Metacognitive strategies refers to methods used to help
students understand the way they learn; in other words, it
means processes designed for students to 'think' about their
Teachers who use metacognitive strategies can positively
impact students who have learning disabilities by helping them
to develop an appropriate plan for learning information.
The activities of Metacognitive strategy selection and application
include those concerned with an ongoing attempt to plan, check,
monitor, select, revise, evaluate, etc.
Plan / Organize
Manage Your Own
Plan / Organize
Before beginning a
• Set goals.
• Plan the task or
• choose strategies.
• Preview a text. Identify Problems
While working on a task:
• Check your progress on the
• Check your comprehension as
you use the language. Do you
understand? If not, what is the
• Check your production as you
use the language. Are you
making sense? If not, what is
After completing a task:
• Assess how well you have
accomplished the learning task.
• Assess how well you have used
• Decide how effective the
• Identify changes you will make
the next time you have a similar
task to do.
Manage Your Own Learning
• Determine how you learn best.
• Arrange conditions that help
• Seek opportunities for
• Focus your attention on the
Great for reading comprehension and
problem solving. Think- alouds help
students to consciously monitor and
reflect upon what they are learning. This
strategy works well when teachers read a
story or problem out loud and periodically
stop to verbalize their thoughts. This
allows students to follow the teacher's
thinking process, which gives them the
foundation they need for creating their
own strategies and processes that can
be useful for understanding what they are
trying to comprehend.
A cognitive strategy is a mental process or procedure for
accomplishing a particular cognitive goal. For example, if
students' goals are to write good essays, their cognitive
strategies might include brainstorming and completing an outline.
The cognitive strategies that students use influence how they will
perform in school, as well as what they will accomplish outside of
school. Researchers have found that effective learners and
thinkers use more effective strategies for reading, writing,
problem solving, and reasoning than ineffective learners and
Cognitive strategies can be general or specific
(Pressley & Woloshyn, 1995). General cognitive
strategies are strategies that can be applied across
many different disciplines and situations (such as
summarization or setting goals for what to accomplish),
whereas specific cognitive strategies tend to be more
narrow strategies that are specified toward a particular
kind of task (such as drawing a picture to help one see
how to tackle a physics problem). Specific strategies
tend to be more powerful but have a more restricted
range of use. Effective learners use both general and
Strategies have been distinguished from skills. Although skills
are similar to strategies, they are different in that they are
carried out automatically, whereas strategies usually require
individuals to think about what strategy they are using
(Alexander, Graham, & Harris, 1998). Effective learners develop
the ability to use strategies automatically while also reflecting
upon those strategies when necessary. People who are able to
reflect upon their own cognition and cognitive strategies are said
to have metacognitive awareness.
The use of cognitive strategies
can increase the efficiency with
which the learner approaches a
learning task. These academic
tasks can include, but are not
limited to, remembering and
applying information from
course content, constructing
sentences and paragraphs,
editing written work,
paraphrasing, and classifying
information to be learned.
Impacting both the task and the learner using cognitive
strategies is referred to as Content Enhancement.
Bulgren, Deshler, and Schumaker (1997) highlight three
important teacher activities in their model of content
• Teachers evaluate the content they cover.
• Teachers determine the necessary approaches to
learning for student success
• Teachers teach with routines and instructional
supports that assist students as they apply
appropriate techniques and strategies.
• In this way, the teacher emphasizes what the
students should learn, or the "product" of learning.
When a teacher is comfortable with
the content he/she is teaching, he/she
knows which parts are the most
important, the most interesting and the
easiest (or hardest) to learn.
The use of cognitive strategies
can increase the efficiency and
confidence with which the
learner approaches a learning
task, as well as his/her ability to
develop a product, retain
essential information, or
perform a skill. While teaching
cognitive strategies requires a
high degree of commitment
from both the teacher and
learner, the results are well
worth the effort.
(USE WHAT YOU
• Think about and use
what you already know
to help you do the task.
• Make associations
information and your
• Use new information to
clarify or modify your
• Use context and
what you know to
• Read and listen
between the lines.
• Go beyond the
text to understand
• Anticipate information to
• Make logical guesses about
what will happen in a
written or oral text.
• Make an estimate (math).
• Make a hypothesis
• Relate new concepts to
your own life, to your
knowledge, beliefs and
• Use a synonym or
phrase for unknown words or
• Apply your linguistic
knowledge of other
languages (including your
native language) to the target
• Recognize cognates.
(USE YOUR SENSES)
• Use or create an actual or
mental image to understand
• Use or draw a picture or
diagram. Use Sounds
• Say or read aloud a word,
sentence, or paragraph to
help your understanding.
• Sound out/vocalize.
• Use your “mental tape
recorder” to remember
sounds, words, phrases,
• Act out a role, for example,
in Readers’ Theater, or
imagine yourself in different
roles in the target language.
• Use real objects to help you
sentences, or content
(USE YOUR ORGANIZATIONAL SKILLS)
• Apply a rule.
• Make a rule.
• Recognize and apply
discourse, or register
• Identify patterns in
• Identify patterns in math,
science, and social
• Categorize words or
ideas according to
• Classify living things;
identify natural cycles.
• Identify order and
sequences in math,
science, and social
• Sequence events in
• Write down important
words and ideas while
listening or reading.
• List ideas or words to
include in speaking or
• Use or create visual
as Venn diagrams,
time lines, webs, and
charts) of important
• Create a mental,
oral, or written
Use Selective Attention
• Focus on specific
structures, key words,
phrases, or ideas.
(USE A VARIETY OF RESOURCES)
• Use the dictionary, the
internet, and other
• Seek out and use
sources of information.
• Follow a model
• Ask questions
• Work with others to
complete tasks, build
confidence, and give
and receive feedback.
Talk Yourself Through It
• -Use your inner resources.
Reduce your anxiety by
reminding yourself of your
progress, the resources
you have available, and
Licenciatura en lenguas