Structure of RNA

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In this ppt presentation, what actually RNA is? is explained with its structure and function. …

In this ppt presentation, what actually RNA is? is explained with its structure and function.

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  • 1. Structure of RNA Made by :- Ribonucleic Acid Shivang Patel 1
  • 2. Contents 1. Discovery of RNA 3. Structure of RNA 4. The Nucleotide: RNA 2. What is RNA? 5. Shapes of RNA 6. Types of RNA? 7. Difference between DNA & RNA? 2
  • 3. Discovery of RNA  Swiss biochemist Friedrich Miescher (1844– 1895) in 1869 separated the nucleus from the other parts of the cell and isolated phosphorus– containing nucleic acid.  It was later found that there were two kinds of nucleic acids  One type of nucleic acid was obtained from animal glands and later called DNA  the other type, obtained from yeast cells, was called RNA. 3
  • 4. Discovery of RNA  In the 1940s biochemists realized that both DNA and RNA are present in all living cells.  DNA is present only in the nucleus of the cell, RNA is found in both the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm.  American chemist Marshall Nirenberg (1927–) was later credited with translating the code of life and was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1968.  He demonstrated that RNA could be translated into protein. 4
  • 5. What is RNA?  RNA-stands for ribonucleic acid  is a polymeric molecule made up of one or more nucleotides.  A strand of RNA can be thought of as a chain with a nucleotide at each chain link.  Each nucleotide is made up of a base (adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil, typically abbreviated as A, C, G and U), a ribose sugar, and a phosphate.  DNA and RNA form the fundamental building blocks of the universal genetic code.  They can form complex structures which interact with proteins, other nucleic acids, and even small regulatory molecules.  RNA can even play a role as an enzyme (so-called ribozymes) which can directly catalyse chemical reactions and regulate genetic expression. 5
  • 6. Structure of RNA  Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a biologically important type of molecule that consists of a long chain of nucleotide units. Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a ribose sugar, and a phosphate.  SUGAR • Ribose  Phosphate group  Nitrogen containing base • Adenine • Guanine • Cytosine • Uracil 6
  • 7. Structure of RNA  The structure of RNA nucleotides is very similar to that of DNA nucleotides  DNA and RNA play very different roles from one another in modern cells. 7
  • 8. THE NUCLEOTIDE: RNA OH O=P-O-5 CH2 BASE OH O 4 C 1 C H H H H 3 C 2 C OH 0H Adenine Guanine Cytosine Uracil 8
  • 9. Shapes of RNA RNA comes in a variety of different shapes as displayed below: 9
  • 10. Types of RNA Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries information from DNA to the ribosome Transfer RNA (tRNA) involved in the process of translation Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) RNA TypesRNA Types 10
  • 11. Difference Between DNA and RNA  ribose sugar backbone in RNA has a hydroxyl (- OH) group that DNA does not.  DNA uses the base thymine (T) in place of uracil (U).  DNA is double-stranded, RNA is a single- stranded molecule in most of its biological roles and has a much shorter chain of nucleotides.  DNA contains ''deoxyribose'', RNA contains ''ribose'' (there is no hydroxyl group attached to the pentose ring in the 2' position in DNA). 11
  • 12. Reference  http://www.rnabase.org  http://www.stanford.edu  http://science.jranh.org  Prescott,Harley,&Klein’s Microbiology,In:Willey,Sherwood,& Woolverton 7th ed;251 to 253. 12
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