Simon was diagnosed with autism. There are a few common traints associated with all ASD’s: Problem with social relationships and play skills (e.g.: little impulse control); Impaire Communication (e.g.: speaks echolalic language); Engagement in stereotypical/repetitive behaviours (e.g.: fascinated with wheels and cars); Sensory impairement References: Cadieux, 2012. handout Learning Together Every step of the way: Fact Sheet Autism Spectrum Disorder
Picture source: www.baidu.com
As a new comer, the family may need to rent or buy a property in Toronto. The websites list here are information that they can research to make a sound decision. Picture source: www.baidu.com
Simon’s siblings need to register a school. And TDSB is the public school in Toronto that children go to. The family may find the school that is nearest to them once settled down. Picture source: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=school+pictures&hl=en&sa=X&biw=1152&bih=749&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&tbnid=6lGNMtpSY4TftM:&imgrefurl=http://schools.essb.qc.ca/riverview/&docid=jTUn2Ga8NvX7pM&imgurl=http://schools.essb.qc.ca/riverview/files/2011/09/school4c.gif&w=550&h=362&ei=rCpmT7-xBpD1gge5kfHHAg&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=599&sig=111542041830010751754&page=1&tbnh=165&tbnw=250&start=0&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:11,s:0&tx=162&ty=40
Parentbooks offers the most comprehensive selection of resources available anywhere — from planning a family to everyday parenting issues to special needs of all kinds. Our friendly and knowledgeable staff can help you find the books you need. As a single parent with two teenage children and a child with autism, the dad in this family may find that information from Parentbooks are helpful to him. References: http://www.parentbooks.ca/index.htm Picture source: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=parent+pictures&start=124&num=10&hl=en&biw=1152&bih=749&addh=36&tbm=isch&tbnid=VeCiLQn3BQD6OM:&imgrefurl=http://www.cnpparentlink.com/&docid=a6mVkHRgZn3tJM&imgurl=http://cnpparentlink.webs.com/fcen.jpg&w=350&h=360&ei=4itmT8PCOIrqgQfg_6jBAw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=496&vpy=334&dur=6724&hovh=228&hovw=221&tx=99&ty=91&sig=111542041830010751754&page=7&tbnh=162&tbnw=158&ndsp=20&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:124
The FUN Guide is filled with programs and services for people of all ages. Along with a huge variety of recreation programs for you and your family, there is also information about Toronto's museums, parks, volunteer opportunities and even part-time job possibilities. References: http://www.toronto.ca/events/index.htm Picture source: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=family+fun+day&hl=en&biw=1152&bih=749&tbm=isch&tbnid=Yd9CpMdyg9xm1M:&imgrefurl=http://ckdp.ca/2011/08/03/family-fun-day-this-saturday-in-dover/&docid=YowWERsCsmzc8M&imgurl=http://ckdp.ca/files/2011/08/leclair-fun-day.jpg&w=600&h=400&ei=eSxmT9y9K43egge0nPDpAg&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=243&sig=111542041830010751754&page=2&tbnh=159&tbnw=212&start=27&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:12,s:27&tx=34&ty=65
Transition Tips Because Simon have low impulse control, transition is difficult to him. The following transition tips may help to ease the transition. Prepare for all transitions ahead of time. Give ample warnings (i.e. 5 minutes left, 2 minutes left, 1 minute left, time to switch). Once children are at the next activity, they should not have to wait for “setup”; circle time should begin as soon as the children are seated. Use a transitional object to help the child remain calm during the transition. It may be a calming toy (squeeze ball) or an item related to the next activity (paint brush to move to the paint centre). Use transitional signals such as a sign, a noise or song. Eventually the child will learn to associate the signal with change and will understand that the signal means to stop what they are doing. Use a visual schedule to indicate what will happen next. Give one clear direction at a time. Use a specific relaxation strategy. Remain calm even when the transition appears chaotic. References: http://connectability.ca/2011/03/24/visual-schedule-tip-sheet/ Picture source: http://www.childcareonly.com/starting-your-business/my-canadian-day-care-start-up-story/
Simon’s low impulse control is a common trait in Autism – problems with social relationships/play skills. The following social tips may help Simon with his social relationships and play skills. Social Tips: Do not take rude or aggressive behavior personally. Recognize that the target for anger may not be linked to the source of that anger. Be aware that student may feel very uncomfortable with eye contact. Work to expand the student’s reinforcer and leisure activities repertoire; work to increase social reinforcers and activities. Pair existing reinforcers with new activities to expand repertoire. Explicitly and frequently teach social rules and skills, such as turn-taking and social distance. Break down social skills into non-verbal and verbal components. Explain rules / rationales behind social exchanges. Target perspective-taking skills. Teach student to accurately label his / her own emotions. Use cartoon conversations, coping comics, and thought stories to teach social responses. Be aware of teasing by peers; teach and rehearse appropriate responses to bullying. Explicitly teach discrimination between private versus public behaviors. Provide modeling and role-play opportunities to teach social skills. Program for generalization of social skills across all contexts. Build social interactions around common interests. *Social Stories can be used to teach social skills to children with autism. A situation, which may be difficult or confusing for the student, is described concretely. The story highlights social cues, events, and reactions that could occur in the situation, the actions and reactions that might be expected, and why. Social stories can be used to increase the student’s understanding of a situation, make the student feel more comfortable, and provide appropriate responses for the situation. We recommend that you incorporate visuals into the stories as well. These visuals can be drawings created by the student, imported images from Google, picture symbols / icons, or photographs. References: http://www.dotolearn.com/disabilities/CharacteristicsAndStrategies/AutismSpectrumDisorder_Strategies.html Picture source: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=day+care&start=47&num=10&hl=en&biw=1152&bih=749&tbm=isch&tbnid=nQTpBP2QuBwwjM:&imgrefurl=http://frederickdaycare.com/&docid=yK8wThB-nfx0YM&imgurl=http://frederickdaycare.com/images/1537520_lowsm.jpg&w=302&h=298&ei=8i1mT4jgLci0gwfl5a3xAg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=144&vpy=398&dur=6568&hovh=223&hovw=226&tx=56&ty=172&sig=111542041830010751754&page=4&tbnh=174&tbnw=176&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r:12,s:47
Simon’s fascination with cars is a restrictive, repetitive behaviour. The following tips may used to help this kind of behaviour. Restrictive, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviour tips · Reinforce desirable behaviors that serve as alternatives to inappropriate behaviors (teaching the student what to do rather than what not to do ). · Reinforce Provide clear structure and a set daily routine. · Ensure that Simon knows the day's schedule at the start of each day and can reference schedule throughout day. · Vary the activities within the daily schedule so that the student does not become inflexible about the sequence of the schedule or routine itself. · Provide warning of any change of routine, or switch of activity. Present this warning visually. · Be aware that some change in manner or behavior may reflect anxiety (which may be triggered by a change in routine). · Be aware of bright lights, loud noises or too much touching. · Teach Simon to accurately identify how they feel as often as they can. · Provide Simon a &quot;time out&quot; pass for a few minutes of free time to leave the classroom. · Set up a special time-out location, so student has a place to go to take a break (could be a quick trip to the restroom or water fountain). · Encourage students to keep their noise levels down. · Have a &quot;hands to yourself&quot; rule to respect personal space of all students. · Organize classroom and teach students how to use and maintain organization. · Ensure understanding of all assignments and tasks (and materials needed). · Develop routines for organizing materials and work completion. · Ensure consistency of expectations among all family members and staff. · Create a structured environment with predictable routines. · Create a picture schedule with daily routine. · Allow student opportunities to move during instruction. · Use consistent classroom routines. · Teach student to identify signs of stress, anxiety, anger, etc. · Use visual organizers to help student evaluate appropriate alternatives to maladaptive behavior. · Use visual scales to label escalating emotions (e.g. 1-5 scales, Volcano scale). · Teach and practice coping strategies to reduce anxiety, stress, anger, etc. · Develop a coping plan; rehearse plan with student when they are calm. · Introduce opportunities for free drawing to express feelings. · Create a “calming area” or a “sensory area.” · Provide stress release activities or items, such as drawing, brushing, squeeze toys, weighted blankets, headphones, and music. · Be aware of signs of anxiety or difficulties a student may be having with sensory and emotional overload (hands over ears, plugging ears, or repetitive behaviors, like rocking). · Allow student to avoid certain activities which may cause anxiety (e.g. large assemblies). · Minimize verbal demands when the student is upset, or escalating. Use visuals instead. · Provide clear, explicit feedback on behavior. · Set up consistent written rules for each classroom. · Use color-coded system for behavior and class participation. · Use an individualized points system / token economy to increase target behaviors. References: http://www.dotolearn.com/disabilities/CharacteristicsAndStrategies/AutismSpectrumDisorder_Characteristics.html Picture Source: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=rewind&start=116&num=10&hl=en&biw=1152&bih=749&addh=36&tbm=isch&tbnid=CqKqdokxAWEphM:&imgrefurl=http://www.alphanista.com/20-sign-you-know-you-are-not-alpha.html&docid=lqe812Db02SYzM&imgurl=http://www.alphanista.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/donotenter.png&w=600&h=595&ei=ti5mT_j3DMXXgQfp-pH9Ag&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=383&vpy=274&dur=1265&hovh=224&hovw=225&tx=88&ty=149&sig=111542041830010751754&page=7&tbnh=176&tbnw=177&ndsp=20&ved=1t:429,r:16,s:116
With impaired communication, the following communication tips may help Simon to communicate in the day care. Communication Tips: · Ensure that Simon has a way to appropriately express his wants and needs. · Identify and establish appropriate functional communication system (e.g. sign language, Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS), voice output, etc.). · Ensure that Simon has access to his (portable) communication system across all contexts, all of the time. · Reinforce communication attempts (e.g. their gestures, partial verbalizations). · Paraphrase back what Simon has said or indicated. · Simplify language, highlighting what is important. For example, for a non-verbal student, simply say “ Sit in chair ” instead of “ Sit in your chair please .” · Label areas in the room with words and pictures. · Use sequencing cards to teach order of events. · Use clear and unambiguous language. · Avoid sarcasm (students with autism may have a hard time understanding). · Explicitly teach the meaning behind puns, idioms, figurative language, etc. · Try to be as literal and clear as possible. · Use words in addition to gestures and facial expressions. · Help Simon interpret conversations. · Remind other students that some students may not get jokes or non-verbal language. · Repeat instructions and check for understanding. · Engage student in role-plays to target reciprocal conversation. · Program for generalization of communication skills across all contexts. References: http://www.dotolearn.com/disabilities/CharacteristicsAndStrategies/AutismSpectrumDisorder_Characteristics.html Picture Source: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=communication+in+day+care&start=325&hl=en&biw=1152&bih=749&tbm=isch&tbnid=V-nr69Xax4avXM:&imgrefurl=http://www.ecolab.com/our-company/our-story/our-principles&docid=2cMuXU78hA88bM&imgurl=http://www.ecolab.com/our-company/our-story/~/media/Ecolab/Ecolab%252520Site/Page%252520Content/460%252520x%252520290/sustainability/465%252520x%252520285%252520sunflowers.ashx&w=465&h=285&ei=HjBmT4iJFNPDgAfWyIjwAg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=554&vpy=87&dur=2827&hovh=176&hovw=287&tx=160&ty=115&sig=111542041830010751754&page=17&tbnh=127&tbnw=208&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:13,s:325
Geneva Centre for Autism is an international leader in the development and delivery of clinical intervention services and training. They offer a wide range of clinical services which are determined individually for each person with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). All of their clinical services are supported by a multi-disciplinary team of trained, experienced and empathic professionals including speech-language pathologists, behaviour analysts, therapists, early childhood educators, occupational therapists, developmental paediatricians, psychiatrists, psychologists and social workers. References: http://www.autism.net Picture Sources: http://www.all4myspace.com/layouts-2.0/hope-myspace-layouts-2.0/0
Autism Ontario (formerly Autism Society Ontario) is the leading source of information and referral on autism and one of the largest collective voices representing the autism community. Members are connected through a volunteer network of Chapters throughout the Province of Ontario. We are guided by a Board of Directors, composed primarily of parents of individuals with autism, plus a host of volunteers and respected professionals who provide expertise and guidance to the organization on a volunteer basis. Autism Ontario is dedicated to increasing public awareness about autism and the day-to-day issues faced by individuals with autism, their families, and the professionals with whom they interact. The association and its chapters share common goals of providing information and education, supporting research, and advocating for programs and services for the autism community. References: http://www.autismontario.com/
Do not take rude or aggressive behavior personally. Recognize that the target for anger may not be linked to the source of that anger. Be aware that student may feel very uncomfortable with eye contact. Work to expand the student’s reinforcer and leisure activities repertoire; work to increase social reinforcers and activities. Pair existing reinforcers with new activities to expand repertoire. Explicitly and frequently teach social rules and skills, such as turn-taking and social distance. Break down social skills into non-verbal and verbal components. Explain rules / rationales behind social exchanges. Target perspective-taking skills. Teach student to accurately label his / her own emotions. Use cartoon conversations, coping comics, and thought stories to teach social responses. Be aware of teasing by peers; teach and rehearse appropriate responses to bullying. Explicitly teach discrimination between private versus public behaviors. Provide modeling and role-play opportunities to teach social skills. Program for generalization of social skills across all contexts. Build social interactions around common interests. *Social Stories can be used to teach social skills to children with autism. A situation, which may be difficult or confusing for the student, is described concretely. The story highlights social cues, events, and reactions that could occur in the situation, the actions and reactions that might be expected, and why. Social stories can be used to increase the student’s understanding of a situation, make the student feel more comfortable, and provide appropriate responses for the situation. We recommend that you incorporate visuals into the stories as well. These visuals can be drawings created by the student, imported images from Google, picture symbols / icons, or photographs.
Meeting the needs of children and families
Meeting the Needs ofChildren and Families by Liping Liu
Simon’s Family Introduction • Dad: Single parent • Siblings: 2 teenagers • Simon: 3 years old • New to Toronto
More About SimonDiagnosed with autism• Problem with social relationships and playskills (e.g.: little impulse control);• Engagement in stereotypical/repetitivebehaviours (e.g.: fascinated with wheels andcars);• Impaired Communication (e.g.: speaksecholalic language);
Family Needs• Rent or buy a property• Find schools for Simon’s siblings• Access to parenting resources• Family recreation program• Autism Agency in Toronto
Rent or Buy a Property in TorontoInformation websites:• http://www.torontorentals.com/• http://www.viewit.ca/• http://www.realtor.ca/splash.aspx
School Information• The Toronto District School Board (TDSB)- Toronto District School Board is the largestschool Board in Canada and the fourth largestin North America.- School can be found by map, address andschool name. Link: http://www.tdsb.on.ca/
Access to Parenting Resources• Parentbooks:Parentbooks offers information from planninga family to everyday parenting issues to specialneeds of all kinds. Link: http://www.parentbooks.ca/index.htm
Family Recreation ProgramToronto Fun Guide• Programs and services for people of all ages.• Information about Toronto’s museums, parks,volunteer opportunities, part-time job possibilities.Link: http://www.toronto.ca/events/index.htm
Meeting the Needs in Child Care Center• Adapting the Environment• Transitions• Problems with social relationships and play skills• Restrictive, repetitive, and stereotyped behavior• Communication
Adapting the Environment• Simplify room layout by designating specificareas for defined activities.• Label the areas and storage using color codingor a pictorial system.• Designate specific areas for quiet work.• Only post necessary information such asschedules, examples of childrens work,classroom expectations, and information that isto be used for instruction.
Transitions• Prepare for all transitions ahead of time.• Set up next activity so children do not have towait.• Use a transitional object/signals.• Use a visual schedule.• Give one clear direction at a time.• Use a specific relaxation strategy.• Remain consistensy.
Problems with Social Relationships and Play Skills• Explain rules / rationales behind socialexchanges.• Target perspective-taking skills.• Teach student to accurately label his / herown emotions.• Be aware of teasing by peers• “Boost confidence for activities Simon cansucceed.• Invite him.• Do not expect Simon to do the same as otherchildren” (Cadieux, 2012).
Restrictive, Repetitive,and Stereotyped Behavior• Encourage Simon to play with wheels andcars when he is showing appropriatebehaviour.• Vary the activities within the daily schedule.• Provide Simon a "time out" pass for a fewminutes of free time to leave the classroom.• Ensure understanding of all assignments andtasks (and materials needed).• Allow Simon opportunities to move duringinstruction.
Communication• Ensure that Simon always has access tocommunicate his wants and needs.• Simplify language.• Paraphrase back what Simon has said orindicated.• Reinforce communication attempts.• Use words in addition to gestures and facialexpressions.• “Talk as calm as possible” (Cadieux, 2012).
Autism Agency in TorontoGeneva center for autism• Development and delivery of clinical intervention services and training. Services available for: - children - parents and caregiver - youth and adults - professionalsPhone No.: 416 322 7877Link: http://www.autism.net
Autism Agency in TorontoAutism Ontario• the leading source of information and referral onautism• one of the largest collective voices representing theautism community.Link: http://www.autismontario.com/
ReferencesCadieux, C. 2012. handout Learning Together Every step of the way:Fact Sheet Autism Spectrum Disorder, Toronto, CanadaWebsite Links:http://www.autism.nethttp://www.autismontario.com/http://connectability.ca/2011/03/24/visual-schedule-tip-sheet/http://www.dotolearn.com/disabilities/CharacteristicsAndStrategies/AutismSpectrhttp://www.do2learn.com/disabilities/FASDtoolbox/classroom_management/classhttp://www.parentbooks.ca/index.htmhttp://www.tdsb.on.ca/http://www.toronto.ca/events/index.htm