Parenting styles

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Parenting styles

  1. 1. Parenting Styles
  2. 2. Learning Objectives • What are two basic dimensions of parenting? • What patterns of childrearing emerge from these dimensions?
  3. 3. The Child – Parenting Styles • Two dimensions of parenting contribute to the concept of parenting style – Acceptance/Warmth-responsiveness refers to the extent to which parents are supportive, sensitive to their children’s needs, and willing to provide affection and praise when their children meet their expectations • Includes affection, praise, encouragement • Less accepting and responsive parents are often quick to criticize, belittle, punish, or ignore their children and rarely communicate to children that they are loved and valued
  4. 4. The Child – Parenting Styles • Two dimensions of parenting contribute to the concept of parenting style (continued) – Demandingness-control (sometimes called permissiveness-restrictiveness) refers to how much control over decisions lies with the parent rather than with the child • Controlling and demanding parents set rules, expect their children to follow them, and monitor their children closely to ensure that the rules are followed • Less controlling and demanding parents (often called permissive parents) make fewer demands and allow their children a great deal of autonomy to explore, express opinions and emotions, and make decisions
  5. 5. The Child – Parenting Styles • Four basic patterns of child rearing emerge from crossing the acceptance and the demandingness dimensions – Authoritarian parenting • This restrictive parenting style combines high demandingness-control and low acceptanceresponsiveness – Parents impose many rules, expect strict obedience, rarely explain why the child should comply with rules, and often rely on power tactics such as physical punishment to gain compliance
  6. 6. The Child – Parenting Styles • Four basic patterns of childrearing emerge from crossing the acceptance and the demandingness dimensions (continued) – Authoritative parenting • Authoritative parents are more flexible; they are demanding and exert control, but they are also accepting and responsive • They set clear rules and consistently enforce them, but they also explain the rationales for their rules and restrictions, are responsive to their children’s needs and points of view, and involve their children in family decision-making • They are reasonable and democratic in their approach, but they are in charge • They communicate respect for their children
  7. 7. The Child – Parenting Styles • Four basic patterns of childrearing emerge from crossing the acceptance and the demandingness dimensions (continued) – Permissive parenting • This style is high in acceptanceresponsiveness but low in demandingness-control • Permissive parents are indulgent with few rules and few demands • They encourage children to express their feelings and impulses and rarely exert control over their behavior
  8. 8. The Child – Parenting Styles • Four basic patterns of childrearing emerge from crossing the acceptance and the demandingness dimensions (continued) – Neglectful parenting • Parents who combine low demandingness-control and low acceptance-responsiveness are relatively uninvolved in their children’s upbringing • They seem not to care much about their children and may even reject them • Or, neglectful parents may be so overwhelmed by their own problems that they cannot devote sufficient energy to expressing love and setting and enforcing rules
  9. 9. Caption: The acceptance-responsiveness and demandingness-control dimensions of parenting
  10. 10. The Child – Parenting Styles • Warm, responsive parenting is associated with secure attachments to parents, academic competence, high selfesteem, good social skills, peer acceptance, and a strong sense of morality • Lack of parental acceptance and affection contributes to depression and other psychological problems • Diana Baumrind (1967, 1977, 1991) found that children raised by authoritative parents were the best adjusted – cheerful, socially responsible, self-reliant, achievement oriented, and cooperative with adults and peers – Children of authoritarian parents tended to be moody and seemingly unhappy, easily annoyed, relatively aimless, and unpleasant to be around – Children of permissive parents were often impulsive, aggressive, self-centered, rebellious, aimless, and low in independence and achievement
  11. 11. The Child – Parenting Styles • Subsequent research has shown that the worst developmental outcomes are associated with the neglectful, uninvolved style of parenting – Children of neglectful parents display behavioral problems such as aggression and frequent temper tantrums as early as age 3 – They tend to become hostile and antisocial adolescents who abuse alcohol and drugs and get in trouble • The link between authoritative parenting and positive developmental outcomes is evident in most ethnic groups and socioeconomic groups studied to date in the United States and in a variety of other cultures

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