Ems - Summer I ’11 - T101 Final Exam Review

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  • Facebook and relationships: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qTwwuIn9inEhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jCetfaS7GAo, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SPA8v06EsIY&feature=relatedVideos: Modern family in kitchen everyone’s on their devices. Interesting: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/38663094/ns/technology_and_science-wireless/t/iphone-users-have-had-more-sex-partners-android-blackberry-users/
  • Our realities are lived through media and the stories we tell about them. Sex and love are basic elements of what it means to be human. These elements are played out today through our digital stories and in cybernetic socio-technical interactions.
  • detraditionalized=Love, sex, marriage, death become optional.
  • Our loyalty to products, services and people is “flexible.” We treat people like we do devices. Bauman says relationships can now be deleted (disconnection on demand). How do we learn when it’s ok to defriend someone on facebook? This is not possible in a media life. This argument ignores the idea that our relationships have meaning.
  • Match.com has offices in more than 40 countriesWe shop for people. In a media life we program our own reality. We pick and choose what kind of life we want and we create that reality. It even applies to picking a mate. Picking a mate is like picking out a trendy new dress or pair of shoes. Flexible accumulation: economics, family, lovers. Thinking about love life in the same way as finding a pair of jeans online.
  • Love is a network made up of the people we know online and offline. Disconnection is tough because you’re interconnected.
  • The pornography industry has larger revenues than Microsoft, Google, Amazon, eBay, Yahoo, Apple and Netflix combined. 2006 Worldwide Pornography Revenues ballooned to $97.06 billion.
  • Pornography revenues are not necessarily ranked according to population. China topped the list in 2006 with more than $27 billion in pornography revenues. However, South Korea, only the 26th most populous nation on earth according to the U.S. Census Bureau, is next in line with more than $25 billion in pornography revenues.The internet is not the most popular form of pornography in the United States. Video sales and rentals accounted for $3.62 billion in revenue in 2006 while internet pornography raked in $2.84 billion. Magazines were the least popular.
  • RFID tags in hands with health care information. In some places you can pay for things by swiping your hand. Tyler Clementi committed suicide because his sexual orientation was made public online.By taking this stance, we can move beyond the question of whether media causes revolutions. We do not take a society-centric or technology-centric point of view. We argue that moving beyond this question allows us to posit new empirically based hypotheses and research questions that focus on understanding modern subjectivities, culture and social structures.
  • Man in the UK. Was one of a number of cases of this. One of the first though. While some users reportedly tried to talk him out of it, others goaded him to get on with it.Although administrators later turned off the webcam feed, several screen grabs of the tragedy have been appeared on the web.The Evening Standard newspaper said he was chatting with around 50 other users at the time, in a special "insult" chatroom.
  • Had a webcam on. Took Pills. Turned around and died. Look at the gun pointed at him. The chat was still going on while all this was happening. Some people didn’t know if it was real or not. They only realized it was real when the police broke down the door and turned off the webcam. The transcript of the chatroom chats was not about him doing it or what he was doing. It was about whether or not this was real. What’s fascinating is the discussion about whether or not this is real.
  • We can’t just say we want this occupying force out of our country. We need to kill someone on camera for it to be real and meaningful.
  • The last public hanging in the US around 1936. Some argue that the decline in public hangings is related to the rise in popularity of the newspaper and mass media. Why? Well because each tells us who is in and who is out. It informs us of how we are NOT supposed to behave if we are to be good citizens.
  • Question: How are some technologies building this technology into their functionalities? If designers of technology realize that forgetting is an essential human trait how can they design for this as technologies are usually built to remember things? Question: What do we loose if we program our technologies to forget things?
  • Norris- content: main themes control, success, perfection. Anorexia as a lifestyle. Religious metaphors. Pro-ana braceletsOutrage- content. Media exposure highlighting the most controversial content of pro-ana – advices on purging and concealing eds from friends and family resulted in closing down a series of websites. (Yahoo) Pr-ana responseExplorative research provides support for the argument that pro-ana forums appear to be providing much needed support
  • Blogging is related to Behavioral change- better coping an treatment, which may in turn improve health outcomes. However, since pro-ana websites creators claim routinely that ‘Anorexia is a lifestyle, not a disease’ lipzynca, a behavioral change might be a negative one.
  • Disembodiment- feeling trapped in their own body
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NDp-F3Y97ZQ
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QrNz0dZgqN8 = People & Power Al Jezera documentary. Start at 1:30.
  • While Iran’s government was not overturned in 2009, the ripple effect was felt across the Middle East and northern Africa. Because of a number of reasons, including the growing popularity, and number of skilled users of the Internet and media technologies, a huge number of young people have joined revolutionary movements and overturned governments like Egypt and Tunisia in the region. While new media, on its own, doesn’t determine a revolutions success or failure, it does play an active role especially in combination with other factors.
  • This is the wrong question. Instead we need to ask what role they play.
  • Gladwell saysthe events in Iran would have happened whether Twitter was used or not. For this reason, and the fact that Twitter is not good for maintaining what Mark Granovetter terms strong ties, )(which Gladwell misuses)Gladwell determines that Twitter’s role in the uprisings in Iran and Moldova were exaggerated and are not likely to have been substantial. “weak ties seldom lead to high-risk activism.”
  • Play The America of the Amish from 0:37-7:08
  • Clothes, demut, houses, church, focus on god and the simple life. Lots of kids, population is growing. The Amish enjoy a slow paced life, they value simplicity. They pick their work so that they can foster close family and community ties. There are some forms of work that present problems for this. In the Amish community today, because the population is growing so much, there is no land to buy for the kids. New generations are having to find new ways to make a living. They have to migrate away from their families to buy land in cheaper places.
  • Work for the amish: agriculture dwindling. Each community is different. Some communities are mostly in the tourism business. Some make things. Many of them are entrepreneurial in spirit. The Amish view their work as enjoyable and see it as fun. Like in the creative classes, for the Amish work and play go hand in hand. They enjoy animals and horses and enjoy working around them. They also enjoy spending time with their families and working on a farm allows them to do that.
  • Transportation: they get rides from people but do not drive themselves. They travel but like to make it hard for themselves. Again, this is about keeping the family and community together.
  • Play The Amish a People of Preservation starting at 22:39-26:52. Think here about new communication technologies. The same rules apply to them as they do farm equipment for the Amish.
  • "The telephone, and the use of the telephone, is not something we're opposed to. We just don't want it to be the main part of our lives,” Phones are typically only used outside the house. With electricity and computers, microwaves, etc. they are allowed if they are used as part of work outside the home. The outbuildings house phones and are often shared with other families. Often they will have answering machines in them so the Amish can call people back at their convenience. The phone is not supposed to interrupt family time. Increasing numbers of young people and business people are starting to carry cell phones though. Tell the story of LaVern.
  • They don’t care about trampolines, bikes, generators or tractors (with metal wheels). So long as a technology doesn’t interfere with the community or family coming together and enjoying themselves, it’s fine. Electricity, tractors with rubber wheels, cars, tv, radio and other technologies are seen as tearing the family apart. They make it easy for people to be independent. The amish want people to depend on each other. It draws people together.
  • Place does matter. There are certain things that change when someone is face to face with you. We all have certain etiquette that we follow when we use technologies. It can make other people feel disrespected when we talk to loud on our phones around others. We don’t know what the actual rules are though. They vary from social situation to social situation. We only have vague notions of what these are. We have to decide all on our own if we want or need a new technologic device. Will it bring us closer to people or not? We often buy it because it will give us status. We think status is what brings us closer to others. This is not true though. We adopt fashions and use words that we think will make us more awesome in the eyes of other people. What actually matters is knowing people. Doing things for them. Talking to them, listening to them. It’s hard to do these things when you’re not close by. Many of you know this because your families are far away. Unlike the Amish we don’t make decisions about how to navigate our adoption and use of technologies in public or in a community of people. We have to guess and only do so in our own minds. Often a shiny object makes us feel like it deserves our attention before those around us because we may have closer emotional or intellectual connections with the people on the other end of the line. Or the technology is just shiny and can do cool stuff. However, only associating with those just like us makes life boring and takes away spontaneity. We are all socially awkward and feel like we’re much smoother using technologies to communicate because it gives us a chance to manicure ourselves for others to see first. The Amish are a very interesting example of people who connect with others without doing all that manicuring. And, they really are quite happy in the lives they live.
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cCk82oMBGF8 The matrix trilogy summary- fan made
  • We go back to day 1 now. Throughout the semester we’ve been starting to think differently about media
  • . We’ve learned that media are not separate from life.RFID tags in hands with health care information. In some places you can pay for things by swiping your hand. Tyler Clementi committed suicide because his sexual orientation was made public online.By taking this stance, we can move beyond the question of whether media causes revolutions. We do not take a society-centric or technology-centric point of view. We argue that moving beyond this question allows us to posit new empirically based hypotheses and research questions that focus on understanding modern subjectivities, culture and social structures.
  • They are…Whatever media are they share a couple of characteristics. No matter if it’s a new tv, smartphone out of the box, gaming system, etc.
  • Media images, stories and songs supersaturate households, workplaces, elevators, shopping malls bars, airports and all other in-between spaces of today’s world. Most of the content is created by you and me in our endless text messages, emails, chats and phone calls as well as through our online social networks. The majority of the world owns a cell phone. Telecom networks span almost every inch of the globe and sales figures for any and all kinds of media device are growing steadily around the world. Also work, home and play have converged through a continuous exposure to media. This helps accelerate our engagement with media in today’s world.
  • What you can do with your life in media depends entirely on what you think reality is.
  • Do we think of reality as something we can just reach out and touch but is established by someone or something else? Is it something that we can change? Is it what we as a society agree upon? Or is it something that only we experience in our own minds and bodies? These are four very different ways to think about what reality is. Each of these is derived from our media lives themselves.Reality has changed due to the fact that we live so much in media today. Our understanding and perception of reality is different today than it was 20 years ago.
  • Are we alone? Isn’t it easier just to sit behind a computer and look up our facebook pages than interact, listen or participate in class for example. Asking someone out online or breaking up online is just easier than doing it in person. Are these “real” relationships and interactions then?
  • Our lives are mediated completely. Our relationships are sustained, started and ended through media.
  • We see maps of reality. We don’t see reality any more. We only see maps of it. The ultimate map is the one in our cell phone or in GPS device. The way that GPS devices advertise themselves to us is that it is easier, better and more fuel efficient to drive not by watching the road but by listening to and watching media. They help us save 20% on gas. This example is worth reading a hundred philosophy books. It’s a perfect metaphor for understanding how we navigate reality today through media.
  • This is a map representing the mention of certain countries in news stories in American newspapers. South America and Africa fall off the face of the world. Maps make things less real.
  • We begin to see reality as something we can change. The idea that we can change reality and especially our position in it is a new idea. 87% of you think you can change the world.
  • Panopticon reality. This is the dominant way we look at reality
  • Self help gurus tell us we are the masters of our own destiny. These two are totally different ways of looking at reality.
  • This is the reality of a prisoner. We just have to make it through. We pick a partner a job, etc. This works through surveillance.
  • People clean up their messes when there are images of people watching you. Even though they were just pictures. People did clean up their messes. We do what we are expected to do in a social group when we know we are watched.
  • Jeremy Bentham. Designed a prison. It was also a design for management. How do organize people to make sure a port works right? Boss yelling is not going to get everyone on the same page. He put a whole slew of middle managers in place. They act as representatives of the boss. It was about people watching them. Cells don’t have doors. Prisoners assume they are being watched by the guards all the time. It’s the perfect prison because at some point they don’t even need guards any more.
  • Social media is one massive prison experiment. – mark deuze. Little brother is watching and big brother is watching.
  • In the matrix everyone is in prison with you. They are like your roommates. Baudrillard says we killed reality through media. He thinks the movie of the matrix is bullshit. We can argue the baudrillard didn’t reallly get the movie. The matrix is a computer program. No one really asks questions. If they do the program responds to the question. Even Neo turns out to just be a computer bug which is necessary in order to make sure the program is running smoothly. The architect explains to neo what is going on. He wants to create a reality everyone loves that noone questions. Everyone gets the girl or the boy everyone has food to eat. It’s a utopia. When we realize something is perfect we fuck it up. Like adam and eve. The matrix is the illusion of choice. If people start asking questions, the system incorporates the question and makes an improvement. This is the reality we are most likely to accept. Choice of partners, jobs, etc. Everything is a choice. Neo = son of god. He’s “the one” in matrix type of reality everyone has to make it work. In panoptic, only you react to the world. It takes a lot of work in a matrix reality.
  • All roads lead to the slaughter house.
  • We create reality not how it actually is but how we want it to be. We have to reference media because there is no reality.

Transcript

  • 1. Final Exam Review
  • 2. A presentation completely devoid of fun pictures
    Matthew Falk
    The Music Industry
  • 3. Who are the people that make it work?
    Engineers
    Producers
    Writers (words and music)
    Publishers
    Distributors
    Promoters
    Labels
    Scouts of all kinds
    And…?
  • 4. How do they work together?
    From your porch to the nation
    Recording
    Production
    Promotion
    Distribution
    Sales
  • 5. How has the industry changed?
    In some ways, it hasn't in 50 years.
    In the ways it has, it has revolved around publishing
    Publishing 101
    Musical Works vs Masters
    Performing Rights Societies and Live Performance
    What does this actually mean for an artist?
    Where is this reflected?
    Contracts and Cash
  • 6. How do I get in?
    I am, in fact, dedicated (or crazy) enough, now what?
    Use your time at IU Wisely
    Accounting, Small Business Strategies, Contract Law
    Unpaid Internships CAN pay off
    Set a clear end date
    Under promise, over deliver
    Treat your time there like a trial run, show them why they can’t live without you
    Craigslist can make or break a career
    Quick emails with well written cover letters
    Hustle!
    Fill your time with as many part time jobs as you can handle. You’ve got to pay the rent, but you also want a full time job, and one of them may turn into one
  • 7. On Video Games
    The research and the reality
  • 8. Why look at games?
    Who plays games?
    67% of homes
    Avg. gamer 34 y.o.
    40% Females
  • 9. Difference from TV
    Games are interactive
  • 10. Difference from TV
    YOU make the decisions
    Commit to violence
    Lost? Too bad!
  • 11. Difference from TV
    Effects increase when you like the perp.
    Who’s the perp. In games?
  • 12. Difference from TV
    Effects decrease when you relate to the target
    Who’s the target in games?
  • 13. Difference from TV
    Perp. and target depend on skill level
  • 14. Difference from TV
    BUT!
    Games aren’t that realistic. Right?
  • 15. Game Realism
    Games are too unrealistic to effect me!
    Half Life
    Battlefield 3
  • 16. Game Realism
    Will it ever become real enough?
    Uncanny valley
    Meet Emily
  • 17. Welcome to Summer T101
    Day 17!
  • 18. Love is cybernetic in a media life
  • 19.
  • 20. “society” as the outcome of social experiences:
    Love, sex & death in media life…
  • 21.
  • 22. Online dating: relationships made easy
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25. “When you make a decision to be with a person in cyberspace you are making a commitment to their network of friends and acquaintances,” – From our readings
  • 26.
    • Every second $3,075.64is being spent on pornography.
    • 27. Every second 28,258 internet users are viewing pornography.
    • 28. In that same second 372 internet users are typing adult search terms into search engines.
    • 29. Every 39 minutes a new pornographic video is being created in the U.S.
  • 30.
  • 31. According to T101 Media Life what’s wrong with this statement from our readings?
    “It’s enough to get rejected in real life,” said Ms. Hill, 28, who blogs about legal issues and lives in New York. “But does it have to happen so often in my online world too? It makes me want to keep my digital life separate in future relationships, whomever they are with.”
  • 32. Welcome to Summer
    T101 Day 18
  • 33. Media are not separate from life.
  • 34. Witnessing death online
  • 35.
  • 36. Terrorist hostages and killings only have meaning if there’s a photo
  • 37.
  • 38. Our immortal digital lives:
  • 39. Our digital souls have the potential to be truly immortal. But do we really want everything we've done online - offhand comments, camera-phone snaps or embarrassing surfing habits - to be preserved for posterity? One school of thought, the "preservationists", believes we owe it to our descendants. Another, the "deletionists", think it's vital the internet learns how to forget.
  • 40. It's hard to forgive and forget if you can no longer forget.
  • 41. In his 2009 book Delete, Mayer-Schönberger proposed that we should build technology that forgets gracefully. Files might come with expiry dates, he suggests, so that they simply vanish after a certain point. Or they might "digitally rust", gradually becoming less faithful unless we make a concerted effort to preserve them. Perhaps files could become less accessible over time - like consigning old photos to a shoebox in the attic rather than displaying them on the wall.
  • 42. Daphna Yeshua-Katz
    Summer Media Life
    Pro-ana blogs: Motives and benefits
  • 43. Pro-ana websites: definition
    A genre of websites disseminating information about eating disorders,
    primarily anorexia nervosa,
    and providing girls and women with a forum to discuss and share information about anorexia (Dias, 2003).
  • 44. Website characteristics
    Own terminology: anorexia = ‘ana’ and Bulimia =‘mia’ (Dias, 2003).
    Themes- control, strength & perfection (Norris et al., 2006).
    journals or diaries, ‘tips’ and advice, emotional support, photo galleries.
  • 45. Thinspiration
  • 46.
  • 47. The pro-ana phenomenon
    Anorexia as a life style not a disorder.
    Community forming and interpersonal relations are higher priorities for the site users than forming a coherent philosophy (Overbeke, 2008).
    Pro-ana often comes with aversion to recovery (Williams & Reid, 2007).
  • 48. Why study?
    A legitimate community for women suffering from ED, created by the Internet
    (Dias, 2003; Norris et al., 2006; Gavin et al. ,2008)
    Creating outrage in public domain
    (Giles, 2006)
    No data about actual internet use of individuals with ED’s
    (Giles ,2006; Chelsey et al.,2003)
  • 49. Pro-ana blogs: motives
    Connecting
    (Burleson et al. 1994; Dias, 2003)
    Coping
    (Sundar et al.,2007; Hu, 2009)
    Identity construction
    (Dias, 2003; Sundar et al., 2007)
  • 50. Pro-ana blogs: benefits
    Cognitive change
    (Esterling et al., 1999, Nardi et al.,2003; Hu, 2009)
    Emotional benefit
    ( Sundar et al., 2007; Hu, 2009)
    Behavioral change
    (Burleson, 1994; Esterling et al.,1999, Lipczynka, 2007)
  • 51. Pro-ana & Media Life
  • 52. How does Pro-ana connect to what we know about the Media Life Perspective?
    Relationships and identity are disembodied. Meaning is made
    and documented in media. The body is just a hollow vessel for
    the spirit. The identity one portrays in media is everything!
    Both death and Pro-ana show how networked individualism
    (a concept we use in economics and sociology) can be
    applied to our fundamental experiences of being human. The
    body, which is geographically situated, becomes just part of the
    stories we tell in media about ourselves. It is secondary to the
    meaning we get from creating an identity (reality) and making
    connections and fostering relationships with others.
  • 53. Welcome to Summer
    T101 Day 19!
  • 54. What is social change?
    Social change refers to an alteration in the social order of a society.
  • 55. It can mean:
    • Revolution – US, France, England, Russia…
    • 56. Change in economic structure: shift from
    communism to capitalism. – East Germany
    • Or social movements like Women’s suffrage, civil rights movement, etc.
  • Egypt
    Iran
    Libya
    Tunisia
  • 57. Also…
  • 58. So, what role do social media play? Remember the midterm exam question:
    “Based on what you have learned in T101 Media Life, are the protests that happened earlier this year in Tunisia and Egypt indeed "social media revolutions" as some journalists argued? Briefly explain your position on this issue, and indicate whether this is a society-centric or a media-centric point of view.”
    They are not - media do not 'cause' revolutions, they are intrinsically part of it. This is a society-centric point of view (or better yet, this is not a society or technology centric point of view).
  • 59. Some history:
    Iran 2009
    Moldova 2009
    G-20 Summit Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 2009
  • 60. Knowing what we know from T101 what’s wrong with the current debate about whether social media play a role in recent protests in the Middle East and/or northern Africa?
  • 61. Also, no ... A really LOUD no!
  • 62. Those in this debate are asking the wrong question. In each case media play a different role.
    “All revolutions write their own scripts, and their media are part of the process. In such contexts, communication and politics are not separate acts, for the altering of public affect, the mobilization of opinion, and the promotion of further participation are part of the revolutionary process”
  • 63. Conclusions:
    Space and place become part of the story that gets told about the events
    through media. They structure the story and the story structures our
    understanding of them.
    The constellation of participation in protest events looks like a network.
    There is no leader, each node seems to have equal status and power
    except those who occupy important positions in the network (switchers,
    programmers).
  • 64.
  • 65.
  • 66.
  • 67.
  • 68.
  • 69.
  • 70.
  • 71.
  • 72.
  • 73.
  • 74.
  • 75.
  • 76.
  • 77.
  • 78.
  • 79. Welcome to Summer
    T101 Day 21!
  • 80. Why do we care about the Amish in T101 Media Life?
    Sometimes studying the absence of something tells you more about the thing than studying the thing itself.
    We all negotiate our use of technologies individually
    on a daily basis without noticing. The Amish do it publicly and collectively.
    The Amish are a (for the most part) a happy and
    content people.We might be able to learn something from they way they live.
  • 81. Who are the Amish?
  • 82. Amish values: Simplicity and a slow pace of life. Privileging the family and community over the individual.
  • 83. Amish work/play ethic
  • 84. Transportation: location does matter (little boxes live on!)
  • 85. The Amish have a unique perspective on adopting technologies.
  • 86. “During a church service in the summer, the buggies were parked right outside the shop, and in between songs a phone went off in a buggy right outside the shop. Needless to say , no one went out to shut it off, as no one wanted to be seen guilty. In a lot of communities cell phones are allowed in the regular Old Order Amish Communities.”
  • 87. So, how do the Amish decide which technologies they will accept and which they won’t?
  • 88. Philosophies on technology adoption:
    1) The Amish are selective. They know how to say "no" and are not afraid to refuse new things. They ban more than they adopt.
    2) They evaluate new things by experience instead of by theory. They let the early adopters get their jollies by pioneering new stuff under watchful eyes.
    3) They have criteria by which to select choices: technologies must enhance family and community and distance themselves from the outside world.
    4) The choices are not individual, but communal. The community shapes and enforces technological direction.
  • 89. What can the Amish teach us?
  • 90. Fortunately, no. but we should be better at negotiating our tech use. We need to understand our values and use our technologies in accordance with those philosophies and values.
    What are yours? How do techs fit in
    To your core values and the way you live those values out in the world?
  • 91. Reading Comprehension:
    What do you think about the Amish way of life? Is their philosophy slowing things down and outlawing certain technologies right? Do media like TV, radio and cell phones speed life up and interrupt family and community bonds? Or do these tools help bring people together?
    What from the Amish way of life or their approach to adopting technologies do you find appealing? What can it teach us about the technologically saturated media lives we live?
    Do you ever feel like unplugging from technologies like the Amish? Do you think you could do it?
  • 92. Welcome to Summer
    T101 Day 23 (only 4 left)!
  • 93. Media Life: The point of it all
    Pick your reality
  • 94. Media are not separate from life.
  • 95. Media are…
  • 96. We are creators of media as much as we are consumers
  • 97. Our lives are saturated by media. It’s all around us.
  • 98. The places we are are both virtual and physical – cybernetic space
  • 99. We are members of the creative class
  • 100. What are CreativCities?
    Our Cities Are Creative
    prosperity
    prosperity
    innovation
    innovation
    economic activity
    economic activity
  • 101. Ok. We think about media differently now.
    What can we do with this new understanding?
  • 102. Before we can answer that. We have to know two things:
    1. What is it that we can do something to? Or, what is reality?
    2. What is our role in that reality?
  • 103.
  • 104.
  • 105.
  • 106.
  • 107. We all know maps are flawed. Map makers have to make choices.
    Maps cut out details so that they are useful and easy to understand.
  • 108. 87%
  • 109. This class: 45%
  • 110.
  • 111.
  • 112. Is reality ours?
  • 113. Or is reality just mine?
  • 114.
  • 115.
  • 116.
  • 117.
  • 118.
  • 119.
  • 120.
  • 121.
  • 122.
  • 123.
  • 124.
  • 125. “They took the hypothesis of the virtual for an irrefutable fact and transformed it into a visible phantasm. But it is precisely that we can no longer employ categories of the real in order to discuss the characteristics of the virtual.” Baudrillard
  • 126. We don’t know what is real any more.
    The only thing we can do is just create more reality.
  • 127. Baudrillard’s problem with the Matrix- Zion a real (human)city.