Prepared By;
Shivang Patel.
Cells are the basic units of all living things.
Cells make up bones, muscles, skin, and blood.
Cells make up leaves, roots...








Cells are the structural and functional units of
all living organisms.
Unicellular.
Multicellular.

Function...




Eukaryotes must divide their nucleus (and
other organelles such as mitochondria) in
preparation for cell division (m...





Prokaryotes have no nucleus.
They have a single circular chromosome.
Prokaryotes simply divide their cells in two ...




Spindle Fiber -One of a network of filaments
that extend inward from the poles of a
dividing cell, forming a spindle...




Chromatin-A complex of nucleic acids and
proteins, primarily histones, in the cell
nucleus that stains readily with ...


Chromosome-thread-like, gene-carrying
bodies in the nucleus of a
cell. Chromosomes are composed primarily
of DNA and pr...




Equatorial plane -The plane that contains all
of the centromeres and their spindle
attachments during metaphase of m...









The cell cycle is the event that makes new
cells, by cell division, through six processes.
They are;
inter...


During Interphase cell replicates its nuclear
DNA, ensuring that when does it divide at the
end of mitotic phase, each ...


Mitosis is the mechanism that allows the nuclei
of cells to split and provide each daughter cell
with a complete set of...




During this first mitotic stage, the nucleolus fades
and chromatin (replicated DNA and associated
proteins) condense...
 NEXT, THE NUCLEAR ENVELOPE BREAKS DOWN, AND

A LARGE PROTEIN NETWORK, CALLED THE SPINDLE,
ATTACHES TO EACH SISTER CHROMA...









Anaphase begins as the centromeres of each pair of chromatids
split, effectively doubling the number of chro...








In telophase, the daughter chromosomes arrive at the
spindle poles.
After complete separation of the chromosom...






The final stage in the process of cell division
is known as cytokinesis, which usually begins
during late anaphas...
Cell Cycle and Cell Division
Cell Cycle and Cell Division
Cell Cycle and Cell Division
Cell Cycle and Cell Division
Cell Cycle and Cell Division
Cell Cycle and Cell Division
Cell Cycle and Cell Division
Cell Cycle and Cell Division
Cell Cycle and Cell Division
Cell Cycle and Cell Division
Cell Cycle and Cell Division
Cell Cycle and Cell Division
Cell Cycle and Cell Division
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Cell Cycle and Cell Division

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This presentation explains the topic of CELL CYCLE and CELL DIVISION.

It includes cell mitosis of both Plant cell and Animal cell with labelled diagrams.

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Cell Cycle and Cell Division

  1. 1. Prepared By; Shivang Patel.
  2. 2. Cells are the basic units of all living things. Cells make up bones, muscles, skin, and blood. Cells make up leaves, roots, stems, and flowers. As the organism grows, the cells must reproduce.
  3. 3.       Cells are the structural and functional units of all living organisms. Unicellular. Multicellular. Functions of cell…. Nutrients to Energy.. Each cell having its own set of instrunction.
  4. 4.   Eukaryotes must divide their nucleus (and other organelles such as mitochondria) in preparation for cell division (mitosis or meiosis) Before the nucleus divides the genetic material replicates (duplicates).
  5. 5.    Prokaryotes have no nucleus. They have a single circular chromosome. Prokaryotes simply divide their cells in two by binary fission.
  6. 6.   Spindle Fiber -One of a network of filaments that extend inward from the poles of a dividing cell, forming a spindle-shaped figure. Centromere -The most condensed and constricted region of a chromosome, to which the spindle fiber is attached during mitosis.
  7. 7.   Chromatin-A complex of nucleic acids and proteins, primarily histones, in the cell nucleus that stains readily with basic dyes and condenses to form chromosomes during cell division. Chromatid -Either of the two daughter strands of a replicated chromosome that are joined by a single centromere and separate during cell division to become individual chromosomes.
  8. 8.  Chromosome-thread-like, gene-carrying bodies in the nucleus of a cell. Chromosomes are composed primarily of DNA and protein. They are visible only under magnification during certain stages of cell division. Humans have 46 chromosomes in each somatic cell and 23 in each sex cell.
  9. 9.   Equatorial plane -The plane that contains all of the centromeres and their spindle attachments during metaphase of mitosis. kinetochore fibers -specialized regions in the centromeres of chromosomes.
  10. 10.        The cell cycle is the event that makes new cells, by cell division, through six processes. They are; interphase, mitosis(prophase), mitosis(metaphase), mitosis(anaphase), mitosis(telophase), and cytokinesis
  11. 11.  During Interphase cell replicates its nuclear DNA, ensuring that when does it divide at the end of mitotic phase, each of the newly created daughter cells will contain a full set of gene..
  12. 12.  Mitosis is the mechanism that allows the nuclei of cells to split and provide each daughter cell with a complete set of chromosomes during cellular division. This, coupled with cytokinesis (division of the cytoplasm), occurs in all multicellular plants and animals to permit growth of the organism.
  13. 13.   During this first mitotic stage, the nucleolus fades and chromatin (replicated DNA and associated proteins) condenses into chromosomes. Each replicated chromosome comprises two chromatids, both with the same genetic information.
  14. 14.  NEXT, THE NUCLEAR ENVELOPE BREAKS DOWN, AND A LARGE PROTEIN NETWORK, CALLED THE SPINDLE, ATTACHES TO EACH SISTER CHROMATID. THE CHROMOSOMES ARE NOW ALIGNED PERPENDICULAR TO THE SPINDLE IN A PROCESS CALLED METAPHASE..
  15. 15.      Anaphase begins as the centromeres of each pair of chromatids split, effectively doubling the number of chromosomes. Once separated, sister chromatids, each now an independent chromosome with its own centromere, begin moving apart toward opposite poles of the cell. The movement is made possible via two mechanisms. The kinetochore fibers attached to each centromere begin to shorten, pulling the chromosomes toward the poles. At the same time, the polar microtubules from opposite ends of the cell form cross bridges in the equatorial plane, pushing the poles apart by becoming longer.
  16. 16.     In telophase, the daughter chromosomes arrive at the spindle poles. After complete separation of the chromosomes the nuclear membrane begins to reform around each group of chromosomes at the opposite ends of the cell. When telophase is complete and the new cell membrane is being formed. The final steps in telophase involve the initiation of plasma membrane cleavage between each of the new daughter cells to ultimately yield two separate cells during cytokinesis, the next phase of cell division.
  17. 17.    The final stage in the process of cell division is known as cytokinesis, which usually begins during late anaphase or early telophase (before mitosis ends). As the nuclear envelope is reforming and the chromosomes are de-condensing. During this stage the cytoplasm is divided.
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