Exploring Religions of the W0rld RELIGIOUS DEITIES TEXTSPLACES OF BASICWORSHIP BELIEFS THE RELIGIOUS AFTERLIFE FESITVALS HISTORY OF THE RELIGION Click on each topic to explore these various aspects of ﬁve major world religions...
HISTORY Judaism Hinduism Buddhism Islam ChristianityTOPIC LIST Click each bubble to explore the histories NEXT TOPIC of the diﬀerent religions...
BUDDHISM - HISTORYBuddhism gets its name "om the wordBuddha, which is not a name, but atitle given to Siddhartha Gautama.It means the enlightened one.Enlightened is a specialunderstanding; it means realizing thetruth about the way things are.There are many forms of this ancientreligion "om India, which dates backto 535 BC. BACK
CHRISTIANITY - HISTORYThe Christian Religion wasfounded over 2000 years agoout of the Jewish religion.It centers around the birth ofJesus Christ whoChristians believe is the son ofGod. BACK
ISLAM - HISTORYThe history of Islam centers around one person, Mohammed.He was born in Mecca (a town in Saudi Arabia) around 570A.D. (a*er the birth of the founder of the Christian religion,Jesus Christ).He was raised by his extended family a*er the death of hisparents.As he grew, he became dissatisﬁed with polytheism(honoring of many diﬀerent gods).He came to believe in one God, A,ah. He began to havereligious visions around age 40. During these visions,Muhammad would receive "messages" or "revelations" "omGod (A,ah). He would memorize them and teach them to hisfo,owers. BACK
JUDAISM - HISTORYThe Jewish religion is an ancient religion foundedby our forefather Abraham close to 4000 years ago. It was approximately 400 years later that thedescendants of Abraham (through his son Isaac)received the 10 commandments and the Torah"om God at Mount Sinai and became a nation.Throughout its history the Jewish people haveunfortunately suﬀered terrible persecution andanti-Semitism BACK
HINDUISM - HISTORYHinduism is a co,ective term applied to the manyphilosophical and religious traditions native toIndia.Hinduism has neither a speciﬁc moment of originnor a speciﬁc founder. Rather, the traditionunderstands itself to be timeless, having alwaysexisted. It is a complex tradition that encompassesnumerous interrelated religious doctrines andpracticesIndeed, its co,ection of sacred texts is known, as awhole, as Sanatana Dharma, "The EternalTeaching." BACK
DEITIES Hinduism Judaism Buddhism Islam ChristianityTOPIC LIST Click each bubble to explore the deities NEXT TOPIC of the diﬀerent religions...
JUDAISM - DEITIESJudaism is a monotheistic religion.God is believed to be the one and eternalcreator of the universe.There are many titles for God, a, of themtrying to describe some attribute orattributes, but no real name as he is not fu,yknowable by our ﬁnite minds.The most commonly used title is יהוה(YHVH - or Yahweh) BACK
BUDDHISM - DEITIESBuddhists believe in nogod, but oﬀerings areo*en made to statues ofBuddha (theenlightened one andfounder of Buddhism)in honour of histeachings. BACK
CHRISTIANITY - DEITIESAccording toChristianity there is onlyone GodGod is in the form ofThe Holy Trinity,namely God the Father,Jesus Christ the Son andthe Holy Spirit. BACK
HINDUISM - DEITIESWithin Hinduism a large number ofpersonal gods (Ishvaras) are worshipped asmurtis.These beings are signiﬁcantly powerfulentities known as devas.The exact nature of belief in regards toeach deity varies between diﬀering Hindudenominations and philosophies.O*en these beings are depicted inhumanoid or partia,y humanoid forms,complete with a set of unique and complexiconography in each case. BACK
ISLAM - DEITIESIslam is a monotheistic religionThe God of Abraham [peace and blessings beupon him] is the God of Islam. In Arabic, god=ilah but God (with a capital"g") means A,ah.A,ah is believed to have created everything,to be perfect to know everything and seeeverything.A fundamental pi,ar of faith in Islam is todeclare that "there is no deity worthy ofworship except the One True Almighty God" BACK
BASIC BELIEFS Hinduism Judaism Buddhism Islam ChristianityTOPIC LIST Click each bubble to explore the basic beliefs NEXT TOPIC of the diﬀerent religions...
JUDAISM - BASIC BELIEFSJudaism is a monotheistic faith, meaning thatJews believe there is only One God who is oureveryday livesJudaism teaches that every person (Jewish andnon-Jewish) was created "btzelem Elohim,"which is Hebrew for "in the image of God." Forthis reason every person is equa,y important andhas an inﬁnite potential to do good in the worldJudaism believes that Jews are uniquelyconnected with each other. Regardless of wherewe live in the world, a, Jews are part of aglobal Jewish community.The Jews believe in the Ten Commandments BACK
CHRISTIANITY - BASIC BELIEFSAlthough Christianity is divided into numerousdenominations with diﬀerent practices, the centralbelief of Christianity can be summed up in TheApostles Creed:“I believe in Jesus Christ, his only Son, our Lord.He was conceived by the power of the Holy Spiritand born of the Virgin Mary. He suﬀered underPontius Pilate, was cruciﬁed, died and was buried.He went down to the dead. On the 3rd day he roseagain. He ascended into heaven, and is seated at theright hand of the Father. He wi, come again to judge the living and the dead.” BACK
BUDDHISM - BASIC BELIEFSThe basis of Buddha’s teachings arethe Four Noble Truths and TheEightfold Path. A, Buddhists believe thatunderstanding the Four Noble truthsand developing only good qualities,wi, make their lives truly peacefuland happy. In the end it wi, lead toeverlasting peace and happiness ofenlightment, which is also ca,edBuddhahood. BACK
BUDDHISM - The Four Noble TruthsLife is Dukkha (suffering). In this world nothing lasts. Everything are momentary (not lasting), they passaway, or are of short duration. There is no permanent happiness in this world.Suffering is caused by selﬁshness and greed (the origin of Dukkha is desire). Suﬀering happens becausepeople want more and more, and they are never satisﬁed. They become greedy and selﬁsh. They always wantthings they do not have.Selﬁshness and greed can be stopped (Nirvana is the ending of Dukkha). Suﬀering and restlessness wi,stop if we overcome selﬁshness and greed.The way to stop selﬁshness and greed is to follow the Noble Eightfold Path. The noble Eightfoldpath is shown as a wheel with 8 spokes which represents 8 ways in which Buddhists try to lead a better life bydeveloping morality, concentration and wisdom. The Buddha advised people to fo,ow the Middle Way to reacha deep inner peace, ca,ed Nirvana. By this he meant that people should not live a life of luxury, by over-eating,over-drinking and having too much of everything. He also stated that people should not starve themselves orpunish their bodies. He warned of extremes and stressed the secret to fo,ow, namely the middle way. BACK
BUDDHISM - The EIGHTFOLD pathRight viewpoint (the right way of thinking)Right thought (to be able to think is a gi* and power, it is important to use it in the right way.)Right speech (do not gossip and say bad things, talk with wisdom)Right actions (do the right things)Right living (lives your life to the best of your ability and does a job which is useful and do not harm others.)Right eﬀort (do your best at a, times, including ongoing training, avoiding bad things and working hard to dowe,).Right awareness (Control your mind so that you can see things around you in the right way).Right concentration (concentrate on what you do by meditating. This must be "ee "om mental disturbances such asanxiety, worry, envy, ambition and greed.) BACK
ISLAM - BASIC BELIEFSGod is the absolute, the Alone. He issupreme. He alone is the creator, theEternal. No vision can grasp Him.Muslims believe in the virgin birth ofJesus and the angels created by Godan that Jesus is a great prophet whohad the power to work miracles. Butthey do not believe that Jesus is theson of God – in other words a personin Blessed Trinity and that Jesus diedon the cross to save people "om theirsins.There are FIVE PILLARS of Islam. BACK
The FIVE PILLARS of ISLAMThe ﬁve pi,ars of faith are observances in Islam which are duties each Muslim must perform.1. Shahadah - Declaring faith is the most important part of the faith of the Muslims. They believe that byreciting: “There is no God but A,ah, and Muhammad is his Prophet ", and having a sincere belief in this truth,wi, help them to obey a, the commands of A,ah. publicly to become a Muslim. These are the ﬁrst wordswhispered in a newborn’s ears, and the last words uttered before they die.2. Salah - Prayer - Prayer must be done ﬁve times a day (upon rising, at noon, in mid-a*ernoon, a*er sunset,and before going to sleep) towards the direction of Mecca. The ca, to prayer is sounded by the muezzin (Muslimcrier) "om a tower (minaret) within the mosque. The Muslims most important day and time to pray together ison Friday at lunchtime. Friday is the Muslims holy day. If it is a, possible, Muslims wash their hands, arms upto the elbows, mouths, noses, ears, faces, heads and feet, in a special way. This ritual is a reminder that A,ah ispure in a, things and Muslims should try and live pure and clean lives.3. Zakah – Giving to those in need - Muslims are lega,y required to give 2% of their savings to the needy. Theaim is to purify "om greed, help needy travelers, to win people over to the Islamic religion, to "ee captives and to"ee people "om debt. NEXT
The FIVE PILLARS of ISLAM4. Swam - Fasting in the Month of Ramadan: Every year in the month of Ramadan, a, Muslims fast "omdawn until sundown, abstaining "om food, drink, and sexual relations. Only children, the elderly, the sick andpregnant woman are not supposed to fast. Although the fast is beneﬁcial to health, it is regarded principa,y asa method of spiritual self-puriﬁcation. By cutting oneself oﬀ "om worldly comforts, even for a short time, afasting person gains true sympathy with those who go hungry, as we, as growth in his or her spiritual life.5. Hajj – Pilgrimage: Each Muslim is expected to make the pilgrimage (a journey in search of a deeperunderstanding of God) to Mecca at least once in their lifetime if they have the means to do it and are physica,ycapable of the trip. It involves a set of rituals and ceremonies including the wearing of a white pilgrim dress toemphasize simplicity, purity and equality. The pilgrimage end with the Festival of Sacraﬁce , Eid Al-Adha,which is celebrated with prayers. Each family oﬀers an animal for sacriﬁce. Most of the meat is given to thepoor, while the rest is shared with "iends, relatives and family. BACK
HINDUISM - BASIC BELIEFSHinduism is not an organized religion and has nosingle, systematic approach to teaching its valuesystem. Nor do Hindus have a simple set of rules tofo,ow like the Ten Commandments.Yet a common thread among a, these variations isbelief in a Supreme Being and adherence to certainconcepts such as Truth, dharma, and karma.Everyone should strive to achieve dharma – rightconduct, righteousness, moral law and duty. Individual souls are immortal. The goal of theindividual soul is moksha – liberation "om the cycleof birth and death. BACK
PLACES OF WORSHIP Hinduism Judaism Buddhism Islam ChristianityTOPIC LIST Click each bubble to explore the places of worship NEXT TOPIC of the diﬀerent religions...
JUDAISM - PLACES OF WORSHIPJewish people celebrate the Sabbath,their day of worship and rest, in afestive way at a home and in theirsynagogues. The word “synagogue” comes "omthe Greek word “synagein” whichmeans “to bring together”. When Jews enter the synagogue,they thank God that they canworship Him. They bow towardsthe ark. BACK
CHRISTIANITY PLACES OF WORSHIPThe Christian holy day is on aSunday (Sabbath). This is a day ofrest and worshipping God. Today many Christians meet inwhatever kind of place isavailable, whether it is a rentedha,, a classroom, or even any openspace. Christian religiousbuildings diﬀer a great deal. BACK
ISLAM - PLACES OF WORSHIPThe Muslims place of worship is ca,eda Mosque.On the top of the Mosque’s roof is aMinaret, a ta, tower, "om which theca, to prayer is given.Before entering the mosque, Muslimstake oﬀ their shoes and perform theritual washings.People are expected to behave quietlyand respectfu,y at a, times, even ifprayer is not taking place. BACK
BUDDHISM - PLACES OF WORSHIPWhen Buddhists meet as a group for worship,they usua,y go to the shrine room, which isbeautifu,y decorated and contains an image ofthe Buddha.There are no seats; so worshippers sit on the ﬂoor.Buddhists o*en oﬀer gi*s or ﬂowers and light. In a temple, monks usua,y lead the service. Thepeople watch and meditate, and at times repeatset words and chants a*er the monks. At the endof the worship, Buddhists o*en stay and drinkspecia,y-prepared tea "om beautiful crockery.They like the idea of being surrounded by peaceand beauty. BACK
HINDUISM - PLACES OF WORSHIPA Mandir, Kovil , Devalayam, Deul or a Hindutemple is a place of worship for fo,owers ofHinduism.A characteristic of most temples is the presence ofmurtis (statues) of the Hindu deity to whom thetemple is dedicated.Many temples are in key geographical points, such asa hi, top, near waterfa,s, caves and rivers, as theseare sattvik places and make it easier to contemplateGod BACK
RELIGIOUS TEXTS Hinduism Judaism Buddhism Islam ChristianityTOPIC LIST Click each bubble to explore the texts NEXT TOPIC of the diﬀerent religions...
CHRISTIANITY RELIGIOUS TEXTSThe Holy Scripture of Christianityis known as the Bible.The Bible consists of two parts -the Old and the New testaments. BACK
JUDAISM - RELIGIOUS TEXTSThe Torah is composed out of 5 books revealed toMoses on the Mount Sinai. It’s the record of theformation of the Jewish people and their encounterwith God in history.It is written on a scro, (a long ro, of parchment,which has a wooden ro,er at each end). Before ora*er the Torah is read, it is raised high and shownin 4 directions. Sometimes it is paraded around thepeople to touch it BACK
BUDDHISM - RELIGIOUS TEXTSThe Tipitaka, which is divided intothree sections, is the fundamentalscripture of Buddhism and consideredas the complete teachings of Buddha.Buddha’s disciples ora,y passed downthe content of the Tipitaka.The three sections contain, rules andregulations for Buddhist monks andnuns, the actual experiences ofBuddha and teaching on theTheravada positions "om Buddhasteaching. BACK
ISLAM - RELIGIOUS TEXTSThe basis for Islamic doctrine isfound in the Quran (Koran).It is the scripture of Islam,written by Muhammad and hisdisciples as dictated by the AngelGabriel.For Muslims, the Quran is theword of God, and he carrier ofthe revelation of Muhammad, thelast and most perfect of Godsmessengers to mankind. BACK
HINDUISM - RELIGIOUS TEXTSHindu literature can be divided intotwo categories.Shruti–that which is revealedSmriti–that which is remembered.The Vedas constituting the Shruti areconsidered sacred scripture.The Bhagavad Gita is considered tobe revered scripture by most Hindus BACK
RELIGIOUS FESTIVALS Hinduism Judaism Buddhism Islam ChristianityTOPIC LIST Click each bubble to explore the religious festivals NEXT TOPIC of the diﬀerent religions...
CHRISTIANITY RELIGIOUS FESTIVALSChristians celebrate Holy Communion on Sundays in churchby drinking wine and eating bread (symbolises His body andblood that ﬂowed on the cross).Baptism is another ritual regularly practiced and initiates anew member into the faith, the submersion into water againechoing Jesus’ death and resurrection.Weddings and funerals are conducted by a priest. Marriagesare only between 1 woman and 1 man and involve prayerand commitment "om the bridal couple to live according toGod’s law.Christmas on 25 December celebrates the birth of Jesus.Easter celebrates the death and resurrection of Jesus. BACK
JUDAISM - RELIGIOUS FESTIVALSThe primary Jewish festival is observing the Sabbath or Day of Rest. It starts atsunset on Friday night and ends just a*er sunset on Saturday night. The period isdedicated to God through prayer and relaxation, and a, creative work isforbidden.Passover is a special time when a special meal is eaten and prayers said tocommemorate God’s liberation of the Jews "om slavery in Egypt.A, Jewish boys are circumcised when they are 8 days old.When girls turn 12 “bat mitzvah” and boys turn 13 “bar mitzvah” they areregarded as adults and are responsible for their religious activity. A publiccelebration is held, Bar mitzvah, for boys who read a passage "om the Torah in"ont of their elders. Coming of age for girls are usua,y private family aﬀairs.Marriage is viewed as a contract between a couples. A man is not complete untilhe is married and it’s regarded as a religious obligation to ﬁnd a “soul mate” andhave children. They believe in Monogamy (marriage between only one man andone woman. BACK
ISLAM - RELIGIOUS FESTIVALSThere are only two Muslim festivals set down in Islamic law: Eid-ul-Fitr andEid-ul-Adha. But there are also several other special days which Muslimscelebrate.Al-Hijra – The Islamic New Year’s Day. This festival commemorates the Hijrawhen the Prophet Muhammad moved "om Mecca to Medina.Day of Hajj – Muslims gather "om around the world in pilgram garb thatemphasises the common humanity of a, people. A, are equal in the worship ofGod, irrespective of race, class, status or wealth.Eid-ul-Adha –3 This festival marks the end of the Hajj (pilgrimage). It iscelebrated by a, Muslims, not just those who are on the pilgrimage. Animals aresacriﬁced and a third of the meat given to those who are poor.Ramadan – (February 10 to March 12) Muslims fast daily in obedience to God.From before dawn until sunset. Abstention teaches them patience andcompassion for the poor.Eid-ul-Fitr – Muslims celebrate the end of the month of fasting (Ramadan) withprayer. It is a time to foster ties with family and "iends. Charity is animportant aspect of this day. BACK
BUDDHISM - RELIGIOUS FESTIVALS Buddhist New YearVesak - Buddah’s Birthday. First fu, moon of MayMagha Puja Day. Commemorates the most important event in the life of Buddha.Asalha Puja Day - reca,s and shows respect to the Buddha’s ﬁrst teaching.Uposatha - The four holy days in each month. Celebrated by fasting.Kathina Ceremony - new robes are oﬀered to Buddhists monks.Abhidhamma Day - celebrates t when the Buddha is said to have gone to theHeaven.Songkran - People clean their houses and wash their clothes and enjoy sprinklingperfumed water on the monks. Loy Krathong - a festival to get rid of bad luckThe Ploughing Festival BACK
HINDUISM - RELIGIOUS FESTIVALSAmong the most important Hindufestivals are Makar Sankranti,Shivratri, Holi, Onam, GaneshChaturthi, Dussehra, and Diwali -a festival of light. BACK
LIFE AFTER DEATH Hinduism Judaism Buddhism Islam Christianity Click each bubble to explore each religion’s beliefsTOPIC LIST NEXT TOPIC about the a*erlife
BUDDHISM- BELIEFS ABOUT THE AFTERLIFE Buddhists belief in reincarnation (continual rebirth until they reach Buddhahood) BACK
CHRISTIANITY - BELIEFS ABOUT THE AFTERLIFEFor Christians, eternal faith in God andpious behavior during life leads to the soul’sresurrection into Heaven in the a*erlife.Their beliefs emphasize forgiveness,repentance, and judgment a*er death.If people have properly repented their sinsto God, their souls wi, spend eternity inHeaven, but those who have led a sinfullife with no penitence may be sent to He, BACK
JUDAISM - LIFE AFTER DEATHTraditional Judaism ﬁrmly believesthat death is not the end of humanexistence.However, because Judaism is primarilyfocused on life here and now ratherthan on the a*erlife, Judaism does nothave much dogma about the a*erlife,and leaves a great deal of room forpersonal opinion BACK
ISLAM - THE AFTERLIFELike Christianity, Islam teaches the continuedexistence of the soul and a transformedphysical existence a*er death.Muslims believe there wi, be a day ofjudgment when a, humans wi, be dividedbetween the eternal destinations of Paradiseand He,. BACK
HINDUISM - BELIEFS ABOUT THE AFTERLIFEHindu’s believe that time is cyclical. This meansthey believe people do not live and die just oncebut are reborn a number of times before reachingtheir ﬁnal state. This is ca,ed reincarnation.The process of being being born, growing, dyingand being reborn again for Hindus is ca,edsamsara.The aim of every Hindu is "eedom "om thiscycle in order to be in the presence of God, orbecome one with God (moksha). In order to get"eedom "om samsara Hindus believe they mustco,ect good karma. BACK