Open Architectures- Lessons from the Public Sector

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A look at how the private sector can get best practice advice, learn from the public sector and avoid the vicious cycle of vendor lock-in while benefiting from the transformation towards open …

A look at how the private sector can get best practice advice, learn from the public sector and avoid the vicious cycle of vendor lock-in while benefiting from the transformation towards open architectures.

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  • 1. www.linuxit.comOpen ArchitecturesLessons From the Public Sector
  • 2. www.linuxit.comOpen Standards:Open Opportunities - flexibility and efficiencyin government ITFrom 1st November 2012 Francis Maude,Minister for Cabinet Office, announcedthat all government bodies mustcomply with Open Standards Principles,an agreed set of standards to makegovernment IT more open, morecost-effective and better connected.
  • 3. www.linuxit.comOpen Standards:Open Opportunities - flexibility and efficiencyin government ITGovernment must be better connected tothe people it serves and partners who can workwith it - especially small businesses, voluntaryand community organisations. Having openinformation and software that can be used acrossgovernment departments will result in lowerlicensing costs in government IT, and reduce thecost of lock-in to suppliers and products.- Francis Maude
  • 4. www.linuxit.comDefinitionsAn Open Standardis a publicly availablestandard - often forinterfaces - suchthat systems thatcomply with it shouldbe able to interoperateappropriately.
  • 5. www.linuxit.comDefinitionsAn Open Standardis a publicly availablestandard - often forinterfaces - suchthat systems thatcomply with it shouldbe able to interoperateappropriately.An Open Architectureapplies to a system inwhich the architectureis published in sufficientdetail to enable changeand subsequent evolutionthrough the introductionor replacement of modulesand/or components fromany supplier.
  • 6. www.linuxit.comA world without standards
  • 7. www.linuxit.comA world without standardsWhat would the world be likewithout standards?Imagine if when you boughta car you could only use fuelfrom a certain garage. Youhave a Shell garage within acouple of miles of your houseso you buy a car that can runon Shell fuel.
  • 8. www.linuxit.comA world without standardsWhat would the world be likewithout standards?Imagine if when you boughta car you could only use fuelfrom a certain garage. Youhave a Shell garage within acouple of miles of your houseso you buy a car that can runon Shell fuel.Now what happens if Shelldecide to push their prices upout of line with the other fuelvendors?Well you could change yourcar in protest but the cost ofchange would likely outweighthe benefit you might yieldfrom an alternative vendor.
  • 9. www.linuxit.comA world without standardsWhat would the world be likewithout standards?Imagine if when you boughta car you could only use fuelfrom a certain garage. Youhave a Shell garage within acouple of miles of your houseso you buy a car that can runon Shell fuel.Now what happens if Shelldecide to push their prices upout of line with the other fuelvendors?Well you could change yourcar in protest but the cost ofchange would likely outweighthe benefit you might yieldfrom an alternative vendor.And what if you wanted to movehouse and the nearest Shellstation was 50 miles away?The hassle and expense ofincorporating a 100 mile roundtrip to fill the car up, or the costof changing the car might beenough to persuade you not tomove. You’re locked in.
  • 10. www.linuxit.comLocked inVendor lock-in is when customers are dependent on a singlemanufacturer or supplier for products and cannot move toanother vendor without substantial costs and/or inconvenience.This dependency is typically a result of standards that arecontrolled by the vendor.
  • 11. www.linuxit.comLocked inVendor lock-in is when customers are dependent on a singlemanufacturer or supplier for products and cannot move toanother vendor without substantial costs and/or inconvenience.This dependency is typically a result of standards that arecontrolled by the vendor.The term is commonly used in the computer industry to refer to thesituation that can occur due to a lack of compatibility between differenthardware, operating systems or file formats. Such incompatibility can beintentional or unintentional.
  • 12. www.linuxit.comThe costs of lock-in can be severe.They can include:
  • 13. www.linuxit.comThe costs of lock-in can be severe.They can include:Substantial inconvenience and expense of converting data to otherformats and converting to more efficient, secure and inexpensiveapplication programs and operating systems.
  • 14. www.linuxit.comA lack of bargaining ability to reduce prices and improve service.The costs of lock-in can be severe.They can include:Substantial inconvenience and expense of converting data to otherformats and converting to more efficient, secure and inexpensiveapplication programs and operating systems.
  • 15. www.linuxit.comVulnerability to forced upgrades.A lack of bargaining ability to reduce prices and improve service.The costs of lock-in can be severe.They can include:Substantial inconvenience and expense of converting data to otherformats and converting to more efficient, secure and inexpensiveapplication programs and operating systems.
  • 16. www.linuxit.comThe corruption, or even loss, of critical data while attempting to convert it.Vulnerability to forced upgrades.A lack of bargaining ability to reduce prices and improve service.The costs of lock-in can be severe.They can include:Substantial inconvenience and expense of converting data to otherformats and converting to more efficient, secure and inexpensiveapplication programs and operating systems.
  • 17. www.linuxit.comThe corruption, or even loss, of critical data while attempting to convert it.Vulnerability to forced upgrades.A lack of bargaining ability to reduce prices and improve service.The costs of lock-in can be severe.They can include:The best way for an organisation to avoid becoming a victim of vendorlock-in is to use products that conform to free, industry-wide standards.Substantial inconvenience and expense of converting data to otherformats and converting to more efficient, secure and inexpensiveapplication programs and operating systems.
  • 18. www.linuxit.comVendor Lock-inVicious Cycle
  • 19. www.linuxit.comVendor Lock-inVicious CycleEvaluate closed standardssoftware from Vendor Xwithout consideration ofswitching costs
  • 20. www.linuxit.comVendor Lock-inVicious CycleEvaluate closed standardssoftware from Vendor Xwithout consideration ofswitching costsBuy closedstandards softwarefrom Vendor X
  • 21. www.linuxit.comVendor Lock-inVicious CycleEvaluate closed standardssoftware from Vendor Xwithout consideration ofswitching costsBuy closedstandards softwarefrom Vendor XOrganisationalrequirementschange/develop
  • 22. www.linuxit.comVendor Lock-inVicious CycleEvaluate closed standardssoftware from Vendor Xwithout consideration ofswitching costsAdditional functionalityrequired from Vendor Xis very expensive and/ornot best fit £££££Buy closedstandards softwarefrom Vendor XOrganisationalrequirementschange/develop
  • 23. www.linuxit.comVendor Lock-inVicious CycleEvaluate closed standardssoftware from Vendor Xwithout consideration ofswitching costsPreferable solutionfrom Vendor Y is notinteroperable withVendor X softwareAdditional functionalityrequired from Vendor Xis very expensive and/ornot best fit £££££Buy closedstandards softwarefrom Vendor XOrganisationalrequirementschange/develop
  • 24. www.linuxit.comVendor Lock-inVicious CycleEvaluate closed standardssoftware from Vendor Xwithout consideration ofswitching costsPreferable solutionfrom Vendor Y is notinteroperable withVendor X softwareSwitching costs toVendor Y + VendorY software costs> than Vendor Xsoftware costsAdditional functionalityrequired from Vendor Xis very expensive and/ornot best fit £££££Buy closedstandards softwarefrom Vendor XOrganisationalrequirementschange/develop
  • 25. www.linuxit.comVendor Lock-inVicious CycleEvaluate closed standardssoftware from Vendor Xwithout consideration ofswitching costsPreferable solutionfrom Vendor Y is notinteroperable withVendor X softwareSwitching costs toVendor Y + VendorY software costs> than Vendor Xsoftware costsAdditional functionalityrequired from Vendor Xis very expensive and/ornot best fit £££££Add to that areluctance to changedue to incumbent skillsand relationshipsBuy closedstandards softwarefrom Vendor XOrganisationalrequirementschange/develop
  • 26. www.linuxit.comIt’s not about the mandateThe mandate has doubtlesscaught the attention of manygovernment organisations butmost are motivated by thecarrot not the stick.Simon Mitchell, Executive DirectorStrategy & Transformation at Linux consulting firm LinuxIT
  • 27. www.linuxit.comBenefitsIndependent research* into the specific benefits ofthe policy identified the following:* Centre for Intellectual Property & Policy Management atBournemouth University
  • 28. www.linuxit.comBenefitsIndependent research* into the specific benefits ofthe policy identified the following:01. Reductionin lock-in andassociatedswitching costs* Centre for Intellectual Property & Policy Management atBournemouth University
  • 29. www.linuxit.comBenefitsIndependent research* into the specific benefits ofthe policy identified the following:01. Reductionin lock-in andassociatedswitching costs02. Reduction in thesize and duration ofIT projects and thesharing and reuse ofIT across departments* Centre for Intellectual Property & Policy Management atBournemouth University
  • 30. www.linuxit.comBenefitsIndependent research* into the specific benefits ofthe policy identified the following:01. Reductionin lock-in andassociatedswitching costs02. Reduction in thesize and duration ofIT projects and thesharing and reuse ofIT across departments03. Encouraginginnovation andopportunities forsmaller companies toparticipate in contracts* Centre for Intellectual Property & Policy Management atBournemouth University
  • 31. www.linuxit.comBenefitsIndependent research* into the specific benefits ofthe policy identified the following:* Centre for Intellectual Property & Policy Management atBournemouth University01. Reductionin lock-in andassociatedswitching costs02. Reduction in thesize and duration ofIT projects and thesharing and reuse ofIT across departments03. Encouraginginnovation andopportunities forsmaller companies toparticipate in contracts04. Improvingbusiness andconsumer interfacewith government.
  • 32. www.linuxit.comPrivate Sector BenefitsThe private sector has no mandate, butnever have organisations been more motivatedto reduce costs, drive innovation and improvetheir customers’ experience. These benefitsare all available with transformation towardsOpen Architectures. Councils, Police forces,NHS Trusts and academic institutions arealready on the journey.
  • 33. www.linuxit.comTo find out more aboutopen architectures,download our free eGuide:Open architectures -is your organisationready?Download Now