“The human right to water entitles everyone tosufficient, safe, acceptable, physically accessible Titleand affordable water for personal and domestic uses. An adequate amount of safe water is necessary to prevent death from dehydration, reduce the risk of water-related disease andprovide for consumption, cooking, personal and domestic hygienic requirements”. (General Comment 15, CESCR, 2002)
Global Facts …the reality is…•more than one out of six people lack access to safe drinking water;1.1 billion people•more than two out of six lack adequate sanitation;2.6 billion people•3900 children die every day from water-borne diseases•Up to half of humanity has one of these six main diseases 1. diarrhea 2. schistosomiasis 3.trachoma 4. infestation with ascaris 5. infestation with guinea worm 6. infestation with hookworm
Social Consequences Globally• China, with 1.26 billion people, "the water table is dropping one meter per year due to over-pumping, and the Chinese admit that 300 cities are running short.• In India, home to 1.002 billion people, key aquifers are being over- pumped, and the soil is growing saltier through contamination with irrigation water• Israel (population 6.2 million), invented many water-conserving technologies, but water withdrawals still exceed resupply.• Egypt (population of 68 million), is irrigated by seasonal floods from the Nile River, and from water stored behind the Aswan High Dam. Any interference with water flow by Sudan or Ethiopia could starve Egypt.• Mexico City (home to 20 million people) is sinking because the city sucks out underground water faster than the aquifer can be refilled.
Social Consequences (cont.)• More and more areas are becoming unstable with regards to their water resources• More and more people are dying from thirst and water-borne contaminants
•The 1950s drought severely impacted a 1.1millionkm2 area in the central US.This drought, along with the famous 1930s drought, was among the most severeof the 20th century for large areas and is the drought of record for water supplyplanning in Texas.•The total annual dependable water supply in Texas is approximately 16.3million acre-feet.•Texas has had an abundance of natural resources, although it has had somecases of really severe drought.• 95% of the united states fresh water is underground, and farmers in the TexasHigh Plains pump groundwater faster than rain fills it, and the water tables aredropping.
•Over 50 percent of all water projects fail and less than 5 percent ofprojects are revisited and far less than one percent are monitored.•New approaches to long-term water planning and managementthat incorporate principles of sustainability and equity are requiredand are now being explored by national and international waterexperts and organizations.•Politicians have proposed many different methods to this majortopic, among these principles are guaranteed access to a basicamount of water necessary to maintain human health and tosustain ecosystems, basic protections for the renewability of waterresources, and institutional recommendations for planning,management, and conflict resolution
Political Consequences (cont.)•W A R
•For each one dollar invested in the World Health Organizationit is estimated that $3-$34 of services are possible in developingcountries depending on the region and technology.
Economic Consequences of diminishing water resources• Higher food prices at the supermarket• Loss of businesses (old and new)• Higher cost for water on your utility bill
•Us humans of course no water, no life! The more population the lesswater. As mentioned, about 1.1 billion people lack access to cleanwater, and 2.6 billion do not have access to improved sanitationfacilities•Destruction of aquatic ecosystems and extinction of species•Growing risks of regional and international conflicts over scarce orshared water supplies•Businesses- (cost of water); both surface water and groundwater inresponse to high market prices
Who Suffers ?• Millions of people worldwide• Agriculture• Ranchers• Businesses• Wildlife• YOU !!
•Government and politicians•Less supply more demands which includes a high price inmarkets
Who Benefits from Clean Water?• EVERYONE !!• If ever there was something that people actually “can’t live without”, it is water.• Not just any water, but clean, drinkable water.
What Conditions Help To Promote The Problem ?• “Can’t happen here” mentality; denial that there is a problem• Population growth- coupled with industrialization and urbanization• Climate change• Lack of environmental concern; pollution• Lack of conservation; misuse
Map of the World showing water scarcity
Top 10 largest cities by population that have the greatest chance of running out of water1. Los Angeles-major water supply Colorado River Basin2. Houston- Jasper Aquifer, Lake Houston, Lake Conroe3. Phoenix- Colorado River Basin4. San Antonio, TX- Various groundwater sources5. San Francisco bay areas- Various, including Lake Hetch Hetchy6. Fortworth, TX- Multiple water supplies7. Las Vegas- Lake Mead/Colorado River8. Tucson, AZ- Local groundwater9. Atlanta- Lake Lanier10. Orlando, FL- Florida Aquifer
Local Perspective• A Brief History of Water in San Antonio.• Edwards Aquifer Authority Established• Tom Gallier, Bx. Mets Interim Gen. Mngr. said, “There is no single land issue that is more critical than water.”• Top 200 water users in June 2011
How Does the Aquifer Work2011 Edwards Aquifer Authority
Water Recycling Treatment Process2011 San Antonio Water System: Recycling Process
Possible Solutions• 1st step to any solution is in getting people to understand that there is a problem• Need to work to keep the water we do have clean; reduce contaminants
•Water conservation methods such as replacing existing toilets withlow-flow toilets•The use of grey water (all the waste water that drains out of yourwashing machine and sinks), it can be easily treated and recycled.
Still more possible solutions:1. Hard path - building of dams, pipelines & environmentally-destructive infrastructure - government run and owned with no personal ownership2. Soft path - Reuse of wastewater ~ storm runoff, gray water & reclaimed wastewater are well-suited to irrigate landscaping - water agency or company personnel to interact closely with water users & to engage community groups in water management. - governments, companies, & individuals to meet the needs of peoples & businesses, instead of just supplying water3. Privately funded companies4. Desalination - the removal of salt from salt water -- would be the ultimate solution to water woes -- if it can be done cheaply enough
CONSERVE TO PRESERVEIndividual Actions Matter
ReferencesAnderson, T. L. (1983). Water crisis: Ending the policy drought. Retrieved from http://www.osti.gov/energycitations/product.biblio.jsp?osti_id=5044922BBC News. World Water Crisis . Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/world/2000/world_water _crisis/default.stmBurchett., Rettman., & Boning. (1986). Edwards aquifer. Retrieved from http://libweb.lib.utsa.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1 9075288?accountid=7122Griffin, R., & Boadu, F. (1992). Water marketing in texas: Opportunities for reform. Retrieved from http://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?collection=journals&handle=hein.j ournals/narj32&div=23&id=&pageLinscomb, Steve. (2011, Sept. 21). SAWS pouring millions into desalination plant. Retrieved from http://www.woai.com/news/local/story/saws-pouring- millions-into-desalination-plant/9...
References (cont.)Maclay, RW. (1995). Geology and hydrology of the Edwards aquifer in the San Antonioarea, Texas. Retrieved from google scholar website: http://md1.csa.com/partners/viewrecord.pho?requester=gs&collection=EN V&recid=3857...Martinez, M. (2011). San Antonio Water Rights and Usage. Retrieved from http://sanantonio.about.com/od/historyandlandmarks/a/waterrights.htm=1McDonald, Colin. (2011). A green lawn at any price. Retrieved from http://www.mysanantonio.com/news/environment/article/A-GREEN-LAWN- AT-ANY-P...McDonald, Colin. (2011). BexarMet bets on getting water rights: Record drought could choke utility. San Antonio Express-News, pp. A1, A12.Pacific Institute. (2009). Global Water Crisis. Retrieved from http://www.pacinst.org/topics/water_and_sustainability/global_water_crisis/
References (cont.)Postel, S. (2011, July 14). Conservation in San Antonio is Saving more than Water. National Geographic Daily News. Retrieved from http://newswatch.nationalgeographic.com/2011/07/14/conservation-in- san-antonio-is-savi...SAWS.org. (2011). Twin Oaks Aquifer Storage & Recovery. Retrieved from http://www.saws.org/our_water/waterresources/projects/asr.shtmlSAWS.org. (2011). Water Recycling Treatment Process. Retrieved from http://www.saws.org/our_water/recycling/centers/treatment.shtmlSchaefer, M. (2008). Water technologies and the environment: Ramping up by scaling down. (Vol. 30, pp. 3-4). UK: Elsevier Science, The Boulevard Langford Lane Kidlington Oxford OX51GB UK. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.libweb.lib.utsa.edu/waterresources/docview/20 235078/132A3A6AA15173A2506/8?accountid-7122Stockdale, C., Sauter, M., & McIntire, D. (2010, November 1). The ten biggest american cities that are running out of water. Retrieved from http://finance.yahoo.com/real-estate/article/111186/the-ten-biggest- american-cities-that-are-running-out-of-water
References (cont.)Tlc what is grey water. (2011, october 24). Retrieved from http://tlc.howstuffworks.com/home/grey-water.htmUnited Nations Human Rights. (2011). International Human Rights Law. Retrieved from http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/InternationalLaw.aspxWater Woes. (2001, APR 26). Where’s the water? Retrieved from http://whyfiles.org/131fresh_water/index.htmlWorld Water Availability. Retrieved from http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/world_maps/water_availability_1980_201 5.jpgWorld Water Council. (2010). The Right to Water, a human right. Retrieved from http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/index.php?id=1748
Questions• What would you suggest as a possible solution for the equitable distribution of the world’s water resources?• What things can you as an individual do to help preserve our world’s water supplies?