Noah wardrip fruin-education_summit_interactivestorytellingpreparing

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Interactive Storytelling

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  • \n
  • I’m here to talk about interactive storytelling, but let me start with combat systems\n
  • Some games have simple combat systems\n
  • Some games have complex combat systems\n\nhttp://www.boardgamegeek.com/image/357582/advanced-squad-leader?size=original\n
  • The same is true with economic systems\n
  • Some are simple\n
  • And other games have complex economic systems\n\nhttp://boardgamegeek.com/image/203163/puerto-rico?size=original\n
  • Students are doing well at understanding this variety — and some related issues\n
  • Students are doing well at understanding this variety — and some related issues\n
  • Students are doing well at understanding this variety — and some related issues\n
  • But what do students think about fiction?\n
  • Many students seem to think in fiction systems we choose between \nsimple and\nimpossible\n
  • Many students seem to think in fiction systems we choose between \nsimple and\nimpossible\n
  • The fictional structure of Karateka is simple: move forward, fight, move forward, fight, with fiction doled out as a function of moving forward. The fiction unfolds on a basically cinematic model.\n\nThis is also the fictional structure of Uncharted 2. It works great!\n
  • The fictional structure of Karateka is simple: move forward, fight, move forward, fight, with fiction doled out as a function of moving forward. The fiction unfolds on a basically cinematic model.\n\nThis is also the fictional structure of Uncharted 2. It works great!\n
  • One of the real pleasures of games is that we take things and make them playable. How do we provide this pleasure for the game fiction?\n
  • The naive approach is to simply expand the simple system. The simple system lays out every fictional event in order. \n\nTo move beyond this people specify every possible fictional event and every connection between possible events. \n\nI will call this the “Choose Your Own Adventure” or “CYOA” model, after the popular books.\n
  • The naive approach is to simply expand the simple system. The simple system lays out every fictional event in order. \n\nTo move beyond this people specify every possible fictional event and every connection between possible events. \n\nI will call this the “Choose Your Own Adventure” or “CYOA” model, after the popular books.\n
  • Unfortunately, Choose Your Own Adventure is a pretty bad form if it's not a component of some wider system. \n\nImagine a CYOA economic system—hard to author, bug prone, and still with too little freedom to be satisfying\n
  • Unfortunately, Choose Your Own Adventure is a pretty bad form if it's not a component of some wider system. \n\nImagine a CYOA economic system—hard to author, bug prone, and still with too little freedom to be satisfying\n
  • Unfortunately, Choose Your Own Adventure is a pretty bad form if it's not a component of some wider system. \n\nImagine a CYOA economic system—hard to author, bug prone, and still with too little freedom to be satisfying\n
  • Unfortunately, Choose Your Own Adventure is a pretty bad form if it's not a component of some wider system. \n\nImagine a CYOA economic system—hard to author, bug prone, and still with too little freedom to be satisfying\n
  • Unfortunately, Choose Your Own Adventure is a pretty bad form if it's not a component of some wider system. \n\nImagine a CYOA economic system—hard to author, bug prone, and still with too little freedom to be satisfying\n
  • Unfortunately, Choose Your Own Adventure is a pretty bad form if it's not a component of some wider system. \n\nImagine a CYOA economic system—hard to author, bug prone, and still with too little freedom to be satisfying\n
  • Unfortunately, Choose Your Own Adventure is a pretty bad form if it's not a component of some wider system. \n\nImagine a CYOA economic system—hard to author, bug prone, and still with too little freedom to be satisfying\n
  • Unfortunately, Choose Your Own Adventure is a pretty bad form if it's not a component of some wider system. \n\nImagine a CYOA economic system—hard to author, bug prone, and still with too little freedom to be satisfying\n
  • The key issue for moving students beyond the naive CYOA approach is to help them understand other possibilities. \n\nHere are a few that I think can help students think more broadly about the strengths and challenges of different designs for fiction systems.\n
  • The key issue for moving students beyond the naive CYOA approach is to help them understand other possibilities. \n\nHere are a few that I think can help students think more broadly about the strengths and challenges of different designs for fiction systems.\n
  • The key issue for moving students beyond the naive CYOA approach is to help them understand other possibilities. \n\nHere are a few that I think can help students think more broadly about the strengths and challenges of different designs for fiction systems.\n
  • The key issue for moving students beyond the naive CYOA approach is to help them understand other possibilities. \n\nHere are a few that I think can help students think more broadly about the strengths and challenges of different designs for fiction systems.\n
  • I also want to introduce four key issues I think students need to consider when selecting or designing a fiction system.\n\nThe first is approachability. How do players know what to do in the context of the fiction system. For combat or economic systems, often they know from prior games. For fiction systems we may need to cue players based on other knowledge sources.\n\nThe next is visibility. A great fiction system doesn’t accomplish anything if the player doesn’t know it’s there — for that player, the story might as well be linear.\n\nIt is also important to consider how the system is playable. How does the player come to understand the fiction system more deeply through play, and then deliberately begin to take action in its terms.\n\nFinally, students also need to think about authorability. Fiction systems make a creating an interactive fiction more tractable, for the author, than CYOA approaches. But how does the designer shape the possibility space of the fiction, and is the system robust enough to handle situations the designer didn’t explicitly account for?\n
  • I also want to introduce four key issues I think students need to consider when selecting or designing a fiction system.\n\nThe first is approachability. How do players know what to do in the context of the fiction system. For combat or economic systems, often they know from prior games. For fiction systems we may need to cue players based on other knowledge sources.\n\nThe next is visibility. A great fiction system doesn’t accomplish anything if the player doesn’t know it’s there — for that player, the story might as well be linear.\n\nIt is also important to consider how the system is playable. How does the player come to understand the fiction system more deeply through play, and then deliberately begin to take action in its terms.\n\nFinally, students also need to think about authorability. Fiction systems make a creating an interactive fiction more tractable, for the author, than CYOA approaches. But how does the designer shape the possibility space of the fiction, and is the system robust enough to handle situations the designer didn’t explicitly account for?\n
  • I also want to introduce four key issues I think students need to consider when selecting or designing a fiction system.\n\nThe first is approachability. How do players know what to do in the context of the fiction system. For combat or economic systems, often they know from prior games. For fiction systems we may need to cue players based on other knowledge sources.\n\nThe next is visibility. A great fiction system doesn’t accomplish anything if the player doesn’t know it’s there — for that player, the story might as well be linear.\n\nIt is also important to consider how the system is playable. How does the player come to understand the fiction system more deeply through play, and then deliberately begin to take action in its terms.\n\nFinally, students also need to think about authorability. Fiction systems make a creating an interactive fiction more tractable, for the author, than CYOA approaches. But how does the designer shape the possibility space of the fiction, and is the system robust enough to handle situations the designer didn’t explicitly account for?\n
  • I also want to introduce four key issues I think students need to consider when selecting or designing a fiction system.\n\nThe first is approachability. How do players know what to do in the context of the fiction system. For combat or economic systems, often they know from prior games. For fiction systems we may need to cue players based on other knowledge sources.\n\nThe next is visibility. A great fiction system doesn’t accomplish anything if the player doesn’t know it’s there — for that player, the story might as well be linear.\n\nIt is also important to consider how the system is playable. How does the player come to understand the fiction system more deeply through play, and then deliberately begin to take action in its terms.\n\nFinally, students also need to think about authorability. Fiction systems make a creating an interactive fiction more tractable, for the author, than CYOA approaches. But how does the designer shape the possibility space of the fiction, and is the system robust enough to handle situations the designer didn’t explicitly account for?\n
  • So let’s talk about the fiction system commonly found in role playing games (which I’ll also call “RPGs”)\n
  • The fiction system of a typical role-playing game includes quests, an explorable world, and a developing player character (or party of characters).\n\nThe story structure is CYOA. But the node and link structures aren’t all explicitly and directly interconnected. \n\nInstead, the pieces are accessed through the explorable world. \n\nThis can make the player feel empowered—starting many story strands, deciding which to pursue, in which order, etc. \n\nThere’s also often a lot of combat (and maybe other kinds of gameplay) while moving through the world.\n\n\n
  • The fiction system of a typical role-playing game includes quests, an explorable world, and a developing player character (or party of characters).\n\nThe story structure is CYOA. But the node and link structures aren’t all explicitly and directly interconnected. \n\nInstead, the pieces are accessed through the explorable world. \n\nThis can make the player feel empowered—starting many story strands, deciding which to pursue, in which order, etc. \n\nThere’s also often a lot of combat (and maybe other kinds of gameplay) while moving through the world.\n\n\n
  • The fiction system of a typical role-playing game includes quests, an explorable world, and a developing player character (or party of characters).\n\nThe story structure is CYOA. But the node and link structures aren’t all explicitly and directly interconnected. \n\nInstead, the pieces are accessed through the explorable world. \n\nThis can make the player feel empowered—starting many story strands, deciding which to pursue, in which order, etc. \n\nThere’s also often a lot of combat (and maybe other kinds of gameplay) while moving through the world.\n\n\n
  • The fiction system of a typical role-playing game includes quests, an explorable world, and a developing player character (or party of characters).\n\nThe story structure is CYOA. But the node and link structures aren’t all explicitly and directly interconnected. \n\nInstead, the pieces are accessed through the explorable world. \n\nThis can make the player feel empowered—starting many story strands, deciding which to pursue, in which order, etc. \n\nThere’s also often a lot of combat (and maybe other kinds of gameplay) while moving through the world.\n\n\n
  • The fiction system of a typical role-playing game includes quests, an explorable world, and a developing player character (or party of characters).\n\nThe story structure is CYOA. But the node and link structures aren’t all explicitly and directly interconnected. \n\nInstead, the pieces are accessed through the explorable world. \n\nThis can make the player feel empowered—starting many story strands, deciding which to pursue, in which order, etc. \n\nThere’s also often a lot of combat (and maybe other kinds of gameplay) while moving through the world.\n\n\n
  • The fiction system of a typical role-playing game includes quests, an explorable world, and a developing player character (or party of characters).\n\nThe story structure is CYOA. But the node and link structures aren’t all explicitly and directly interconnected. \n\nInstead, the pieces are accessed through the explorable world. \n\nThis can make the player feel empowered—starting many story strands, deciding which to pursue, in which order, etc. \n\nThere’s also often a lot of combat (and maybe other kinds of gameplay) while moving through the world.\n\n\n
  • The fiction system of a typical role-playing game includes quests, an explorable world, and a developing player character (or party of characters).\n\nThe story structure is CYOA. But the node and link structures aren’t all explicitly and directly interconnected. \n\nInstead, the pieces are accessed through the explorable world. \n\nThis can make the player feel empowered—starting many story strands, deciding which to pursue, in which order, etc. \n\nThere’s also often a lot of combat (and maybe other kinds of gameplay) while moving through the world.\n\n\n
  • The fiction system of a typical role-playing game includes quests, an explorable world, and a developing player character (or party of characters).\n\nThe story structure is CYOA. But the node and link structures aren’t all explicitly and directly interconnected. \n\nInstead, the pieces are accessed through the explorable world. \n\nThis can make the player feel empowered—starting many story strands, deciding which to pursue, in which order, etc. \n\nThere’s also often a lot of combat (and maybe other kinds of gameplay) while moving through the world.\n\n\n
  • The fiction system of a typical role-playing game includes quests, an explorable world, and a developing player character (or party of characters).\n\nThe story structure is CYOA. But the node and link structures aren’t all explicitly and directly interconnected. \n\nInstead, the pieces are accessed through the explorable world. \n\nThis can make the player feel empowered—starting many story strands, deciding which to pursue, in which order, etc. \n\nThere’s also often a lot of combat (and maybe other kinds of gameplay) while moving through the world.\n\n\n
  • The fiction system of a typical role-playing game includes quests, an explorable world, and a developing player character (or party of characters).\n\nThe story structure is CYOA. But the node and link structures aren’t all explicitly and directly interconnected. \n\nInstead, the pieces are accessed through the explorable world. \n\nThis can make the player feel empowered—starting many story strands, deciding which to pursue, in which order, etc. \n\nThere’s also often a lot of combat (and maybe other kinds of gameplay) while moving through the world.\n\n\n
  • The RPG model is one students should know. It’s also easy for them to try out, because there are good, low-cost tools available.\n\nIt has the virtue of using a fiction system that’s almost as easy to understand as CYOA, but players feel much more empowered because, on some level, they are. They have a lot more choices than it would be possible to explicitly encode.\n\nThe great weakness is that the RPG model does nothing to manage the complexity introduced by this larger choice landscape. This is why even AAA RPGs ship with bugs that are revealed when players do things in orders other than those expected by the designers.\n
  • The RPG model is one students should know. It’s also easy for them to try out, because there are good, low-cost tools available.\n\nIt has the virtue of using a fiction system that’s almost as easy to understand as CYOA, but players feel much more empowered because, on some level, they are. They have a lot more choices than it would be possible to explicitly encode.\n\nThe great weakness is that the RPG model does nothing to manage the complexity introduced by this larger choice landscape. This is why even AAA RPGs ship with bugs that are revealed when players do things in orders other than those expected by the designers.\n
  • The RPG model is one students should know. It’s also easy for them to try out, because there are good, low-cost tools available.\n\nIt has the virtue of using a fiction system that’s almost as easy to understand as CYOA, but players feel much more empowered because, on some level, they are. They have a lot more choices than it would be possible to explicitly encode.\n\nThe great weakness is that the RPG model does nothing to manage the complexity introduced by this larger choice landscape. This is why even AAA RPGs ship with bugs that are revealed when players do things in orders other than those expected by the designers.\n
  • A different model is that of interactive fiction\n
  • You may know interactive fiction by the name “text adventures”\n\nIn early examples, like Zork, there’s a lot of map making, puzzle solving, and so on.\n\nOf course, the biggest distinguishing feature is not that the world is described as text, but that players interact by typing free-form text\n
  • The IF model is one students should know. It’s also easy for them to try out, because there are good, free tools available.\n\nThe great strength is that you can use the power of words and invent your own verbs. \n\nThis means an author can implement "remember" (it's just a verb, and there's no need to visually show flashbacks in a complicated way) as Dead Reckoning and other games do. \n\nSimilarly, Emily Short’s Savoir-Faire can implement combining qualities of arbitrary things (it's just a verb, and there's no need to dynamically create visuals of these items) \n\nThe great weakness is playing "guess the verb" (Ad Verbum makes this the game).\n
  • The IF model is one students should know. It’s also easy for them to try out, because there are good, free tools available.\n\nThe great strength is that you can use the power of words and invent your own verbs. \n\nThis means an author can implement "remember" (it's just a verb, and there's no need to visually show flashbacks in a complicated way) as Dead Reckoning and other games do. \n\nSimilarly, Emily Short’s Savoir-Faire can implement combining qualities of arbitrary things (it's just a verb, and there's no need to dynamically create visuals of these items) \n\nThe great weakness is playing "guess the verb" (Ad Verbum makes this the game).\n
  • The IF model is one students should know. It’s also easy for them to try out, because there are good, free tools available.\n\nThe great strength is that you can use the power of words and invent your own verbs. \n\nThis means an author can implement "remember" (it's just a verb, and there's no need to visually show flashbacks in a complicated way) as Dead Reckoning and other games do. \n\nSimilarly, Emily Short’s Savoir-Faire can implement combining qualities of arbitrary things (it's just a verb, and there's no need to dynamically create visuals of these items) \n\nThe great weakness is playing "guess the verb" (Ad Verbum makes this the game).\n
  • There are many other related models that I don’t have time to discuss here, but that it would be fruitful for students to explore\n
  • Now for a board game. It might seem odd to look at board games, but we see experiments with fiction systems that go beyond what computer games are doing -- and yet don’t require human level intelligence to function (the way tabletop RPGs do)\n
  • Betrayal’s fiction system is central to play and tightly integrated with other mechanics. \n\nSpecifically, the fiction is that of exploring a haunted house, which is all about the unknown. \n\nThis comes into play from the beginning, as the house, which is also the game board, is created and revealed during initial exploration. \n\nEven on replay, players don’t know what is behind the next door, or the eventual shape of the board on which the next stage will play out.\n\n\nhttp://boardgamegeek.com/image/767248/betrayal-at-house-on-the-hill?size=original\n
  • Each time a major event happens in the house, there’s a greater chance that the “haunt” will be revealed, creating rising tension over time. \n\nWhen the haunt happens one player is turned into the traitor, playing out one of 50 different scenarios of that player against all the others, with two books revealing different scenario information to traitor and other players. \n\nAgain, the focus is on a fiction system that supports, even on replay, the crucial element of the unknown for haunted house fictions.\n
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  • There are also many other models of fiction systems in board and tabletop games that I don’t have time to discuss here, but encourage everyone to share with students\n\n\nhttp://boardgamegeek.com/image/688794/tales-of-the-arabian-nights?size=original\n
  • If Betrayal represents things we can do without a computer, what can we do if we apply automatic computation in interesting ways? \n\nOne example is the Universe model of story generation, which has been around since the 1980s.\n
  • Tiles help build an unpredictable house, and restrictions on the tiles help the house make sense.\n\nYou wouldn’t want a chasm in the attic -- and you wouldn’t want to keep walking through the crypt to the kitchen.\n
  • \n\n\nhttp://etc.usf.edu/clipart/19200/19208/knife_19208.htm\n
  • \n\n\nhttp://etc.usf.edu/clipart/19200/19208/knife_19208.htm\n
  • \n\n\nhttp://etc.usf.edu/clipart/19200/19208/knife_19208.htm\n
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  • The system connects the dots — and binds characters to roles, events to places, and so on. \n\nThe connections aren’t done by CYOA fixed links or RPG character movement. \n\nSo you get many more possible connections and permutations than CYOA would allow, while being able to explicitly invalidate bad situations for events to happen, refer back to how past permutable events took place, re-use characters, and so on.\n\n
  • The system connects the dots — and binds characters to roles, events to places, and so on. \n\nThe connections aren’t done by CYOA fixed links or RPG character movement. \n\nSo you get many more possible connections and permutations than CYOA would allow, while being able to explicitly invalidate bad situations for events to happen, refer back to how past permutable events took place, re-use characters, and so on.\n\n
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  • Actually a set of building blocks, not a fixed fiction system, so it’s all about how you use it\n
  • Actually a set of building blocks, not a fixed fiction system, so it’s all about how you use it\n
  • Actually a set of building blocks, not a fixed fiction system, so it’s all about how you use it\n
  • Actually a set of building blocks, not a fixed fiction system, so it’s all about how you use it\n
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  • Noah wardrip fruin-education_summit_interactivestorytellingpreparing

    1. 1. Combat Systems
    2. 2. Somecombatsystemsare simpleCheckers, 1980
    3. 3. Somecombatsystemsare complexAdvanced Squad Leader,1985, image by C. ScottKippen
    4. 4. Economic Systems
    5. 5. Someeconomicsystemsare simpleSuper Mario Bros, 1985
    6. 6. Someeconomicsystemsare complexPuerto Rico, 2002image by Chris Norwood
    7. 7. Our students understand this
    8. 8. Our students understand thisCombat and economic systems aredesigned at differing levels of complexity
    9. 9. Our students understand thisCombat and economic systems are designed at differing levels of complexityThey connect to other mechanics in differing ways
    10. 10. Our students understand thisCombat and economic systems are designed at differing levels of complexityThey connect to other mechanics in differing waysImportant to know the possibilities, and make the right choice for your game
    11. 11. Fiction Systems
    12. 12. Fiction systems
    13. 13. Fiction systems Karateka, 1984
    14. 14. Fiction systems vs Karateka, 1984 Holodeck, never
    15. 15. Simple can work well...
    16. 16. Simple can work well... Karateka, 1984
    17. 17. Simple can work well... Karateka, 1984 Uncharted 2, 2009
    18. 18. But how do we make the fiction playable?
    19. 19. The naive approach...EventEventEventEventEventEvent
    20. 20. The naive approach...EventEvent EventEvent Event Event Event EventEvent Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event EventEventEvent Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event
    21. 21. The naive approach...EventEvent EventEvent Event Event Event EventEvent Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event EventEventEvent Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event
    22. 22. Why CYOA doesn’t work
    23. 23. Why CYOA doesn’t workIf you invest in gold only, turn to page 10.
    24. 24. Why CYOA doesn’t workIf you invest in gold only, turn to page 10.If you invest in oil only, turn to page 21.
    25. 25. Why CYOA doesn’t workIf you invest in gold only, turn to page 10.If you invest in oil only, turn to page 21.If you invest in Vespene gas only, turn to page 32.
    26. 26. Why CYOA doesn’t workIf you invest in gold only, turn to page 10.If you invest in oil only, turn to page 21.If you invest in Vespene gas only, turn to page 32.If you invest in Warg farming only, turn to page 43.
    27. 27. Why CYOA doesn’t workIf you invest in gold only, turn to page 10.If you invest in oil only, turn to page 21.If you invest in Vespene gas only, turn to page 32.If you invest in Warg farming only, turn to page 43.If you invest in gold and oil only, turn to page 54.
    28. 28. Why CYOA doesn’t workIf you invest in gold only, turn to page 10.If you invest in oil only, turn to page 21.If you invest in Vespene gas only, turn to page 32.If you invest in Warg farming only, turn to page 43.If you invest in gold and oil only, turn to page 54.If you invest in gold and Vespene gas only, turn to...
    29. 29. Why CYOA doesn’t workIf you invest in gold only, turn to page 10.If you invest in oil only, turn to page 21.If you invest in Vespene gas only, turn to page 32.If you invest in Warg farming only, turn to page 43.If you invest in gold and oil only, turn to page 54.If you invest in gold and Vespene gas only, turn to...If you invest in gold and Warg farming only, turn to...
    30. 30. Why CYOA doesn’t workIf you invest in gold only, turn to page 10.If you invest in oil only, turn to page 21.If you invest in Vespene gas only, turn to page 32.If you invest in Warg farming only, turn to page 43.If you invest in gold and oil only, turn to page 54.If you invest in gold and Vespene gas only, turn to...If you invest in gold and Warg farming only, turn to...If you invest in gold, oil, and Vespene gas, turn to...
    31. 31. Beyond CYOA: a sampler
    32. 32. Beyond CYOA: a samplerTwo common computer game models:Role-Playing Games and Interactive Fictions
    33. 33. Beyond CYOA: a samplerTwo common computer game models: Role-Playing Games and Interactive FictionsA board game model: Betrayal at the House on the Hill
    34. 34. Beyond CYOA: a samplerTwo common computer game models: Role-Playing Games and Interactive FictionsA board game model: Betrayal at the House on the HillAn accessible CS research model: Universe
    35. 35. Beyond CYOA: a samplerTwo common computer game models: Role-Playing Games and Interactive FictionsA board game model: Betrayal at the House on the HillAn accessible CS research model: UniverseFinal discussion
    36. 36. Beyond CYOA: Four issues
    37. 37. Beyond CYOA: Four issuesApproachable. How do players start interacting with fiction system?
    38. 38. Beyond CYOA: Four issuesApproachable. How do players start interacting with fiction system?Visible. How do players perceive system?
    39. 39. Beyond CYOA: Four issuesApproachable. How do players start interacting with fiction system?Visible. How do players perceive system?Playable. How do players understand and manipulate system?
    40. 40. Beyond CYOA: Four issuesApproachable. How do players start interacting with fiction system?Visible. How do players perceive system?Playable. How do players understand and manipulate system?Authorable. How do designers shape possibility space and avoid brittleness?
    41. 41. Role-Playing Games
    42. 42. Role-Playing Games (RPGs)Event EventEvent Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event
    43. 43. Role-Playing Games (RPGs)Event EventEvent Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event
    44. 44. Students and RPGs
    45. 45. Students and RPGsGood tools are available, with supportivecommunities, including Dragon Age Toolset
    46. 46. Students and RPGsGood tools are available, with supportive communities, including Dragon Age ToolsetThe great strength: CYOA-style authoring without all connections made explicit—and easy ways to include other gameplay
    47. 47. Students and RPGsGood tools are available, with supportive communities, including Dragon Age ToolsetThe great strength: CYOA-style authoring without all connections made explicit—and easy ways to include other gameplayThe great weakness: CYOA-style authoring without connections explicit (not authorable)
    48. 48. Interactive Fiction
    49. 49. Interactive Fiction (IF) map by Adam Parrish
    50. 50. Interactive Fiction (IF) map by Adam Parrish
    51. 51. Students and IF
    52. 52. Students and IFGood tools are available, with supportivecommunities, including Inform 7
    53. 53. Students and IFGood tools are available, with supportive communities, including Inform 7The great strength: Create gameplay based on novel verbs (e.g., remember, magically link) without high production demands
    54. 54. Students and IFGood tools are available, with supportive communities, including Inform 7The great strength: Create gameplay based on novel verbs (e.g., remember, magically link) without high production demandsThe great weakness: “Guess the verb” (not accessible)
    55. 55. Other related modelsAdventure games (TellTale)Exploration/enactment (Tale of Tales)Sticks and rubber bands (Quantic Dream)Linguistic construction (Storytron)User generated CYOA (Bar Karma tool)Interactive drama (Façade) ... and so on
    56. 56. Betrayal at theHouse on the Hill
    57. 57. Hauntedhouses areabout theunknownimage by Chris Barnard
    58. 58. Hauntedhouses areabout theunknownBoard builtof tiles ashouse isexploredimage by Chris Barnard
    59. 59. Hauntedhouses areabout theunknown
    60. 60. Hauntedhouses areabout theunknownAt unknowntime, switchesto asymmetriccompetitionw/ hidden info
    61. 61. Betrayal and the four issues
    62. 62. Betrayal and the four issuesApproachable. Haunted house genre conventions set right expectations
    63. 63. Betrayal and the four issuesApproachable. Haunted house genre conventions set right expectationsVisible. It’s a board game!
    64. 64. Betrayal and the four issuesApproachable. Haunted house genre conventions set right expectationsVisible. It’s a board game!Playable. No story-only play, but speed of exploration, distribution of resources...
    65. 65. Betrayal and the four issuesApproachable. Haunted house genre conventions set right expectationsVisible. It’s a board game!Playable. No story-only play, but speed of exploration, distribution of resources...Authorable. Simple, few special cases
    66. 66. Education take-away
    67. 67. Education take-awayStudentscan learn novel fiction systemsfrom board games, which expose full system
    68. 68. Education take-awayStudents can learn novel fiction systems from board games, which expose full systemStudents can create novel fiction systems without computers—as projects/prototypes
    69. 69. Game design take-away
    70. 70. Game design take-awayProcedural level generation isn’t just for novel challenges (Diablo, Spelunky) but can produce uncertainty (horror, mystery)
    71. 71. Game design take-awayProcedural level generation isn’t just for novel challenges (Diablo, Spelunky) but can produce uncertainty (horror, mystery)Multiple endings have some fictional power, but no gameplay power—multiple endgames produce suspense, make early path to victory uncertain, and amplify map impact
    72. 72. More non-digtalgames to use:Tales of the ArabianNightsOnce Upon a TimeTwilight StruggleExtraordinaryAdventures of BaronMunchausenAlso CCGs (e.g.,Call of Cthulhu) andRPGs (e.g., My Lifewith Master)image by Sven R.
    73. 73. Universe
    74. 74. Betrayal tilesconstrained byallowed floors(back) andconnectingdoors (front)
    75. 75. Universe “plot fragments” are story tilesKilled with — with manya butter more possibleknife constraints
    76. 76. Universe “plot fragments” are story tiles Killed with — with many a butter more possible knife constraints Only ifmurderer is alive orundefined
    77. 77. Universe “plot fragments” are story tiles Killed with — with many a butter more possible knife constraints Only ifmurderer is Only if do alive or murder isundefined active goal
    78. 78. Only if location Universe “plot is kitchen or fragments” picnic are story tiles Killed with — with many a butter more possible knife constraints Only ifmurderer is Only if do alive or murder isundefined active goal
    79. 79. Only if location Universe “plot is kitchen or fragments” picnic are story tiles Killed with — with many a butter more possible knife constraints Only ifmurderer is Only if do alive or murder isundefined Only if murderer active goal has trait brutal or desperate
    80. 80. Only if location Universe “plot is kitchen or fragments” picnic are story tiles Killed with — with many a butter more possible knife constraints Only ifmurderer is Only if do ... and so on alive or murder isundefined Only if murderer active goal has trait brutal or desperate
    81. 81. Universe plot fragments can also set stateKilled with and adda butter subgoalsknife
    82. 82. Set crime Universe plot scene to this location fragments can also set state Killed with and add Set dead a butter Add subgoal subgoalscharacter to knife body victim discovered If murderer undefined, set now
    83. 83. When it’s time for story action, find fragments thatsatisfy one or more current goals, check which are valid, choose one, producing story actions — and new goals
    84. 84. It’s a tree of possibilities—like CYOA—but not built by hand. More possibilities, easier to maintain and revise, etc
    85. 85. It’s a tree of possibilities—like CYOA—but not built by hand. More possibilities, easier to maintain and revise, etc
    86. 86. One master fragment can subgoal a whole story tree
    87. 87. Uses of Universe
    88. 88. Uses of UniverseCan generate full stories
    89. 89. Uses of UniverseCan generate full storiesBut was built for episodic narrative— inspired by Days of Our Lives!
    90. 90. Uses of UniverseCan generate full storiesBut was built for episodic narrative— inspired by Days of Our Lives!Use current author goals to instantiate a plot fragment every time the PC gets a mission/client, or the party returns to town/base/the ship, or a timer goes off, or...
    91. 91. Universe and the four issues
    92. 92. Universe and the four issuesApproachable. Use audience expectations
    93. 93. Universe and the four issuesApproachable. Use audience expectationsVisible. Show off! Respond specifically to player actions, have many valid choices
    94. 94. Universe and the four issuesApproachable. Use audience expectationsVisible. Show off! Respond specifically to player actions, have many valid choicesPlayable. Plot fragments and author goals need to be connected to game mechanics
    95. 95. Universe and the four issuesApproachable. Use audience expectationsVisible. Show off! Respond specifically to player actions, have many valid choicesPlayable. Plot fragments and author goals need to be connected to game mechanicsAuthorable. Simple model, no flags to track
    96. 96. Universe and education Wide Ruled is a GUI w/ text-output Universe used in education for 3 years http://games.soe.ucsc.edu/project/wide-ruled
    97. 97. Universe and education Wide Ruled is a GUI w/ text-output Universe used in education for 3 years Story Canvas moves to a storyboard author and player interface http://games.soe.ucsc.edu/project/wide-ruled
    98. 98. Discussion
    99. 99. Fiction systems
    100. 100. Fiction systemsFictionsystems can produce many results— braided quests, horror’s uncertainty, folktale convolution, melodrama, mystery, etc
    101. 101. Fiction systemsFiction systems can produce many results— braided quests, horror’s uncertainty, folktale convolution, melodrama, mystery, etcStudents should know various approaches, and implement the right fiction system for their games
    102. 102. Fiction systemsFiction systems can produce many results— braided quests, horror’s uncertainty, folktale convolution, melodrama, mystery, etcStudents should know various approaches, and implement the right fiction system for their gamesApproachable, visible, playable, authorable!
    103. 103. For more: two sample syllabiMichael Mateas, UC Santa Cruz Interactive Storytelling http://www.soe.ucsc.edu/classes/cmps148/Nick Montfort, MIT Interactive Narrative http://nickm.com/classes/interactive_narrative/2011_spring/
    104. 104. Thanks!Noah Wardrip-Fruingames.soe.ucsc.edu nwf@ucsc.edu

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