Definition and Components Theories of Learning Integrative Model for Critical Thinking Web site Questions and Applications to Online Learning Additional Reading References in Presentation
What is it?Main menu How is it derived? What ‘s the Purpose? What ‘s the Basis? What ‘s the Process?
“the intellectually disciplinedMain menu process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information” (Scriven and Paul ,1997, para. 1)
“gathered from, or generated by,Main menu observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication” (Scriven and Paul ,1997, para. 1)
Main menu “guide to belief and action” (Scriven and Paul ,1997, para. 1)
“universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions”Main menu •Clarity •Accuracy •Precision •Consistency •Relevance •Sound evidence •Good reasons •Depth •Breadth •Fairness (Scriven and Paul ,1997, para. 1)
“examination of those structures or elements of thought implicit in all reasoning:”Main menu •Purpose •Problem, or question-at-issue •Assumptions •Concepts •Empirical grounding •Reasoning leading to conclusions •Implications and consequences •Objections from alternative viewpoints •Frame of reference (Scriven and Paul ,1997, para. 1)
Bloom’s TaxonomyMain menu Taxonomy of Affective Domain Multiple Intelligences Emotional Intelligence
Categories ExplanationReceiving Phenomena Awareness, willingness to hear, attentionResponding to Learner is engaged in process, attends,Phenomena willing to respondValuing Acceptance to CommitmentOrganizing Prioritizes and arranges values, synthesizing them uniquelyInternalizing Values Embodies values making them characteristic of the individual (Krathwohl, Bloom, & Masia, 1973).
Categories ExplanationLinguistic intelligence Traditional , words, even sign language partLogical-mathematical Traditional IQ tests,intelligenceSpatial intelligence Geography, environmental movementBodily-Kinesthetic Movement, actionintelligenceMusical intelligence Predominately right-brain, related computation, rhythmInterpersonal intelligence Determines people’s motivations, moods, intentionsIntrapersonal intelligence Ability to understand the work within oneselfNaturalist intelligence Involves nature, culture,Spiritual Not yet gained recognition, but highly acclaimed
Based on knowing yourself and knowing others Recognizing emotions and reactions within yourself and with others Ability to handle relationships based on understanding applying these concepts (Goleman, 1995)
Necessity ofMain menu Integration Christian Worldview Model Explanation
Involves more thanMain menu cognition All people have varying types and abilities for thinking; needs to involve those concepts Critical thinking involves the entire person within their environment
Principles from Christian Worldview:Main menu •God has provided laws for us to learn and to know •Christians need to use our abilities to solve problems righteously •Christians need to strive to be the best we can be Applying a Christian worldview to critical thinking not only can work, but is really the only way to work correctly
Main menu (Huit, 1998)
Huit (1998)incorporates the affective (or emotional)Main menu behavioral, and the purposeful (or conative) factors into the cognitive aspects of critical thinking. It allows for multiple intelligences and emotions and considers the environment within which one lives. It can incorporate a Christian Worldview
The Critical ThinkingMain menu Community located at http://www.criticalthinking.org/art icles/index.cfm At this site are many articles, research, strategies, and applications for critical thinking
Questions that can be used in an Online Situation to spurMain menu critical thinking Activities that can be used in an Online Situation to spur critical thinking
What is the credibility of these sources of information? Are there any contradictions in this premise? What are the implications and consequences ofMain menu xyz? Is the evidence to support this based on tried and true premises? This scenario had much information presented. What factors are relevant and irrelevant to obtaining a solution? What are the most significant similarities and differences? How does the ideal align with actual practice? What are some of the solutions to this problem and how would you assess each solution? What would be the criteria for assessing the viability of the possible outcomes? How would you refine these generalizations while simultaneously avoiding oversimplification?
DebatesMain menu Campaigning for Various Issues Voting Scenarios Problem-Solving Issues Creation of various products
Arend, B. (2009). Encouraging critical thinking in online threaded discussions. The Journal of Educators Online 6(1): 1-23.Boris, G. and T. Hall (2005). Critical thinking and online learning: A practical inquiry perspective in higher education [electronic version]. 20th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning. Retrieved June 22, 2009 from http://www.uwex.edu/disted/conference/Resource_library/proceedings/04_1288 .pdf.Collison, G., B. Elbaum, et al. (2000). Chapter 7: Critical thinking strategies. Facilitating online learning: Effective strategies for moderators. Madison, WI, Atwood Publishing. Retrieved from National Teaching and Learning Forum June 22, 2009, http://www.ntlf.com/html/lib/suppmat/103chap7.pdf.MacKnight, C. B. (2000). Teaching critical thinking through online discussions [electronic version]. Educause Quarterly 4: 38-41.Mandernach, B. J. (2006). Thinking critically about critical thinking: Integrating online tools to promote critical thinking [electronic version]. Critical Thinking 1: 41-50. Retrieved June 22, 2009 from 20Thinking- %20Integrating%20Online%20Tools%20to%20Promote%20Critical%20Thinkin g.pdf.Mummery, J. (2002). Facilitating critical thinking in an online environment [electronic version]. Higher Education and Research Development Society Australasia.
Bloom B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives, handbook I: The cognitive domain. New York: David McKay Co Inc.Gardner, H. (2006). Multiple intelligences: New horizons in theory and practice. New York: Basic Books.Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York, Bantam.Huitt, W. (1998). Critical thinking: An overview. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved June 22, 2009, fromhttp://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/critthnk.htmlKrathwohl, D. R., Bloom, B. S., & Masia, B. B. (1973). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, the Classification of Educational Goals. Handbook II: Affective Domain. New York: David McKay Co., Inc.Scriven, M., & Paul, R. (1997). Critical Thinking Community. Retrieved June 22, 2009, from http://lonestar.texas.net/~mseifert/crit2.html