Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Examples from frac presentation   water
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Examples from frac presentation water

187
views

Published on

Excerpt from larger presentation: …

Excerpt from larger presentation:
WATER SOURCING, FLOWBACK, RE-USE, DISPOSAL, AND RELEASE TO ENVIRONMENT

Published in: Education, Technology, Business

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
187
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Slides excerpted from my upcoming class in Colombus, Ohio on Fracturing. (There are some slides left out, so the slides may not "flow" from one to the next). 1/9/2014 WATER PROCESS FLOW • 1. 2. WATER SOURCING, FLOWBACK, RE-USE, DISPOSAL, AND RELEASE TO ENVIRONMENT 3. FRACTURING 4. The numbers on this graphic show increasing time. Water acquisition: water is purchased and transported to the site. The frac job is done. Chemicals are added, and the fluid pumped into the well. The water comes back out of the well (flowback) along with water that was in the formation naturally (produced). It is stored in pits or tanks. The water is transported offsite, treated, and usually injected in disposal wells. http://www2.epa.gov/hfstudy/hydraulic-fracturing-water-cycle WATER WATER SOURCING WATER SOURCING WATER FLOWBACK WATER FLOWBACK 1
  • 2. Slides excerpted from my upcoming class in Colombus, Ohio on Fracturing. (There are some slides left out, so the slides may not "flow" from one to the next). 1/9/2014 WATER DISPOSAL BY INJECTION WATER FLOWBACK INJECTION WELLS INJECTION WELLS • Depending on the jurisdiction (usually the state): • After you get permits, the most simple disposal method • Very common • Central plant may have pumps that push water through a flowline network to the wells • The water may be hauled in trucks • Wells will usually be perforated, and have a packer • Most states require a yearly test to make sure the water is going in the intended zone – Permits are required for the individual wells – Permits may be required for an overall “project” – Permits may be required associating producers with particular injectors • Some states more strict than others WATER WATER TYPICAL STATE UIC AUTHORITY PRIMACY: TWO EXAMPLE STATES • UIC - Underground Injection Control • EPA may delegate authority to the states for injection • Primacy – or primary enforcement authority – The authority to implement the UIC Program. To receive primacy, a state, territory, or tribe must demonstrate to EPA that its UIC program is at least as stringent as the federal standards; the state, territory, or tribal UIC requirements may be more stringent than the federal requirements. (For Class II, states must demonstrate that their programs are effective in preventing pollution of USDWs.) EPA may grant primacy for all or part of the UIC program, e.g., for certain classes of injection wells. • California has a shared program with EPA • Ohio has full primacy Graphic from US EPA website WATER http://water.epa.gov/type/groundwater/uic/glossary.cfm#primacy WATER 2
  • 3. Slides excerpted from my upcoming class in Colombus, Ohio on Fracturing. (There are some slides left out, so the slides may not "flow" from one to the next). 1/9/2014 WESTERN STATES “SURFACE DISCHARGE” WATER DISCHARGE TO THE ENVIRONMENT • The discharge of oil field produced water into surface waters is allowed in states west of the 98th meridian if the water is used for agriculture or wildlife propagation (40 CFR (Code of Federal Regulations) 435 subpart E). • Notice that it’s green east of the 98th meridian, and brown west of it. – Shallow groundwater to protect or no? – Need for water great enough to allow surface discharge? WATER NPDES – SURFACE (NOT INJECTION WELLS) • • • National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program controls water pollution by regulating point sources that discharge pollutants into waters of the United States You have to check the particular permit for water cleanup requirements Typically for discharge to streams: – Oil and grease in 10’s of ppm – TDS in low 1000’s of ppm NPDES ADMINISTRATION VARIES BY STATE. • EPA is a federal regulator • They delegate authority for certain programs to state/tribal regulators in some cases • Affects water discharges to streams WATER WATER WATER PROCESSING • We will first look at a state of the art system that has: – Both sources of water • Produced • Frack – All three destinations for water RE-USE WATER • Re-use • Discharge to environment • Injection • Then we will look at components of the process 3
  • 4. 1/9/2014 Slides excerpted from my upcoming class in Colombus, Ohio on Fracturing. (There are some slides left out, so the slides may not "flow" from one to the next). STATE OF THE ART: ANTICLINE DISPOSAL FACILITY • Water is brought in from frack flowback sites and production • Processed for re-use SO, HOW DO WE DO THAT? – Frack jobs – Discharge to river EQUIPMENT & PROCESSES • Concentrated brine from RO is injected in a disposal well Photo courtesy of High Sierra Water Services WATER ADVANCED WATER PROCESSING - EXAMPLE JARGON – WHAT’S “SCALE”? First stage separation (primary) • Solids Removal Third stage separation Second stage separation – Causes pumps to have to work harder, using more electricity – In boilers, can reduce heat transfer efficiency WASH TANK WEMCO BENEFICIAL REUSE WATER Salt Removal WATER PROCESSING • • • • • After primary separation in the FWKO, the water is fairly clean The wash tank serves to reduce the oil in water (OIW) content to the “hundreds of ppm” level The WEMCO then reduces the OIW to less than 5 ppm You may see the term “wash tank” used to refer to other equipment too Tank shown has “water leg” to regulate water level in tank WATER PRODUCED WATER TANK SOFT WATER TANK DISPOSAL WELLS FILTERED WATER TANK Calcium and Magnesium Removal FLOTATION CELL (WEMCO) • Wash Tank/Clarifier Tank TREATER FWKO SOFTENERS • 30% Water Emulsion 94% Water Emulsion FILTERS • Scale is buildup of minerals in pipe Can happen in surface equipment or downhole Have to remove using acid or “mechanically” Problem may not be obvious – pipes are not see-through, and you can’t go downhole RO PLANT • WEMCO Removes oil from water • If inlet oil concentration is 100 ppm, outlet concentration of 5 to 10 ppm can be achieved. Needed if downstream process requires low oil content. NPDES permits may allow higher concentrations (National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System ) • • • WATER 4
  • 5. Slides excerpted from my upcoming class in Colombus, Ohio on Fracturing. (There are some slides left out, so the slides may not "flow" from one to the next). 1/9/2014 REVERSE OSMOSIS • Osmosis: the diffusion of molecules from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both side is equal • Reverse Osmosis: high pressure filtering thru a filter with extremely tiny holes WATER 5

×