Guidelines: Motivation - De-motivation in Youth Work
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This manual was created and edited during the European Union international training project "Motivation - De-motivation in Youth Work" (MD TC). The project was supported by the European Commission ...

This manual was created and edited during the European Union international training project "Motivation - De-motivation in Youth Work" (MD TC). The project was supported by the European Commission within Youth in Action Programme Action 4.3.

The aim of the project was to introduce youth workers around the Europe with different motivation theories in order to develop their understanding of their own motivation factors in youth work, help to motivate the other young people and to develop their communication skills.

This manual is a product of the team work of the group of 29 young people from Estonia, Turkey, Croatia, Latvia and Poland who took part in the training course, which was held in Cesis, Latvia 6th to 13th October 2013. All participants of this training contributed their ideas, time and hard work to the development of the manual.

This manual will be a good resource for
- Youth workers, all those who work with young people and has a need to understand their motivational and de-motivation factors for active participation;
- Young people who seeks to understand their own motivation and de-motivational factors;
- Anyone who is interested in individual and group motivation and de-motivation processes.

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Guidelines: Motivation - De-motivation in Youth Work Document Transcript

  • 1. Motivation – De-motivation in Youth Work Guidelines Cesis, Latvia 2013 7
  • 2. Motivation – De-motivation in Youth Work, Latvia, 2013 Introduction This manual was created and edited during the European Union international training project "Motivation - De-motivation in Youth Work" (MD TC). The project was supported by the European Commission within Youth in Action Programme Action 4.3. The aim of the project was to introduce youth workers around the Europe with different motivation theories in order to develop their understanding of their own motivation factors in youth work, help to motivate the other young people and to develop their communication skills. This manual is a product of the team work of the group of 29 young people from Estonia, Turkey, Croatia, Latvia and Poland who took part in the training course, which was held in Cesis, Latvia 6th to 13th October 2013. All participants of this training contributed their ideas, time and hard work to the development of the manual. This manual will be a good resource for - Youth workers, all those who work with young people and has a need to understand their motivational and de-motivation factors for active participation; Young people who seeks to understand their own motivation and de-motivational factors; Anyone who is interested in individual and group motivation and de-motivation processes. Contributors Project was implemented by NGO „Youth Leaders Coalition” – resource centre for everyone who is interested in the development of youth work in Latvia and abroad. Our mission is to establish well developed, democratic network of youth coordination and institutions in Latvia for developing youth cooperation, partnership, experience exchange and enlarging communication methods of youth in Latvia and abroad. Youth Leaders Coalition facilitates international youth exchanges, trainings, volunteer projects and provides advocacy and consultation on different issues for youth. More information about Youth Leaders Coalition – www.facebook.com/YouthLeadersCoaliton Participants: Vladimir Zaitsev, Diāna Apinīte, Elanur Bektas, Nazli Binici, Onur Emre Uyar, Filip Eterović, Rolands Fedotovs, Alex Jarvis, Pauls Krastiņš, Lana Kunštek, Gatis Laizāns, Viktorija Minajeva, Pawel Mochocki, Denis Strelkov, Tomas Moleda, Kamil Wierzbowski, Agnieszka Tercz, Anna Sledzinska, Ines Oštrić, Lisandra Roosioja, Julia Snahtsjan, Nurdan Terzioglu, Fadil Tutar, Anete Vilne, Iva Čuka Facilitators: Linda Kalniņa (Youth Leaders Coalition, Latvia), Anna Korjakina (Life Zone, Estonia), Inese Šubēvica (Youth Leaders Coalition, Latvia), Rūta Keviešena (Youth Leaders Coalition, Latvia) Partners: Raplection (Croatia), Istanbul Collective Arts and Culture Association (Turkey), Centrum Inicjatyw UNESCO (Poland), Life Zone (Estonia) 2
  • 3. Motivation – De-motivation in Youth Work, Latvia, 2013 „This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This material reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein." 3
  • 4. Motivation – De-motivation in Youth Work, Latvia, 2013 Contents 1.What is motivation? .................................................................................................................... 5 1.1.Why do we need motivation in Youth Work? ....................................................................... 5 2.Motivation Theories .................................................................................................................... 6 2.1.Maslow’ hierarchy of needs .................................................................................................. 6 2.1.1.Biological and Physiological needs ................................................................................. 3 2.1.2.Safety needs .................................................................................................................... 3 2.1.3.Belongingness and Love needs ....................................................................................... 3 2.1.4.Esteem needs .................................................................................................................. 4 2.1.5.Self – actualization needs ............................................................................................... 4 2.2.HERZBERG’S THEORY ............................................................................................................. 5 2.3.THEORY “X” & “Y” .................................................................................................................. 7 2.4.McClelland’s Human Motivation Theory............................................................................. 10 2.4.1.The needs for achievement .......................................................................................... 10 2.4.2.The needs for power ..................................................................................................... 11 2.4.3.The needs for affiliation ................................................................................................ 11 2.4.4.The steps for using McClelland's theory ....................................................................... 12 3.De-motivation theory and factors ............................................................................................ 13 3.1.What is de-motivation? ....................................................................................................... 13 3.2.Demotivation by the cause of fear (1)................................................................................. 14 3.3.Demotivation by the unclear or wrong goals/tasks (2) ....................................................... 14 3.4.Demotivation by the limited autonomy (3)......................................................................... 15 3.5.Demotivation by the conflict of values (4) .......................................................................... 15 3.6.Demotivation by the loneliness (5) ..................................................................................... 15 3.7.Demotivation by the lack of challenge (6)........................................................................... 16 3.8.Demotivation because the person don’t know the next steps (7)...................................... 16 3.9.Demotivation by the cause of confusion (8) ....................................................................... 16 3.10.Demotivation because the person don’t have “the full picture” (9) ................................ 17 3.11.Demotivation by the cause of burning-out (10)................................................................ 17 3.12.De-motivation at work ...................................................................................................... 18 4.How to motivate individuals and groups ................................................................................. 19 4.1.Individual intrinsic and extrinsic motivation ....................................................................... 19 4.2.How you can increase your intrinsic motivation? ............................................................... 19 4.3.Examples of extrinsic motivation factors ............................................................................ 22 4.4.Intrinsic and extrinsic group motivation ............................................................................. 23 4.5.Factors that motivate and inspire ....................................................................................... 23 5.YOUTH IN ACTION PROGRAMME ............................................................................................. 25 4
  • 5. Motivation – De-motivation in Youth Work, Latvia, 2013 1.What is motivation? Motivation is related to the internal or external drive to do something, to satisfy unsatisfied needs. It is the reason or reasons one has for acting or behaving in a particular way (Oxford Dictionary). Many authors have also defined the concept of motivation as: "the psychological process that gives behaviour purpose and direction" (Kreitner, 1995); "a predisposition to behave in a purposive manner to achieve specific, unmet needs" (Buford, Bedeian, & Lindner, 1995); "an internal drive to satisfy an unsatisfied need" (Higgins, 1994); "and the will to achieve" (Bedeian, 1993). 1.1.Why do we need motivation in Youth Work? Motivation is essential for young people, because it determines the reasons why they want to participate in different youth activities. Motivation helps youngsters to be active in civic processes and do it with joy, enthusiasm and positive attitude. Motivation helps young people to deal with important issues in their everyday life and to seek for their selfdevelopment. In order to understand individual motivation and demotivation for active participation everyone should develop their understanding of individual needs. This manual provides information and examples about general motivation theories, motivational and de-motivational factors for an individual and group which are selected by the participants of international project. 5
  • 6. Motivation – De-motivation in Youth Work, Latvia, 2013 2.Motivation Theories 2.1.Maslow’ hierarchy of needs The earliest and most widespread version of Maslow's (1943, 1954) hierarchy of needs includes five motivational needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid. This five stage model can be divided into basic (or deficiency) needs (e.g. physiological, safety, love, and esteem) and growth needs (selfactualization). One must satisfy lower level basic needs before progressing on to meet higher level growth needs. Once these needs have been reasonably satisfied, one may be able to reach the highest level called selfactualization. 6
  • 7. Motivation – De-motivation in Youth Work, Latvia, 2013 2.1.1.Biological and Physiological needs (1) In order to satisfy these needs in youth work, youth leaders or people who work with youth can take several actions. While preparing for activities, many factors should be taken into consideration. For example, adequate space with enough fresh air and light should be used for the activities and participants should be provided with enough meals, allowed to take a coffee break and have an adapted timetable. 2.1.2.Safety needs (2) The factors that should be considered when thinking of satisfying safety needs differ. For example, language barriers can be a great source of stress for some people and cause feeling of unsafe. Therefore, youth workers should try to facilitate and create the atmosphere where cultural differences are overcome and every task and opinion would be understandable to all the people involved. Moreover, people hosting the activities should make their guests feel welcome and create secure surroundings for them. Good youth workers should also be able to use first aid kit and to ensure that youth have valid health insurance. 2.1.3.Belongingness and Love needs (3) Youth work can help the youth to evolve positive emotions and make new friendships. Also, youth work enables development of trust, respect and caring between people from different cultural backgrounds by involving youth in different interactive activities. That way they encourage need for belongingness and love. 3
  • 8. 2.1.4.Esteem needs (4) Positive atmosphere of youth work can improve active lifestyle and promote developing feelings of trust and respect among youth. It can help youth to improve not only self esteem but also earn other people’s respect and trust. Good youth leader can be a very important figure and his/her support and esteem mean a lot for person’s further development. 2.1.5.Self–actualization needs (5) Certain behaviour leads to self-actualization: (a) Experiencing life like a child, with full absorption and concentration; (b) Trying new things instead of sticking to safe paths; (c) Listening to your own feelings in evaluating experiences instead of the voice of tradition, authority or the majority; (d) Avoiding pretence ('game playing') and being honest; (e) Being prepared to be unpopular if your views do not coincide with those of the majority; Keep in mind!  Needs are not universal, because there are cultural, economical, gender differences.  According to other researchers self-actualization is not a level, but a process.  People may have basic unfulfilled needs and still seek to meet higher needs. (f) Taking responsibility and working hard; (g) Trying to identify your defences and having the courage to give them up. To understand this theory even better, we recommend watching the following video: “Hierarchy of Needs in Ratatouille” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tzQ9vrvTAtk 7
  • 9. Motivation – De-motivation in Youth Work, Latvia, 2013 2.2.HERZBERG’S THEORY Herzberg was the first to show that satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work nearly always arose from different factors, and were not simply opposing reactions to the same factors, as had always previously been (and still now by the unenlightened) believed. He divided the factors to hygiene and motivational. In 1959 Herzberg wrote the following useful little phrase, which helps explain this fundamental part of his theory, i.e., "We can expand ... by that the factors which motivate people at stating that the job work are different to and not simply the satisfiers’ deal with the factors involved in doing opposite of the factors which cause the job, whereas the job dissatisfaction: dissatisfiers deal with the factors which define the job context." Although Herzberg is most noted for his famous 'hygiene' and motivational factors theory, he was essentially concerned with people's well-being at work. Underpinning his theories and academic teachings, he was basically attempting to bring more humanity and caring into the workplace. 5
  • 10. Motivation – De-motivation in Youth Work, Latvia, 2013 He and others like him did not develop their theories to be used as 'motivational tools' purely to improve organisational performance. They sought instead primarily to explain how to manage people properly, for the good of all people at work. Then as now, poorly managed organisations fail to understand that people are not 'motivated' by addressing 'hygiene' needs. People are only truly motivated by enabling them to reach for and satisfy the factors that Herzberg identified as real motivators, such as achievement, advancement, development, etc., which represent a far deeper level of meaning and fulfilment. Herzberg’s research proved that people will strive to achieve ‘hygiene’ needs because they are unhappy without them, But once they are satisfied the effect soon wears off – satisfaction is temporary. To understand this theory even better, we recommend watching the following video: Reinforcement Theory of Motivation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1yuQq5VPZmg 6
  • 11. Motivation – De-motivation in Youth Work, Latvia, 2013 2.3.THEORY “X” & “Y” Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human motivation created and developed by Douglas McGregor at the MIT Sloan School of Management in the 1960s that have been used in human resource management, organizational behaviour, organizational communication and organizational development. They describe two contrasting models of workforce motivation. Theory X and Theory Y have to do with the perceptions managers hold on their employees, not the way they generally behave. It is the attitude not attributes. 7
  • 12. Motivation – De-motivation in Youth Work, Latvia, 2013 8
  • 13. Motivation – De-motivation in Youth Work, Latvia, 2013 9
  • 14. Motivation – De-motivation in Youth Work, Latvia, 2013 2.4.McClelland’s Human Motivation Theory There are certain needs that are learned and socially acquired as the individual interacts with the environment. Such needs are classified into three broad categories. McClelland indicates that we all have these three motivating drivers (needs) regardless of our gender, culture or age. One of them is dominant motivator and that is dependent on our culture and life experiences. Most people possess and expose a combination of different characteristics for each of these needs. How to motivate a person with these dominant needs? What are the characteristics for this person? 2.4.1.The needs for achievement (1) A person whose dominant motivator is achievement always seeks for attainment and challenging goals. They have a strong need for feedback during the process and a sense of accomplishment. They like to take risks and Giving challenges usually prefer to work Taking risks Telling successful stories alone. Giving trust Sharing experience with successful people McClelland believed that Price/Punishment achievement – motivated Giving encourage people are generally the Helping to discover their skills ones who make things happen and get results, and they get results within the organisation of other people and resources. Achievement motivation make the best leaders, they are focused and results driven, although there can be a tendency to demand too much of others if they believe that they has similar motivators. Achievement for them is more important than material or financial award, because achieving the aim or task give them greater personal satisfaction than receiving praise or recognition. Achievement – motivated people constantly seek improvements and ways of doing things better. 10
  • 15. Motivation – De-motivation in Youth Work, Latvia, 2013 McClelland argues that the achievement motive can be taught (learned) and socially acquired as the individual interacts with the environment. Achievement level can be raised by creating a healthy work atmosphere, provision of reasonable freedom of more responsibilities and by making tasks more interesting and challenging. According to McClelland, every person has an achievement motive to some extent. Most people will put more efforts into their work if they are challenged to do better. 2.4.2.The needs for power (2) A person whose dominant motivator is power has a strong need to lead, to be influential, effective and to make an impact. They enjoy status, recognition from others and like to compete and to win. They are authority motivated that is why they will produce a determined work ethic and Give them responsibility and opportunity Influence Smart Optimistic commitment to the Give them Initiative Emotionally Strong organisation. They To Respect To Appreciate are attracted to the Solidarity Cooperative Good Speaker leadership role, but Evaluation/Motivation Meetings may not possess the Open-mindedness to their ideas required flexibility Decision Making Determined Responsible Respected Transparency and people - centred Leadership Skills Completes Work skills. 2.4.3.The needs for affiliation (3) A person with dominant needs for affiliation has a need for friendly relationships and is motivated towards interaction with other people. They have motivation and need to be liked, that is why they usually are team players. But this need to be liked can influence their objectivity and capability of decision making. They prefer collaboration over competition and do not like to take high risks. 11
  • 16. Motivation – De-motivation in Youth Work, Latvia, 2013 2.4.4.The steps for using McClelland's theory 1: Step 1: Identify Drivers Examine your team to determine which of the three motivators is dominant for each person. You can probably identify drivers based on personality and past actions. Step 2: Structure Your Approach Based on the driving motivators of your workers, structure your leadership style and project assignments for each individual team member. This will help ensure that they all stay engaged, motivated, and happy with the work they are doing. To understand this theory even better, we recommend watching the following videos: http://vimeo.com/52130746 http://vimeo.com/21349143 1 http://www.mindtools.com 12
  • 17. Motivation – De-motivation in Youth Work, Latvia, 2013 3.De-motivation theory and factors 3.1.What is de-motivation? If the motivation factors are the reasons why we are doing something, the factors that drives us to do something and to fulfil some needs, then de-motivation also has its types and characteristics. De-motivation is not just struggle Goal setting, planning, with the same problem whenever you are not organizing and motivated for action – it is a category of problems structuring, prioritization that has many distinctions within it. is usually a solution to prevent de-motivation.  Not so much studied as a motivational phenomenon;  Standard motivational techniques can fail to de-motivation; When you feel de-motivated for some action, the first step is to find out WHY? We have distinguished 10 different types (factors) of de-motivation and some tips that can help you to decrease de-motivation. Influence:     Reduction of the efficiency; The increase in costs (if any); The innovative trend of declining; Increase in the number of errors;  Atmospheric deterioration. To understand this better, we recommend watching the following videos: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l-gQLqv9f4o http://www.ted.com/talks/dan_pink_on_motivation.html 13
  • 18. Motivation – De-motivation in Youth Work, Latvia, 2013 3.2.Demotivation by the cause of fear (1) The fear is slowing down the activity and the achievement of the objectives of the prevented. What are the young people’s de-motivation factors of fear?2 What you can do? • Define your fear; • Answer to the questions - why are they? For what they warn? What are the chances that it would really happen? • Is there any other fear left? Consider risk management strategies. • Development through small steps. Divide your strategy into smaller steps. 3.3.Demotivation by the unclear or wrong goals/tasks (2) Personal objectives v/s public, organization pressure What you can do?  Evaluate your aims in a longer period;  Objective review;  Remind yourself what makes you happy;  New aim definition. 2 We asked some young people in the streets 14
  • 19. Motivation – De-motivation in Youth Work, Latvia, 2013 3.4.Demotivation by the limited autonomy (3) It is necessary to make a decision about what should be done, how to do it and why? What you can do?  Decision making for your own purposes;  Discussion with the management of organisation. 3.5.Demotivation by the conflict of values (4) Multiple values are in conflict and uncertainty about what are the priority values. It is not enough to know what you don’t want. More important is to know what it is that you want. What are the young people’s de-motivation factors of values?3 What you can do?  Understand your values, write them down;  Write down the value directions (which values conflicts);  Work of the analysis and evaluation;  Conclusions that all values are identical in general, because they are your values;  Prioritization. 3.6.Demotivation by the loneliness (5) Do you feel that there is no one next to you? There is no one to do things together and to share with? 3 We asked some young people in the streets 15
  • 20. Motivation – De-motivation in Youth Work, Latvia, 2013 What you can do?  Activities with friends;  Events that inspire;  Regular compensation mechanism;  "Networking" in the areas of your interest. 3.7.Demotivation by the lack of challenge (6) The lack of challenge can be a result of routine. What you can do?  To review the goals and projects;  Transform them so that they are more ambitious for you;  Review of tactics on how to achieve your goals - choose those that forces you to get new knowledge; 3.8.Demotivation because the person don’t know the next steps (7) This can happen if you have set your goals and you know what should be the result, but you haven’t indicated the small steps and the ways how to reach your goals. What you can do?  Precisely formulate what you want and how you will get it?  Determine a clear time for small steps;  Clear expectations. 3.9.Demotivation by the cause of confusion (8) Confusion, doubt, distrust. What you can do?  Don’t rush things! Do this phase peacefully;  Tell other people who are able to listen to you;  Need to relax, to describe it and to live it through. Then it will disappear by itself. 16
  • 21. Motivation – De-motivation in Youth Work, Latvia, 2013 3.10.Demotivation because the person don’t have “the full picture” (9) If you don’t know the full picture, it is very difficult to do small steps (tasks), although the long-term goal is clear, but the plan is not. What you can do?  Define precisely what you want and how you want it to be done;  Make clear expectations. 3.11.Demotivation by the cause of burning-out (10) Continuous tiredness, overload, the desire to "switch off", non-compliance with basic needs and preferences. Long lasting exhaustion and diminished interest in work. What are the young people’s de-motivation factors of burning-out?4 What you can do?  Have more sleep. The process of thinking will get stabilised (burnout syndrome should not be as long-term);  Important things vs. Insubstantial;  Priority setting;  A division of labour. „7 Strategies to Prevent Burnout”5 By Paula Davis-Laack, lawyer turned stress & resilience expert 4 5 We asked some young people in the streets http://www.huffingtonpost.com/paula-davislaack/job-burnout_b_3530660.html 17
  • 22. Motivation – De-motivation in Youth Work, Latvia, 2013 Maintaining the Momentum 6 De-motivation! Months later, that same job is one you dread waking up for. The people, well you know their whole life story, the boss favours them and they’ve been getting rewards that you should have received. The new tasks, well they aren’t so new anymore, in fact, you could probably do them blind folded and it’s not challenging you in anyway. As for the salary…for the job you’re doing, it’s no longer worth it! Motivation! You start a new job, it’s exciting, and everything is new: new people, new tasks, new competition, and possibly a higher salary and/or more benefits. Your goals finally seem in reach. It’s the job that gets your adrenaline flowing and makes you look forward to work the next day… To understand this better, we recommend watching the following videos: „7 Signs of a Demotivated Workforce” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U0F_ii1rv4A „The Art of Demotivation” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZBdU9v5nLKQ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cpbpx3j0EdU 7 3.12.De-motivation at work 6 http://clarissacollakoppen.wordpress.com/tag/de-motivation/ For more information: http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/Amal.Sanad-121012-de-motivation-workhrm-final-presentation-2003-education-ppt-powerpoint/ 7 18
  • 23. Motivation – De-motivation in Youth Work, Latvia, 2013 4.How to motivate individuals and groups Youth work involves individuals and mostly they make formal or informal groups to reach their goals, to support their community in different ways, especially youth. Every youth group consists of action by each member of a group and motivation factors may vary not only for each individual, but also by each youth group. 4.1.Individual intrinsic and extrinsic motivation  Intrinsic source because concept, needs. motivation is powerful of individual motivation it is derived from a selfcore beliefs and internal  Extrinsic motivation is different rewards and punishments that come from outside world. This motivation is short term and the desired behaviour will probably disappear when the treat is gone (or forgotten) or the promise has been delivered. The difference = the reason why a person is doing something? 4.2.How you can increase your intrinsic motivation?  "I can do it" The first thing is to believe in you. Any motivation has to come from within the individual. The person has to see their goal and be convinced that their goal is achievable.  Ego People want to feel good and better about themselves. To create and accomplice individual challenges increases one's self-esteem and ego. 19
  • 24. Motivation – De-motivation in Youth Work, Latvia, 2013  Set goals and try to reach it (trying to succeed) The first thing is to create a set of goals. These have to interest and inspire the individual and they need to be achievable. The person has to see the path to the goal in order to successfully achieve their initial aims. Creating S.M.A.R.T. Goals Specific - A specific goal has a much greater chance of being accomplished than a general goal. To set a specific goal you must answer the six "W" questions: *Who: Who is involved? *What: What do I want to accomplish? *Where: Identify a location. *When: Establish a time frame. *Which: Identify requirements and constraints. *Why: Specific reasons, purpose or benefits of accomplishing the goal. EXAMPLE: A general goal would be, "Get in shape." But a specific goal would say, "Join a health club and workout 3 days a week." Measurable - Establish concrete criteria for measuring progress toward the attainment of each goal you set. When you measure your progress, you stay on track, reach your target dates, and experience the exhilaration of To determine if your goal is measurable, ask achievement that spurs you on questions such as - How much? How many? How will to continued effort required to I know when it is accomplished? reach your goal. Attainable - When you identify goals that are most important to you, you begin to figure out ways you can make them come true. You develop the attitudes, abilities, skills, and financial capacity to reach them. You can attain most any goal you set when you plan your steps wisely and establish a time frame that allows you to carry out those steps. Relevant (Realistic) - To be realistic, a goal must represent an objective toward which you are willing and able to work. Be sure that every goal represents substantial progress. A high goal is frequently easier to reach than a low one because a low goal exerts low motivational force. Your goal is probably realistic if you truly believe that it can be accomplished. Timely - A goal should be grounded within a time frame. "Someday" won't work. But if you anchor it within a timeframe, "by May 1st", then you've set your unconscious mind into motion to begin working on the goal. 20
  • 25. Motivation – De-motivation in Youth Work, Latvia, 2013  Personal development People feel the need to improve themselves. According to Maslow's theory of hierarchy, this is the final stage of a human's needs. People want to learn new skills and challenge themselves. For many people, this is exciting and so therefore is motivating in itself. In the developed world, people have a greater opportunity to focus on their inner selves. Part of a person's individual motivation is to develop themselves mentally as well as physically.  Curiosity Something in the physical environment attracts the learner's attention or there is an optimal level of discrepancy between present knowledge or skills and what these could be if the learner engaged in some activity.  Fear Humans are sometimes motivated by their fears. Many people feel the need to prove themselves as they challenge or face their fears. In terms of personal development, people see their fears as something to overcome and by doing so, become stronger individuals. This is one of the strongest motivational factors, but depending on individual it can be a de-motivational factor as well.  Control People have a basic tendency to want to control what happens to them.  Fantasy Learners use mental images of things and situations that are not actually present to stimulate their behaviour.  Competition Learners feel satisfaction by comparing their performance favourably to that of others.  Recognition Learners feel satisfaction when others recognize and appreciate accomplishments. To understand this better, we recommend watching the following videos:Pursuit of Happiness, the basketball scene http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dPEdwaLQLag 127 HOURS - Official Movie Trailer http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OlhLOWTnVoQ Partly Cloudy http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-a6Pe1ovKHg their 21
  • 26. Motivation – De-motivation in Youth Work, Latvia, 2013 4.3.Examples of extrinsic motivation factors  Financial Rewards Commissions, bonuses, stock options and employee stock plans are compensatory rewards used to motivate employees. Within the range of extrinsic motivations, these are "carrots." The drive for money and success can often get people's feet marching.  Praise and Recognition Some people aim to please. And nothing pleases them more than receiving praise for their hard work. This extrinsic motivation is one of the strongest, most common motivations in the workplace. Numerous studies show recognition and praise contribute more to job satisfaction than financial incentives. Regularly delivering sincere and genuine compliments is a strong extrinsic motivational method.  Peer Pressure A teenager - and anyone who has been a teenager - knows all about the power of groups as extrinsic motivating factors. The pressure to feel accepted and valued can in fact be a motivator. Perhaps at some point it was a motivator to try cigarettes. Or at work, it may be the reason people work their hardest - to keep up with their team - or why they take longer or shorter lunches. And ff the rest of the kids are doing it.  Consequences and Punishment When the heat's on, many people take action or step up their performance. Knowing the boss will be angry or their job may be on the line is a reason many people get their work done. Is fear the best motivational tool in the arsenal? Psychologists and management experts debate this. But it is definitely an extrinsic motivation. 22
  • 27. Motivation – De-motivation in Youth Work, Latvia, 2013 4.4.Intrinsic and extrinsic group motivation Motivational factors differ since the goals of the individual and the team are often not on the same level. The individual will always fight to fulfil their higher level needs. These needs are often not consistent with the needs of the team and of the individual. The motivation of the individual is essential for successful motivation of the team. Team members must be able to fulfil their higher level needs to be motivated and team members must be committed to the team. Along with good leadership that enables team members to fulfil their goals all of these qualities will motivate a team. The motivational factors that drive a team can be divided into four categories – task, structure, goals, and members. By realizing other factors besides intrinsic rewards that will motivate individuals, the team will also be motivated. The sharing of knowledge, support, solidarity and communication are all highly effective in motivating a team. All in all, a team that exists within a collaborative, structured and communicative environment will be highly motivated. Overall, there are consequences when teams lack motivation. By examining the consequences in the areas of task, structure, goals, and members, we are able to recognize how motivation is lost and proactively address any issues in the future. To understand this better, we recommend watching the following videos: L'Equip Petit - The little Team (Documentary on Young Football Players) The Best Motivational Speech in the World Motivational and inspirational video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_pEBz6PzF50 4.5.Factors that motivate and inspire  A clear team goal;  The interaction of team members, that when combined produce results which are greater than the sum of the individual members;  A show of commitment from the other team members inspires the group as a whole;  If there are enough resources available for the team, then this increases productivity and morale; 23
  • 28. Motivation – De-motivation in Youth Work, Latvia, 2013  High standards should be maintained within the team;  A good team atmosphere;  The relationship between the ambition of the team and the individuals is two way;  There should be direction and leadership within the team; often from a select number of individuals;  The team members should help and support each other;  The team members should feel free to express their opinions and views;  The team schedule should be realistic and followed as closely as possible;  It is essential for the team to be transparent and for the members to trust each other;  A strong and clear team initiative is important for motivation;  The team members should be competent and respect each other’s talents and abilities. To understand this better, we recommend watching the following videos: Motivation, Success, Greatness. -Will Smith http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M1W71fI1wCM Group motivational quotes Individual motivational quotes Your days are your life in miniature. As you live your hours, so you create your years. As you live your days, so you craft your life. What you do today is actually creating your future. The words you speak, the thoughts you think, the food you eat and the actions you take are defining your destiny — shaping who you are becoming and what your life will stand for. Small choices lead to giant consequences over time. There’s no such thing as an unimportant day. Robin Sharma 24
  • 29. Motivation – De-motivation in Youth Work, Latvia, 2013 5.YOUTH IN ACTION PROGRAMME This Training Course „Motivation – De-motivation in Youth Work” was organised with financial support of Youth in Action Programme. Youth in Action is the Programme the European Union has set up for young people. It aims to inspire a sense of active European citizenship, solidarity and tolerance among young Europeans and to involve them in shaping the Union's future. It promotes mobility within and beyond the EU's borders, non-formal learning and intercultural dialogue, and encourages the inclusion of all young people, regardless of their educational, social and cultural background: Youth in Action is a Programme for all. Every year, thousands of projects are submitted by promoters in order to get financial support from the Programme; a selection process aims at granting the best projects. The new EU programme Erasmus+ for Education, Training, Youth and Sport for 2014-2020 is starting in January 2014. More information you can find here: http://ec.europa.eu/programmes/erasmus-plus/ The authors of this manual are not the authors of all used photos and videos. The purpose of the use is for non-profit educational purposes, only. The links from photo and video sources are attached. http://openphoto.net/gallery/image/view/22829 http://www.quickmeme.com/meme/32pe http://www.thecelebsocial.com/hollywood/eminem/ http://www.disney.co.uk/ratatouille/#gallery http://collectortech.com/blog/2013/03/motivating-collectors-the-herzberg-continuum/ http://www.accel-team.com/index.html http://greenchambersd.wordpress.com/2010/07/20/did-you-know/ http://www.millermosaicllc.com/mlm/ http://izquotes.com/quote/135759 http://studentsuccess.unc.edu/setting-goals/ http://photo.net/photodb/photo?photo_id=6028333 http://www.loesje.org/node/126 http://www.fotosearch.com/photos-images/syndrome.html http://www.fotosearch.com/clip-art/tired.html http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/Amal.Sanad-121012-de-motivation-work-hrm-final-presentation-2003-education-pptpowerpoint/ http://gayecrispin.wordpress.com/tag/anything/ http://www.planetofsuccess.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/motivation2.jpg http://iheartinspiration.com/quotes/dont-ever-let-somebody-tell-you-you-cant-do-something/ http://izquotes.com/quote/78594 http://izquotes.com/quote/160673 http://athleticpoetics.tumblr.com/post/61638338429/there-is-no-i-in-team-but-there-is-an-i-in 25