelines and regulatory language in Phase II pretty much preclude waiting for the science before taking action. Thus, the first phases of a NPDES permit might look to broad measures to reduce volumes or prevent runoff in the first place. As that occurs, however, there are real needs to look at hotspots and the main stressors in the urban and urbanizing environment. Because multiple parties may be involved, they will want proof that the measures chosen are fair, effective and designed to address a problem. Finally, looking at other planning efforts allows you to suggest ways to save resources. Thus, learning the components and details of comprehensive plans could help identify these time and cost saving factors.
  • Watershed managers and smart growth practitioners share a common language. It is important to make sure that as comprehensive plans go forward, the common elements are illuminated and stakeholders feel a connection not only to the emerging plans but to each others’ position as well. Why is this important? Because development and growth are often cast as automatically bad for water quality. Often you will face a no-growth audience. At the same time, development projects often look at stormwater control as soemthing to dump into a system, rather than something that can handled, at least in part, at the site level. A joint smart growth and watershed planning effort will recognize the demand for development and manage that demand in a way that is better for water quality.
  • How do we get the best of “green” development that delivers for the site, the neighborhood and the region at the same time. This slide is probably one of the most important because it sums up the main issues, which can be complex. The first four bullets are the “How” of balancing development and preservation. They include identification and preservation of ecologically sensitive lands (which is one of the most important first steps), then deciding which lands to develop. Perhaps one of the most under-rated tools for watershed protection is the reuse of already-developed lands. Finally, looking for retrofit opportunities. Keep in mind the ordinances at the base of Phase II only kick in with a development project, even as most water quality problems are from existing development. Programs for improvements to existing properties are as important as the ordinance. The second four bullets go to the how of development at the supra-site level. This is where we have been missing the picture for water quality. These strategies address the pattern, which has more to do with runoff than any combination of site level strategies.
  • Multiple Processes for Public In put There may be several public outreach efforts occurring simultaneously, for example comprehensive planning, transportation planning sponsored by the state DOT, public outreach for water quality (think of utility bills inserts) as well as Phase II planning. Most planning efforts come with deadlines, so merging the requirements of a land use plan with those of Phase II may be tricky. Data Needs – Certainly science drives a lot of what needs to be included in a Phase II plan. However, the timelines and regulatory language in Phase II pretty much preclude waiting for the science before taking action. Thus, the first phases of a NPDES permit might look to broad measures to reduce volumes or prevent runoff in the first place. As that occurs, however, there are real needs to look at hotspots and the main stressors in the urban and urbanizing environment. Because multiple parties may be involved, they will want proof that the measures chosen are fair, effective and designed to address a problem. Finally, looking at other planning efforts allows you to suggest ways to save resources. Thus, learning the components and details of comprehensive plans could help identify these time and cost saving factors.
  • Multiple Processes for Public In put There may be several public outreach efforts occurring simultaneously, for example comprehensive planning, transportation planning sponsored by the state DOT, public outreach for water quality (think of utility bills inserts) as well as Phase II planning. Most planning efforts come with deadlines, so merging the requirements of a land use plan with those of Phase II may be tricky. Data Needs – Certainly science drives a lot of what needs to be included in a Phase II plan. However, the timelines and regulatory language in Phase II pretty much preclude waiting for the science before taking action. Thus, the first phases of a NPDES permit might look to broad measures to reduce volumes or prevent runoff in the first place. As that occurs, however, there are real needs to look at hotspots and the main stressors in the urban and urbanizing environment. Because multiple parties may be involved, they will want proof that the measures chosen are fair, effective and designed to address a problem. Finally, looking at other planning efforts allows you to suggest ways to save resources. Thus, learning the components and details of comprehensive plans could help identify these time and cost saving factors.
  • 217 subwatersheds, 2 states, 15 counties, Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) from 12 cities in Indiana and 2 in Michigan impact the water quality of the St. Joseph River Agriculture, Prioritized concerns Identified one challenge as the existience of multiple jurisdictions each with its owm zoning code Overlay zoning based on current imperviousness can also be used. This targets specific types of development to areas already impacted by past and current land uses. For example, areas currently having 20% or greater imperviousness, such as inner city areas, are targeted for redevelopment and highly dense development. Abandoned industrial lands (brownfields) should be redeveloped to suitable uses. If commercial land is built in new areas, it should be clustered with shared drives, as opposed to spread into strips. Lands with low imperviousness should be targeted to only allow future developments at total low density
  • How do these drive cover? Setbacks – minimum setbacks – building has to be at least x number of feet from street. Lot coverage - building cannot cover more than 30% of the site – what fills void? Parking Parkin – minimums – “at least # of spaces” – can fill with more sounds like it conserves space, but serves to limit intensity – spreads to other lots
  • How do these drive cover? Setbacks – minimum setbacks – building has to be at least x number of feet from street. Lot coverage - building cannot cover more than 30% of the site – what fills void? Parking Parkin – minimums – “at least # of spaces” – can fill with more sounds like it conserves space, but serves to limit intensity – spreads to other lots
  • Districts emerged as urbanization matured. Commercial and residential areas came to expect coordinated infrastructure, amenities and other aspects of city life. District zoning helped to facilitate how private lots met the public realm. In addition, as production builders became a force in the market, they took on (or were handed) responsibility for what public utilities and departments once handled. Standards were needed to ensure minimum safety, environmental and legal obligations were met. Thus subdivision and PUD districts were born. In urban areas, districts helped to coordinate the complexities of built out places and redevelopment. However, district zoning had to arise from established codes, so implementation mechanisms were also needed. Common terms you will hear are overlay zones, floating zones, mixed used zoning and the like.
  • Transcript

    • 1. “ By Ordinance or Other Regulatory Means…” Meeting the Challenge of New Stormwater Rules
    • 2. <ul><li>Smart Growth and LID – background </li></ul><ul><li>How do Smart Growth and LID appear in permit language? </li></ul><ul><li>How does this translate into the local codes and management plans you work with? </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding code heartburn – anticipating and dealing with conflicts </li></ul>What this presentation will cover…
    • 3. Why Are We Talking About Planning and Land Development Regulations? <ul><li>The new Phase II rules (2003) change everything </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Post Construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overarching for Phase I cities and even unregulated areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerging – construction general permits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attention to “impervious cover” </li></ul><ul><li>The Phase II directive to implement via “ordinances or other regulatory mechanism. </li></ul>
    • 4. Why Does this Matter for Stormwater Practitioners? <ul><ul><li>The Obvious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where and How Development and Conservation Occur Matters to Stormwater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making Use of Scarce Local Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brings your work on plans and ordinances to the “front burner” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Not-so-Obvious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple, Simultaneous Processes for Public Input & Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple timelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills Sets – not just water quality anymore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impervious cover is an imperfect way of dealing with stormwater, but now plays predominant role. </li></ul></ul>
    • 5. The Intersection of Land Development and Stormwater - Impervious Cover <ul><li>The early years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imperviousness as an indicator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of thresholds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The awkward teen years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Well… if watersheds begin to decline at 10% imperviousness…. Then let’s keep sites at 10%” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition that addressing imperviousness meant getting into land development codes </li></ul></ul>
    • 6. What Does holding each site at 10% get you? Source: www.Sprawlaction.org
    • 7. Oh Yeah… You call this good for the environment? <ul><ul><li>St. Charles – Traditional Town Development in Missouri </li></ul></ul>
    • 8. Program Planning at Various Scales Need to expand the scale of current stormwater planning
    • 9. Smart Growth Techniques and their Relationship to Managing Runoff <ul><li>Smart Growth counterparts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehenisve regional planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pay more attention to neighborhoods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>restoration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>redevelopment/infill </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>compact design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reducing the # of spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>better street design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Traditional “water” techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>watershed planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pay more attention to subwatersheds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>restoration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>streams & habitat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ cluster” zoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduce impervious surface coverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water friendly landscaping in parking lots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>better street design </li></ul></ul>
    • 10. <ul><li>Development from Watershed’s Point of View </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preserve ecologically significant areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Target & Direct development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make maximum use of previously development sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrofit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Watershed from Development’s Point of View (What can I do for You?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient Footprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mix of uses that relates to trip-making </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mix of transportation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connectivity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once the pattern is settled – better site design </li></ul></ul>How do we get the best of “green” at the site, neighborhood and regional level?
    • 11. How Did EPA Address this in Phase II Regulations? <ul><ul><li>The Federal Register notice presented a wide range of options that cover numerous scales of application that are locally appropriate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several larger goals listed – minimize disturbance, try to maintain pre-development runoff characteristics, minimization of % impervious cover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional/Watershed Scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preserve tracts of ecologically valuable open space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watershed Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>District/Sub-basin Scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Development to Areas with Existing Infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize directly connected impervious surfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site Level Scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LID techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combinations of structural and non-structural techniques </li></ul></ul>
    • 12. Translation into Permit Language <ul><ul><li>Aligning comprehensive planning with watershed planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aligning planning with Code and Ordinances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Street Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Location and alignment of streets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Geometric Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Retrofitting Roadside edges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audit Zoning Codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Amount and location of parking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Hardscape in Parking Lots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>District Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>District and Subdivision Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Cluster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Mixed Use </li></ul></ul>
    • 13. Elements of a Comprehensive Plan <ul><ul><li>Baseline Assessment of Existing Conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multi-Faceted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land-use patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Housing conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul></ul>
    • 14. Plans and Codes Joint stormwater and land use plans are on the horizon Subwatershed map What to Preserve Map Mitigation Scores Impervious Cover St Joseph River Watershed Assn
    • 15. Street Designs and Stormwater Impacts? <ul><li>Streets represent high proportion of imperviousness in watersheds </li></ul><ul><li>“ skinny streets” reduce overall imperviousness </li></ul><ul><li>Momentum is high to reduce widths for a variety of community outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide streets have a constituency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency response </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sidewalks – good for transportation but bad for stormwater? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition for street space for parking, bike lanes, wider walkways </li></ul></ul>
    • 16. Opportunities - Street Design <ul><li>From the Santa Clara Valley Urban Runoff Pollution Prevention Program permit </li></ul><ul><li>“ j. Site Design Guidance and Standards Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Dischargers shall review their local design standards and guidance for opportunities to make revisions that would result in reduced impacts to water quality and beneficial uses of waters... Areas that may be appropriate to address include the following, which are offered as examples:…. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Minimum impact street design standards for new development and redevelopment, including typical specifications ( e.g. neo-traditional street design standards and/or street standards recently revised in other cities, including Portland, Oregon, Vancouver, British Columbia);... “ </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 17. Alternative Design – The role of District Design <ul><li>Picture A </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional Subdivision design </li></ul><ul><li>Total Street –76,680 ft 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Picture B </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Neighborhood Design </li></ul><ul><li>Total Street – 92,610 ft 2 </li></ul>Tom Low, DPZ Per unit – 2,018 ft 2 Per unit –634 ft 2
    • 18. CNU/ITE street designs handbook <ul><li>Institute for Transportation Engineers and Congress for New Urbanism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With funding from EPA and FHWA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example of offering alternatives to standard codes – not one size fits all </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives engineers options to the “cookbook.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meeting Level of Service Standards as well. </li></ul>Local Government Commission
    • 19. Basic Zoning Terms <ul><ul><li>“ In developing your program, you should consider assessing existing ordinances, policies, programs, and studies that address stormwater runoff quality .” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoning typically regulates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>eg. Residential, agricultural </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>typically separate – C1 or R-2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Height </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>either by # floors or gross height </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Floor area ratio (FAR) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lot coverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yard requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Setbacks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>driveways </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>build to lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parking </li></ul></ul>
    • 20. Zoning and Impervious Cover <ul><ul><li>Zoning typically regulates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate Uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Segregated tripmaking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Retail follows rooftops” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Height </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limitations means growth goes out not up </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lot coverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum lot sizes drives neighboring lots apart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum setbacks reduce intensity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Even impervious cover limits can drive excess coverage </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 21. Basic Zoning- Cut to the Chase <ul><ul><li>How are cities and counties going to overcome these code obstacles within codes? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-area Planning is one of the best ways to coordinate efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How are stormwater managers supposed to engage? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stormwater managers sit at the front end of project planning and site plan approval. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stormwater managers become experts in code language & innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overlay zones, floating zones, transfer of development right zones, mixed use zoning, annexation rules </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 22. Impervious Cover & Parking requirements <ul><ul><li>“ We plan for the 365 day parking event” – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nikos Singeles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Olympia Washington (1993) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical occupancy rates 40-60% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two thirds had occupancy <75% at peak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connecticut (2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Code dictates 5.5 spaces/1000 ft 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peak usage supply – 2.3 spaces/1000 ft 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where do Excess Spaces Come From? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Parking Space Stork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ITE - “Parking Generation” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dictates parking minimums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criticized for over-supply </li></ul></ul>
    • 23. Impervious Cover & Parking requirements <ul><li>Parking assessed one site at a time </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunities for sharing an afterthought </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lender requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk in too little parking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No incentive to study parking utilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>So what if we installed too much? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposition to shared parking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liability and trash pick up </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>View there is no cost to excess parking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Although utility fees and land costs a factors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assigned spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perk within leases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Takes spaces out of “pool” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How Parking is Calculated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rounding Up </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Including square footage without drivers (stairwells, mechanical rooms) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 24. Parking, continued <ul><li>Space for Spaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule of thumb - 200 square feet per space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actually - each parking space (total) ~330 – 380 ft 2 impervious surface with drive aisles, circulation, access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most codes cap the building footprint (example – 30 % of gross site) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few cap parking lot size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Big boxes could not exist within this code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Won’t green parking solve everything? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knocking down trees to install pervious pavers still a net negative for the watershed </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 25. Parking & IC - Redevelopment <ul><li>Barrier to redevelopment or improvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Older buildings must meet new parking space numbers even when not needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Circulation Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trucks cannot block alleys or streets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hence, extra room needed on site </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use of On-street parking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s already there </li></ul></ul>This is a water quality problem
    • 26. Critique This Picture- Parking EPA
    • 27. Opportunities - Parking <ul><li>From North Central Texas Council of Governments (NCTCOG) stormwater guidance </li></ul><ul><li>“ 2. Minimize impervious surfaces Impervious surfaces are those such as roads, parking lots, driveways, and rooftops, that don't allow infiltration of storm water into the ground…Narrower streets and smaller parking lots benefit the environment and can make a development more attractive as well. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce parking lot size by lowering the number of parking spaces (minimum and maximum ratios) and by sharing parking among adjacent businesses - Zoning Ordinance, Development/Engineering Standards </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce parking requirements for developments in proximity to public transportation - Zoning Ordinance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide incentives or opportunities for structured parking rather than surface parking - Zoning Ordinance” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 28. Subdivision Regulations <ul><ul><li>Subdivision Regulation Components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many mandate one use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even Planned Unit Developments are not necessarily true mixed use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation Internally oriented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P ed/bike access inconvenient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trails do not link everyday trips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Street design left to individual developer </li></ul></ul>
    • 29. How Do Subdivision Regulations Drive Impervious cover? <ul><li>Typical subdivision requirements </li></ul><ul><li>(Ben-Joseph, 2003) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5000 square foot lots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>56 foot street right-of-way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 foot driveway setbacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% pavement. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open Space requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 80% have open space requirement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% - mandatory in regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can serve to spread development out </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non Residential IC – the real driver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loudoun County – 12 trips/day/household </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are 10 parking spaces just waiting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ripples across built landscape </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On-site requirements – inefficient layout drives inefficient stormwater handling. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 30. The Ultimate in Conservation Design – Redevelopment
    • 31. Opportunities – Infill & Redevelopment <ul><li>“ Non-structural BMPs are preventative actions that involve management and source controls such as: policies and ordinances that provide requirements and standards to direct growth to identified areas , protect sensitive areas such as wetlands and riparian areas, maintain and/or increase open space (including a dedicated funding source for open space acquisition), provide buffers along sensitive water bodies, minimize impervious surfaces, and minimize disturbance of soils and vegetation; policies or ordinances that encourage infill development in higher density urban areas, and areas with existing infrastructure,…” </li></ul><ul><li>EPA Phase II regulations, 1999 </li></ul>
    • 32. The Challenge with Redevelopment <ul><li>Redevelopment is almost universally more difficult to undertake than new development </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Tight Building Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Going up against existing zoning </li></ul><ul><li>Going up against existing neighbors </li></ul><ul><li>Requires Coordination </li></ul>Designadvisor.org
    • 33. Meeting Challenges <ul><li>Dim Sum versus Combination Plate watershed planning </li></ul><ul><li>Too many codes jump into site level BMPs without considering the larger pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>EPA recommends hierarchy of BMP planning </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and preserve lands and open space first </li></ul><ul><li>Identify where to develop on a less disturbing footprint </li></ul>Yummy, easy swale dumplings Not sure I want to digest infill thingy
    • 34. Avoiding Code Heartburn <ul><ul><li>One Size Fits all ordinances for New Development and Redevelopment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appealing because </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to write </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to Administer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to Defend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to Measure and Report for Compliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to Delegate to Developer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cluster subdivisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniform impervious cover limits </li></ul></ul>
    • 35. Avoiding Code Heartburn <ul><ul><li>The Heartburn? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Impact Label – Caldwell Farms, Massachusetts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because the stormwater rules are strong in both federal (CWA) and local (ordinances) regulations, hydrology equations dominate (and even overwhelm) the environmental analysis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End up with a highly disturbed watershed even as each individual project sailed through the hydrology review. </li></ul></ul>
    • 36. Avoiding Code Heartburn <ul><ul><li>The Heartburn? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infill and redevelopment emerging as “the ultimate in conservation design” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, code language can work against redevelopment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much of the ripe redevelopment sites are in highly impacted watersheds and must be part of the solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance standard conundrum – LID cheaper and easier for 1-year storm, but not 5 year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will high performance standards kill LID? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic development conundrum – Areas that need BMP benefits can’t even attract redevelopment under current rules. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation Conundrum – trigger is development or redevelopment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But not remodeling….. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 37. More Information? <ul><li>Lisa Nisenson </li></ul><ul><li>Nisenson Consulting </li></ul><ul><li>1549 Ringling Blvd </li></ul><ul><li>6 th Floor </li></ul><ul><li>Sarasota Florida </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>www.nisenson.net </li></ul><ul><li>202-744-6854 (mobile) </li></ul>

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