2013 gis, gil and libraries… mapping in the digital age


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Presented at a ICTLIG, LIASA event on 8 July 2013. This talk introduces the concept of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Librarian within the context of Geographic Information Librarianship to an audience comprised of South African Librarians.

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2013 gis, gil and libraries… mapping in the digital age

  1. 1. GIS, GIL and libraries… mapping in the digital age A ICTLIG, LIASA event – 8 July 2013 Linda Kelly UCT Libraries, University of Cape Town, South Africa Linda.Kelly@uct.ac.za This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
  2. 2. Creating awareness & starting the conversations Source:http://www.abcteach.com/free/s/solarsystem8pcolor.jpg
  3. 3. How did you navigate to this venue?
  4. 4. Contents Asking the unanswerable: What is GIS? GIS Day and Geography Awareness Week My intro to GIS Librarianship Data is key: linking RDM with GIS What is happening at UCT Libraries? Fun examples Fun exercise A sketch map for going forward
  5. 5. Asking the unanswerable: What is GIS?
  6. 6. What is GIS? • “This is probably the most asked question posed to those in the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) field and is probably the hardest to answer in a succinct and clear manner.” • http://www.gislounge.com/what-is-gis/ • ESRI video (Environmental Systems Research Institute est. 1969) • http://www.esri.com/apps/esriclips/flash.cfm?path=71 • UN Environmental Agency • http://www.epa.gov/region5fields/gis.html • Wallawo County, Orgegon • http://www.co.wallowa.or.us/community_development/gis/what_is_gis.html
  7. 7. Source: http://gisforyourbusiness.blogspot.com/
  8. 8. GIS Day and Geography Awareness Week
  9. 9. www.gisday.com/about.html
  10. 10. education.nationalgeographic.com/education/collections/geographyawarenessweek/?ar_a=1
  11. 11. 2013 dates GIS Day Geography Awareness Week Wed, 20 Nov 2013 17-23 Nov 2013 http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/collections/geographyawarenessweek/?ar_a=1
  12. 12. My intro to the GIS Librarian
  13. 13. Open Access via South African Journal of Geomatics (http://www.sajg.org.za/index.php/sajg/article/view/77)
  14. 14. Motivation Fieldwork • map collection at ASL • collaborative project between UCT Libraries and Stanford University Libraries, USA • profession of a Geographical Information Systems Librarian (GIS Librarian) Aim • an overview of current literature • what cartographic services are provided by libraries? Source:Kelly,L.2013:Maps,Librariesandthe“GISLibrarian”:anInformalReviewofInternationalCartographic Libraries.SouthAfricanJournalofGeomatics,2(2):163-174.
  15. 15. Some definitions of GIS • “the infrastructure (i.e. hardware, software and personnel), spatial data, and application used to inventory, manage and analyse [special data].” (Aufmuth (2006: 341). • “GISs combine maps with tables of information… [which allows one to] analyze natural, behavioral, and social science data with visual evidence”. Todd (2008: 15) • What sets GIS apart from other information systems or databases?: “At the core of a GIS is a geo-referenced database. Such databases are distinguished from all other kinds by the fact that all of their records are given a location on the Earth’s surface, usually in the form of coordinates, such as latitude and longitude.” Goodchild (2010: 377) • “…new ways that society views, understands, and employs maps. Maps are now incorporated into processes where geographic and topical data can be transformed into information that addresses real world issues and research questions.” (Weimer and Reehling, 2006:292). Source:Kelly,L.2013:Maps,Librariesandthe“GISLibrarian”:anInformalReviewofInternationalCartographic Libraries.SouthAfricanJournalofGeomatics,2(2):163-174.
  16. 16. Data & GIS • Houser 2006 • almost any data can be given a physical location • Data management NB to survey to create inventory of available data: • library-owned spatial data • Federal/government depository items • commercial data • such an inventory is ongoing through: • data requests • coincidental discovery • collection development • monitoring of new resources Source:Kelly,L.2013:Maps,Librariesandthe“GISLibrarian”:anInformalReviewofInternationalCartographic Libraries.SouthAfricanJournalofGeomatics,2(2):163-174.
  17. 17. Data & GIS (continued) • factors that impact the acquisition of geospatial data are “user demands, budgets, license restrictions, availability, data formats, and staffing resources” (Florance, 2006:226) • acquiring data is considered a service that is provided to GIS users. • NB to know: • what map services are possible • how are these services are generated • how do such services and systems work within the larger context of the library and its tertiary institution. Source:Kelly,L.2013:Maps,Librariesandthe“GISLibrarian”:anInformalReviewofInternationalCartographic Libraries.SouthAfricanJournalofGeomatics,2(2):163-174.
  18. 18. • Weimer and Reehling (2006) • Libraries are information centers that can no longer afford to solely exist as map repositories where librarians organize, store, and provide services associated with printed maps and associated cartographic materials. The Library model Source:Kelly,L.2013:Maps,Librariesandthe“GISLibrarian”:anInformalReviewofInternationalCartographic Libraries.SouthAfricanJournalofGeomatics,2(2):163-174.
  19. 19. What types of services can a GIS Librarian and the appropriate GIS infrastructure provide? List of common requests for assistance at University of Kansas (KU) Libraries USA provides • finding specific datasets; • generating a map or image from spatial data; • converting data among various formats, such as open source or proprietary; • subsetting data or clipping data layers; • creating data, such as point, line, or polygon features and editing associated (attribute) information; • mapping tabular data using geographic coordinates for point locations, or collected with a global positioning system (GPS); • mapping tabular data by linking (joining) to a GIS layer with the same geographic variables; • integrating an image, such as a scanned map, into a GIS using geographic coordinates (geo-referencing); and • spatial data analysis. Source: adapted from Houser (2006) Source:Kelly,L.2013:Maps,Librariesandthe“GISLibrarian”:anInformalReviewofInternationalCartographic Libraries.SouthAfricanJournalofGeomatics,2(2):163-174.
  20. 20. Geographic Information Librarianship (GIL) “…profession of providing geographic information resources and services in a library setting” (Weimer and Reehling 2006: 291). Three areas of expertise: 1. cataloging of cartographic materials, 2. print map librarianship 3. GIS Librarianship. Source:Kelly,L.2013:Maps,Librariesandthe“GISLibrarian”:anInformalReviewofInternationalCartographic Libraries.SouthAfricanJournalofGeomatics,2(2):163-174.
  21. 21. Weimer and Reehling’s (2006) informal survey → used job postings between 2004 to late 2006 from American Libraries and C & RL News. Results → about 24 positions ‘required GIS skills’ and that a further 12 ‘included GIS as a preferred skill for a general or subject specialist position’ (Weimer and Reehling 2006: 300). Is GIL is an emerging skill set that may soon become a required one? “…job openings containing GIS either as the primary focus or as a secondary responsibility are posted frequently” (Weihmer and Reehling 2006:300). Source:Kelly,L.2013:Maps,Librariesandthe“GISLibrarian”:anInformalReviewofInternationalCartographic Libraries.SouthAfricanJournalofGeomatics,2(2):163-174.
  22. 22. Levels of GIS services that libraries can offer (Kowal 2002) GIS service level Example of Query Summarised Definition high-level “I want to make a map of outdoor camping facilities in Minnesota by country using this table of data I collected.” full GIS set-up mid-level “I’m researching the socioeconomic makeup of a region across the country and would like to look at a map showing demographic features of an area.” GIS applications available via the Web which require user input low-level “I need maps of China, both current and from other points in the twentieth century.” static maps available through the Web Source:Kelly,L.2013:Maps,Librariesandthe“GISLibrarian”:anInformalReviewofInternationalCartographic Libraries.SouthAfricanJournalofGeomatics,2(2):163-174.
  23. 23. Service models • Aufmuth (2006) identifies 3 models used to deliver information services and data • centralised • distributed • hybrid • Library as a service point • Service niche • Neutral space Source:Kelly,L.2013:Maps,Librariesandthe“GISLibrarian”:anInformalReviewofInternationalCartographic Libraries.SouthAfricanJournalofGeomatics,2(2):163-174.
  24. 24. Staffing: Harvard http://www.hcl.harvard.edu/staff_directory/browse.cfm?ld_id=8#unit_165
  25. 25. http://libguides.mit.edu/content.php?pid=347508&sid=2843764
  26. 26. Staffing: Oxford (UK) http://www.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/bodley/finding-resources/rooms/dh
  27. 27. Methods List World Rank Institution Region Regional Rank National Rank 1 1 Harvard University Americas 1 100.0 2 3 Stanford University Americas 3 40.2 3 5 University of Cambridge Europe 1 88.5 4 20 The University of Tokyo Asia/Pacific 1 33.3 5 23 Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (SFITZ) Europe 4 34.1 6 27 University of Toronto Americas 20 23.8 7 256 University of Cape Town Africas 1 21.3 8 391 University of the Witwatersrand Africas 2 21.3 9 461 University of KwaZulu-Natal Africas 3 0.0 Ranking libraries not possible (Ellis, Heaney, Meunier, and Poll 2009) Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) Reviewed (1) technology, (2) services, & (3) legislation Source:Kelly,L.2013:Maps,Librariesandthe“GISLibrarian”:anInformalReviewofInternationalCartographic Libraries.SouthAfricanJournalofGeomatics,2(2):163-174.
  28. 28. Results (results tentative → 2010 data & not triangulated, e.g. by interviews, etc.) Source: Kelly, L. 2013: Maps, Libraries and the “GIS Librarian”: an Informal Review of International Cartographic Libraries. South African Journal of Geomatics, 2(2): 163-174.
  29. 29. References • Aufmuth, J. 2006. Centralized vs. distributed systems: academic library models for GIS and remote sensing activities on campus. Library Trends, 55(2): 340-348. • Cambridge University Library. 2010. Cambridge University Library website. (Online). Available: http://www.lib.cam.ac.uk/. Accessed 01 November 2010. • Casey, N.M., Smith, J. and Keck, C.W. 1999. Mapping Rodent Complaints. Public Health Reports, 114(4): 361-373. • Donnely, F. P. 2009. Evaluating open source GIS for libraries. Library Hi Tech, 28(1): 131-151. • ESRI. n.d. ESRI Online GIS Dictionary. (Online). Available: http://support.esri.com/en/knowledgebase/Gisdictionary/browse. Accessed, 10 April 2013. • Ellis, S., Heaney, M., Meunier, P., and Poll, R. 2009. Global Library Statistics. IFLA Journal, 35(2): 123-130. • Florance, P. 2006. GIS Collection Development within an Academic Library. Library Trends, 55(2): 222-235. • Goodchild, M.F. 2010. Geographic Information Systems. In Gomez, B. and Jones III, J.P. 2010. (eds). Research Methods in Geography: A Critical Introduction. Singapore: Wiley-Blackwell. 376-391. • Groot, R. and Sharifi, M.A. 1994. Spatial data infrastructure, essential element in the successful exploitation of GIS technology. EGIS Foundation. (Online). Available: • http://libraries.maine.edu/Spatial/gisweb/spatdb/egis/eg94142.html. Accessed 10 March 2013. • Harvard College Library Website. 2010. Harvard Map Collection. (Online). Available: http://hcl.harvard.edu/libraries/maps/. Accessed 01 November 2010. • Houser, R. 2006. Building a library GIS service from the ground up. Library Hi Tech, 28(1): 131-151. • Human Development Indices: A statistical update 2009. 2010. (Online). Available: http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2010_EN_Tables.pdf. Accessed 08 November 2010. • Kinikin, J. and Hench, K. 2005a. Survey of GIS implementation and use within smaller academic libraries. Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship. (Online). Available: http://www.istl.org/05-spring/refereed-1.html. Accessed 01 November 2010. • Kinikin, J. and Hench, K. 2005b. Follow-up survey of GIS at smaller academic libraries. Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship. (Online). Available: http://www.istl.org/05-summer/article1.html. Accessed 01 November 2010. • Kowal, K. C. 2002. Tapping the web for GIS and mapping technologies: for all levels of libraries and users. Information Technology and Librarie , 21(3): 109-114. • Martindale, J. 2004. Geographic information systems librarianship: suggestions for entry-level academic professionals. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 30(1): 67–72. • President and Fellows of Harvard College. 2007. Harvard Geospatial Library. (Online). Available: http://dixon.hul.harvard.edu:8080/HGL/hgl.jsp. Accessed 01 November 2010. • Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2010 . Academic ranking of world universities. – 2010. (Online) Available: http://www.arwu.org/ARWU2010.jsp. Accessed 26 October 2010. • Shawa, T. W. 2006. Building a system to disseminate digital map and geospatial data online. Library Trends, 55(2): 254–263. • Singh, P.K. 2005. Gevernance Issues in GIS Infrastructure in India. International Journal of Rural Management, 1(2): 223-224. • Šolar, R. and Radovan, D. 2008. The change of paradigms in digital map libraries. e-Perimetron, 3(2): 53-62. Stanford University. 2010. (Online). Stanford University Libraries and Academic Information Resources website. Available: http://library.stanford.edu/. Accessed 01 November 2010. • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich. 2010. Institute of Cartography website. (Online). Available: http://www.karto.ethz.ch/index_EN. Accessed 01 November 2010. • Todd, J. L. 2008. GIS and libraries: A cross-disciplinary approach. Online, 32(5): 14-18. • University of Cape Town Libraries. 2010. UCT Libraries website. (Online). Available: http://www.lib.uct.ac.za/. Accessed 01 November 2010. • University of KwaZulu-Natal. 2009. UKZN Libraries website. (Online). Available: http://library.ukzn.ac.za/Homepage.aspx. Accessed 01 November 2010. • University of Tokyo. 2010. University of Tokyo Library System website. (Online). Available: http://www.lib.u-tokyo.ac.jp/koho/guide/coll/index-e.html. Accessed 01 November 2010. • University of Toronto. 2010. Map and Data Library website. (Online). Available: http://mdl.library.utoronto.ca/. Accessed 01 November 2010. • University of the Witwatersrand. 2009. The Library website. (Online). Available: http://web.wits.ac.za/Library/Home.htm. Accessed 01 November 2010. • Vardakosta, I. Kapidakis, S. 2013: The new trends for librarians in management of Geographic information. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 73:794 – 801. • Weimer, K. and Reehling, P. 2006. A new model of Geographic Information Librarianship: description, curriculum and program proposal, Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 47(4):291-302. • Wikipedia 2010. Library. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library. Accessed 30 October 2010. • Wooldridge, A. 2005. A world of opportunity. The Economist, Vol. 376. Issue 8443, p14-16. Also Available at: http://www.economist.com/surveys/displaystory.cfm?story_id=E1_QPQDDDV . Accessed 30 October 2010.
  30. 30. Data is key: linking RDM with GIS
  31. 31. Solving real world problems “The world around us is being simplified into bits of information. An increasingly important component of this information is spatial. Where something happened, how one observation is related to another nearby, and the implications of knowing our location and the location of many other things is making the world of information more complicated. The technology of Geographic Information Systems provides us with a means of managing the flood of spatial data, so that we can ask questions, critical to modern society, about the significance of location and distance.” Source: Centre for Geographic Analysis, Harvard University Part of a course description for voluntary GIS Camp (4 day workshops) for undergraduates No previous training required as “spatial thinking and analysis could be critical to the sciences, social sciences and humanities alike’. URL: http://gis.harvard.edu/icb/icb.do?keyword=k235&pageid=icb.page445565
  32. 32. Maps, academia & art: Why are maps important? • Lalitesh Katragadda - Making maps to fight disaster, build economies o TED Talk: http://www.ted.com/talks/lalitesh_katragadda_making_maps_to_fight_disaster_build_economies.html • Mapping Social Statistics - Taxonomy of transitions: racial and ethic segregation in Chicago (Bill Rankin) o YouTube Vid: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8pRcdMVkA3k o Blog: http://www.radicalcartography.net/chicagodots.html • Bill Rankin’s Blog o http://www.radicalcartography.net/index.html?about o World Cropland (Projects > Browse by Geography > The World > World Cropland) o GIS Links (RE: Sources > GIS Links > GIS Primers & A Motley Assortment of Governmental Data
  33. 33. Blog:http://www.radicalcartography.net/chicagodots.html
  34. 34. Data Research Management (DRM) • Manage & share research data • Verify results • Realise value of public investment in research • Policies of Research Councils and journals encourage or mandate a research data management plan and submission of underlying datasets http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/mrd.aspx
  35. 35. GoGeo: an example of a geospatial research data management site (Listed during HELIG Data Curation webinar held Tuesday 30 April 2013) http://www.gogeo.ac.uk/gogeo/ Intro to GoGeo see YouTube video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RtBZfv-Rjng
  36. 36. What is happening at UCT Libraries?
  37. 37. GIS Librarians in Training • UCT Academic & PASS Staff Learning & Development Resource Guide • Online Tutorials • Meet as a group: 1st Friday of every month • VULA → interest & support group
  38. 38. GIS Day Workshops Starting the conversation Raising awareness amongst staff Not a one man show Challenge ☺ find data!
  39. 39. Finding Maps tab in EGS LibGuide http://libguides.lib.uct.ac.za/content.php?pid=63609&sid=3023305
  40. 40. Map and GIS research projects • Post grad presentation • UCT Librarians partnering with UCT’s GIS Lab • Librarians • deal with maps in various depts. • i.e. Special Collections, Govt. Pub., Engineering, Environmental & Geographical Science • UCT GIS Lab • GIS technicians
  41. 41. Fun examples
  42. 42. Google Glass: an example of augmented reality & maps? See URL: http://www.google.com/glass/start/what-it-does/
  43. 43. GIS & map related websites & material www.gisday.com/discover.html
  44. 44. scimaps.org/maps/map/stream_of_scientific_128/
  45. 45. http://hint.fm/wind/index.html
  46. 46. Fun exercise
  47. 47. Hidden Geo-Cache Outside Type “S 33 56.018 E 18 28.599” into Google Maps You passed me by without a glance Maybe you don’t like my sour, yellow fruit? If you find my treasure, leave your business card
  48. 48. Source: https://maps.google.co.za/maps?q=S+33+56.018++E+18+28.599&hl=en&ll=- 33.933631,18.476649&spn=0.001885,0.004128&sll=- 33.915538,18.656059&sspn=1.930516,4.22699&t=h&z=19
  49. 49. A sketch map for going forward
  50. 50. GIL in SA: some thoughts… • Understanding the process versus the product • How to link data with the process in order to produce the final product • What is the product? • Is it a map? • Is it a geospatial analysis?
  51. 51. Source: http://gisforyourbusiness.blogspot.com/
  52. 52. How am I, as a librarian, supporting or bridging the cartographic gaps in the research process/education/our community to help solve real world problems?
  53. 53. Thank you Questions Linda.Kelly@uct.ac.za
  54. 54. References Referenced sources are provided on each slide
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