Italian III tutorial

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Italian III tutorial

  1. 1. Italian IV Tutorial: Basic Phrases, Vocabulary and Grammar61. OBJECT PRONOUNSSubject Direct Indirect Object of Prepositionsio I mi me mi to me me metu you (s.i.) ti you ti to you te yoului he/it lo him/it gli to him/it lui him/itlei she/it/you (s.p.) la her/it/you le to her/it/you lei her/it/younoi we ci us ci to us noi usvoi you (p.i.) vi you vi to you voi youloro they/you (p.p.) li/le them/you loro to them/you loro them/you1. S.i. means singular informal, s.p. means singular polite, p.i. means pluralinformal, and p.p. means plural polite. For you (s.p.) and you (p.p.) they arecapitalized to set them apart from the other meaning. (Lei instead of lei andLoro instead of loro.)2. Direct and indirect pronouns go directly before the conjugated verb OR they areattached to the infinitive at the end (minus the final -e of the infinitive); exceptloro, which always follows the verb: Lo voglio comprare. = Vogliocomprarlo. I want to buy it.3. With commands, the pronoun (except loro) is attached to the end and written asone word: Parlatemi! Talk to me!With one syllable commands, the consonant of the pronoun is doubled beforeadding it to the end of the command: di + mi = dimmi! tell me!However, with negative commands, the pronoun may either be placed at theend as with positive commands, or they can be placed between non andthe verb: Non andarci! = Non ci andare! Dont go there!4. When you have more than one pronoun, the indirect comes before the direct.5. Mi, ti, ci, and vi change to me, te, ce, and ve before lo, la, li and le.Also notice the insertion of ce before a pronoun + avere in constructions suchas: Ce lho. I have it. Non ce le ho. I dont have them.6. Gli and le become glie before lo, la, li, and le; and are written as one wordconnected with the other pronoun:glielo, gliela, glieli, glieleIf you use the direct object pronouns lo, la, li, le in the present perfect tense,the past participle must agree with them.Hai mangiato il panino? Did you eat the bun?Lo ho mangiato. I ate it.
  2. 2. Hai mangiato la pasta? Did you eat the pastry?La ho mangiata. I ate it.In negative sentences, pronouns go before the entire verb as well, but afterthe non.I havent eaten it. Non lo ho mangiato.The following verbs are always used with indirect pronouns or nouns:to give dare to bring portareto say/tell dire to prepare preparareto ask domandare to give (as a gift) regalareto lend imprestare to return, give back rendereto teach insegnare to bring back riportareto send mandare to answer rispondereto show mostrare to write scrivereto offer offrire to call/telephone telefonare62. PARTS OF THE BODYankle la caviglia mouth la boccaarm il braccio muscle il muscoloartery larteria nail lunghiaback il dorso neck il collobeard la barba nerve il nervobelly il ventre pain il dolorebladder la vescica nose il nasoblood il sangue palm la palmabody il corpo pulse il polsobone losso rib la costolabrain il cervello shin / tibia la tibiabreast il seno shoulder la spallabreath lalito skeleton lo scheletrocalf il polpaccio skin la pellecheek la guancia skull il craniochest il petto sole la piantachin il mento spine la spina dorsale
  3. 3. coccyx il coccige stomach lo stomacocold il raffreddore tear la lacrimacomplexion la carnagione temple la tempiacough la tosse thigh la cosciadisease la malattia throat la golaear lorecchio thumb il polliceelbow il gomito toe il dito del piedeeye locchio tongue la linguaeyebrow il sopracciglio tooth il denteeyelid la palpebra vein la venaface la faccia / il viso wound la feritafever la febbre waist la vitafinger il dito wrist il polsofist il pugnoflesh la carne see vederefoot il piede hear udireforehead la fronte smell annusaregum la gengiva taste assaggiarehair i capelli touch toccarehand la manohead la testa enamel lo smaltoheadache il mal di testa filling lotturazionehealth la salute crown la coronaheart il cuore gum la gengivaheel il tallone bone lossohip lanca root la radiceintestine lintestino nerve il nervojaw la mascella iris liridekidney il rene cornea la corneaknee il ginocchio pupil la pupillaleg la gamba retina la retinalip il labbro optic nerve il nervo otticoliver il fegato lens la lentelung il polmonemoustache i baffi
  4. 4. You can use the expressions Ho mal di + body part or Mi fa male + definitearticle and the body part to say that something hurts. If the noun is plural,you have to use mi fanno male instead of mi fa male.Ho mal di testa. My head hurts. / I have a headache.Mi fa male il dito. My finger hurts.Mi fanno male gli occhi. My eyes hurt.To talk about hair and eyes:Ha i capelli corti / lunghi. S/he has short / long hair.Ha i capelli biondi / bruni / neri / rossi. S/he has blond / brown / black /red hair.Ha gli occhi azzurri / marroni / grigi / verdi. S/he has blue / brown / gray /green eyes.63. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNSMost of the question words are invariable (they dont have to agree with thenoun), but quale (which) and quanto (how much/many) must agree. Notethat these words do not require a noun to follow them.Before singular nouns, quale is used, and before plural nouns, quali isused.Quale camicetta compri? Which blouse are you buying?Quali maglioni compri? Which pullovers are you buying?Quali compri? Which ones are you buying?Quanto has four forms that follow the regular adjective pattern. Quanto ismasculine singular, quanta is feminine singular, quanti is masculine pluraland quante is feminine plural.Quanto denaro hai? How much money do you have?Quante camicette compri? How many blouses are you buying?Quanto costa? How much does it cost?64. RELATIVE PRONOUNSRelative pronouns connect a dependent clause and a main clause togetherin a sentence. An antecedent is the noun or pronoun that the relativepronoun refers back to. The relative pronouns in English are that, what,which, whom, and whose. The relative pronouns in Italian are che, cui, ilquale (and its forms), chi, quello che, quel che, and ciò che.
  5. 5. When the antecedent is a definite person, animal or thing, che, cui or a formof il quale is used. Che is invariable and never used with a preposition. Cuiis also invariable, but it is always used with a preposition. Il quale and itsforms can be used with articles or articles plus prepositions. It is mainlyused in formal speech, writing and for clarity, and rarely in casualconversation.La ragazza che vedi è mia sorella. The girl whom you see is my sister.Per le pillole di cui hai bisogno ci vuole la ricetta. The pills (of) whichyou need require a prescription.Lei è la sola persona nella quale (or in cui) io abbia fiducia. You are theonly person whom I trust.È una medicina la quale (or che) non fa male allo stomaco. Its medicinethat doesnt upset your stomach.When the antecedent is unknown or indefinite, chi is used when referring topeople. It is invariable and means "he/she who," "whoever," "the one who"and takes a verb in the third person singular form. Quello che, quel che,and ciò cheare all invariable and interchangeable. They refer to things onlyand mean "what" or "that which."Chi sta bene non va dal dottore. He who feels well doesnt go to thedoctor.Chi trova un amico, trova un tesoro. One who finds a friend, finds atreasure.Non capisco quello che dice. I dont understand what hes saying.Ciò che scrivi è sbagliato. What youre writing is wrong.65. TO READ, TO SAY/TELL, TO GO OUT, TO LAUGHleggere - to read dire - to say/tell uscire - to go out ridere - to laughleggo leggiamo dico diciamo esco usciamo rido ridiamoleggi leggete dici dite esci uscite ridi ridetelegge leggono dice dicono esce escono ride ridonoPast participle: letto Past participle: detto Past participle: uscito Past participle: risoThe verb dire is also used in the expression:Che ne dici di + infinitive? How about / Do you want to + infinitive?When uscire is followed by a place, the preposition da plusany contractions must be used, except in the idiom uscire di casa.
  6. 6. Esco dalluniversità alle 5.30. I leave the university at 5:30.66. INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES & PRONOUNSAdjectivesmasculinesingularfemininesingularmasculinepluralfemininepluralany / some alcuno alcuna alcuni alcuneas much /manyaltrettanto altrettanta altrettanti altrettanteother altro altra altri altresome certo certa certi certea lot of molto molta molti molteseveral parecchio parecchia parecchi parecchiefew poco poca pochi pochesuch a / such tale tale tali taliso much /manytanto tanta tanti tantetoo much /manytroppo troppa troppi troppeall tutto tutta tutti tuttevarious /severalvario varia vari varienot one / notanynessuno nessuna (no plural form)Invariable Adjectivesevery ognisome / a few qualchewhatever / any qualsiasiwhatever / any qualunquePronouns
  7. 7. who / whoever chiwhoever / no matter who chiunquehowever / no matter how comunquewherever / no matterwheredovunquewhatever / no matterwhatqualunque cosaeach ciascuno / ciascunaeach ognuno / ognunano one / nobody / not any nessuno / nessunanothing nientenothing nullasomething qualcosasomeone qualcuno / qualcunaone uno / unathe ones gli unithe others gli altri67. CI AND NECi (there, it, about it, of it) and ne (some, of them, of it) are both pronounsthat go before the verb and they replace prepositional phrases. Ci willreplace phrases indicating locations that begin with in, on, to, at, under, etc.and ne will replace phrases that are usually preceded by some ora number and that indicate quantities.Example SentencesI live in Paris. Vivo a Parigi.I live there. Ci vivo.I have some apples. Ho delle mele.I have some (of them). Ne ho.I have five sisters. Ho cinque sorelle.I have five (of them). Ne ho cinque.Do you buy books often? Compri spesso libri?I buy many (of them). Ne compro molte.
  8. 8. Similar to other pronouns, ci and ne go directly before the conjugated verbor they are attached to the infinitive at the end (minus the final -e of theinfinitive).Ci voglio andare. = Voglio andarci. I want to go there.Ne posso spendere molti. = Posso spenderne molti. I can spend a lot.In the perfect tenses, the past participle must agree with the nounthat ne refers to, the same way that it must agree with the direct objectpreceding it:Quante caramelle hai mangiato? How many candies did you eat?Ne ho mangiate quattro. I ate four of them.Other Uses of CiThe particle ci is also used in the verbs volerci and metterci. Both of theseverbs translate to take when referring to how much time is needed to dosomething. In addition, volerci translates to need, be required when there isno reference to time and it is often used in the impersonal sense (generalyou or we; is + past participle).Per fare un tavolo ci vuole il legno. To make a table, you need wood /wood is required.Ci vogliono fatti e non teorie. We need facts and not theories.Ci metto 30 minuti per andare al lovoro. It takes me 30 minutes to get towork.Non ci metti molto a finirlo. It doesnt take me a lot of time to finish it.68. ANIMALSanimal lanimale (m) lark lallodolaant la formica lion il leoneantelope lantilope (f) lizard la lucertolaantenna lantenna lobster (spiny) laragostaantler le corna louse il pidocchiobadger il tasso mackerel lo sgombrobat il pipistrello mole la talpabeak il becco monkey la scimmiabear lorso mosquito la zanzara
  9. 9. bee lape (f) moth la falenabeetle lo scarabeo mouse il topobird luccello mule il muloblackbird il merlo mussel la cozzabull il toro nest il nidobutterfly la farfalla nightingale lusignolocalf il vitello octopus il polpocarp la carpa ostrich lo struzzocat il gatto owl il gufocaterpillar il bruco ox il buecheetah il ghepardo oyster lostricachicken il pollo parrot il pappagallochimpanzee lo scimpanzé partridge la perniceclaw lartiglio paw la zampacockroach lo scarafaggio penguin il pinguinocod il merluzzo pig il porcococoon il bozzolo pigeon il piccionecow la vacca pike il lucciocrab il granchio pony il ponycrayfish il gambero rabbit il conigliocrocodile il coccodrillo raccoon il procionecrow il corvo rat il ratto / il sorciodeer il cervo rooster il gallodog il cane salmon il salmonedonkey lasino scale la squamadragonfly la libellula scorpion lo scorpioneduck lanitra sea gull il gabbianoeagle laquila seahorse il cavalluccio marinoeel languilla seal la focaegg luovo shark lo squaloelephant lelefante (m) sheep la pecorafeather la penna shrimp il gamberetto / il gamberofin la pinna skin la pellefish il pesce slug la lumacaflea la pulce snail la chiocciola
  10. 10. fly la mosca snake il serpente / la bisciafox la volpe sole la sogliolafrog il ranocchio sparrow il passerofur la pelliccia spider il ragnogill la branchia squid il calamarogiraffe la giraffa squirrel la scoiattologoat la capra starfish la stella di maregoose loca stork la cicognagorilla il gorilla swallow la rondinegrasshopper la cavalletta swan il cignohamster il criceto tadpole il girinohare la lepre tail la codahedgehog il riccio tiger la tigrehen la gallina toad il rospoheron lairone (m) trout la trotaherring laringa tuna il tonnohoof lo zoccolo turkey il tacchinohorn il corno turtle la tartarugahorse il cavallo wasp la vespahummingbird il colibrì weasel la donnolaiguana liguana whale la balenainsect linsetto wing lalajellyfish la medusa wolf il lupokitten il gattino worm il vermeladybug la coccinella zebra la zebralamb lagnello69. PAST PERFECT TENSE (TRAPASSATO PROSSIMO)The pluperfect or past perfect tense corresponds to the English "had + pastparticiple." It indicates an event that happened prior to another event in thepast. It consists of the imperfect of avere or essere (whichever auxiliaryverb the main verb takes in the present perfect tense) and a past participle.Lavevo già notato. I had already noticed it.Ero andato ad un suo concerto. I had been to one of his concerts.Non avevo avuto ancora occasione. I hadnt had the opportunity yet.Erano già stati a San Remo. They had already been to San Remo.
  11. 11. 70. SUFFIXESSuffixes may be attached to nouns, adjectives or adverbs. The final vowelof the word should be dropped before adding the suffixes. The endings -ino,-ina, -ello, -ella, -etta, -etta, -uccio, and -uccia are diminutives that expresssmallness. The endings -one and -ona are augmentatives and expresslargeness. The endings -ino and -uccio also express endearment. Theendings -aacio, -accia, -astro, -astra, -azzo, and -azza imply ugliness or poorquality.letterparcelboyletterapaccoragazzosmall letterlarge parcelbad boyletterinapacconeragazzaccioTesorino mio! My sweetheart!Amoruccio mio! My sweet love!71. CONJUNCTIONSand e because chéor o because, so that perchéotherwise, or oppure so that, in order that affinchéand yet, still eppure since poichénevertheless tuttavia as soon as siccomenow ora given that dato chebut, however ma if sebut, however però until finchéneither… nor né…né up to, until fino atherefore, then dunque though benchéin fact infatti although sebbeneso, therefore quindi although nonostantewhat, that che although quantunquewhen quando before prima quewhile mentre as soon as appena
  12. 12. 72. PASSIVE VOICEIn passive sentences, the subject receives the action of the verb. In activesentences, the subject does the action. However, the meaning of bothsentences is the same. The passive form is only possible with transitiveverbs and is much more common in English than in Italian. The passiveform consists of the verb essere plus the past participle of the main verbfollowed by da (by) and its contractions. Essere should be in the sametense as the verb in its corresponding active sentence. The past participleagrees in gender and number with the subject.Active I miei genitori pagano laffitto. My parents pay the rent.PassiveLaffitto è pagato dai mieigenitori.The rent is paid by myparents.I contratti sono firmati dalle ragazze. The contracts are signed by thegirls.La stanza è stata arredata da Carlo. The room was decorated by Carlo.Laffitto sarà pagato dai miei genitori. The rent will be paid by myparents.73. IMPERSONAL EXPRESSIONSSi can be used as a reflexive pronoun, but it can also be used as animpersonal pronoun. It corresponds to "one, you, we, the people in general,or they" in English and always use the third person form of the verb (eithersingular or plural depending on the object).Qui si vende carta da lettere. We sell writing paper here. / Writing paper issold here.Si vendono anche matite? Do you also sell pencils?Qui non si parla francese. We dont speak French here. / French is notspoken here.→ To avoid si si with reflexive verbs in an impersonal use, use ci si instead:Ci si diverte molto. One has a lot of fun.→ To avoid the use of si in impersonal statements, replace it with uno:Si mangia bene qui. = Uno mangia bene qui. One eats well here.→ Other impersonal expressions, which are followed by infinitives, include:Bisogna - it is necessary, one mustÈ necessario - it is necessaryÈ possibile -it is possible
  13. 13. È meglio - it is betterÈ facile / difficile - it is easy / difficultÈ utile / inutile - it is useful / useless74. POST OFFICE AND BANKpost office la posta bank la bancamailboxla cassetta delleletterefile cabinet lo schedariomail carrier il postino guard il custodemailbag il sacco della posta safe la cassaforteprice il prezzo safety deposit box la cassetta di sicurezzascale la bilancia checkbook il libretto degli assegnipackage il pacchetto credit card la carta di creditostamp il francobollo bills le banconoteletter la lettera coins le moneteaddress lindirizzo deposit slipla distinta diversamentopostal worker limpiegata postale pen la pennanewspaper il giornale check lassegnomagazine la rivista bank teller il cassiere75. USEFUL EXPRESSIONSNon ne posso più! I cant take it anymore!Lasciamo perdere! Forget about it!Che bello! How nice!Per forza! No wonder!Non è così semplice! Its not that easy!Chissà? Who knows?Ti pelano! They make you pay too much!Non vedo lora di... I cant wait to...Siamo messe male. We are in bad shape. (not physically)Che senso ha? Whats the point?Magari! I wish!
  14. 14. Non ne voglio propriosapere!I really dont want to know about it!Fai bene! Good for you!Non ce la faccio da sola! I cant do it by myself!Meglio ancora! Even better!Che ne dici di ... ?What about ... ? (when inviting someone to dosomething)Figurati! Dont mention it! / No problem! (informal)Accidenti (a te)! /Mannaggia!Darn (you)!Uffa! / Che rabbia! What a nuisance!Che peccato! What a pity!Mi va di... I feel like...Faccia pure! Go ahead!Te la cavi bene.You manage it well. (speaking a language, forexample)76. INFINITIVES FOLLOWED BY PREPOSITIONSThe following verbs require di or a when followed by another infinitive,although the preposition is not always translated into English. Thepreposition a can be changed to ad when the following verb begins with avowel.verb + di + infinitive verb + a + infinitiveaccettare di to accept abituarsi a to get used toaspettare di to wait for aiutare a to helpavere bisogno di to need andare a to be going toavere il piacere dito have thepleasurecominciare a to beginavere intenzionedito intend continuare a to continueavere paura di to be afraid convincere a to convinceavere voglia di to feel like correre a to runcercare di to try imparare a to learncessare di to cease insegnare a to teach
  15. 15. chiedere di to ask invitare a to invitecomandare di to command mandare a to sendcredere di to believe passare a to stop bydecidere di to decide pensare a to think ofdimenticare di to forget preparare a to preparedire di to say, tell provare a to trydomandare di to ask riuscire a to succeedfinire di to finish servire a to be good foroffrire di to offer stare a to stay, standpensare di to plan stare attento a to be carefulpermettere di to permit tornare a to returnpromettere di to promise venire a to comericordare di to remembersapere di to knowsmettere di to stop, ceasesognare di to dreamsperare di to hopetentare di to try, attempt77. THE BEACH & FARMbeach la spiaggia barn il granaiobeach ball il pallone barrel il barilebeach towel lasciugamano chicken coop il pollaiobeach umbrella lombrellone corral il recintoclam lostrica cottage il villinococonut la noce di cocco farm la fattoriafins le pinne farmhouse la cascinagogglesla mascherasubacqueahay il fienohut la capanna hoe la zappaisland lisola lasso il laccio
  16. 16. lifeguard il bagnino loft il fienilelighthouse il faro pitchfork il forconelounge chair la sedia a sdraio rake il rastrellooar il remo saddle la sellaocean liner la nave shovel la palapalm tree la palma silo il silopicnic il picnic stable la stallapier il molo stool lo sgabellorowboat la barca a remi tractor il trattoresailboat la barca a vela windmillil mulino aventosand la sabbiasand castle il castello di sabbiasea gull il gabbianosea lion lotariasea shell la conchigliaseal la focaseashore il litoraleseaweed lalga marinasuntan lotionla cremaabbronzantesurfboard la tavoletta da surfwaterskiing lo sci nauticowave londa78. PROBLEM VERBSThere are four verbs in Italian that correspond to the verb to leave inEnglish:Lasciare means to leave a person or thing behind.Partire means to leave, to depart, to go away on a trip.Uscire means to go out (of a place) or to go out socially.Andare via means to go away (opposite of to stay.)
  17. 17. There are three verbs that correspond to the verb to tell:Dire means to tell or say.Parlare means to speak or talk.Raccontare means to tell, in the sense of narrating.79. FARE CAUSATIVEThe verb fare can be followed by an infinitive to express the idea of havingsomeone do something or having something done. If the object is a noun, itfollows the infinitive; but if the object is a pronoun, it precedes the verb fare.(Unless the object pronoun is loro, then it always follows the infinitive.)Note that farsi can also be used in a causative construction when one ishaving something done to oneself.Abbiamo fatto fare quella sedia. We had that chair made.Faccio studiare i ragazzi. I make the boys study.Li faccio studiare. I make them study.Mi faccio tagliare i capelli. Im having my hair cut.When a causative sentence has two objects, the person being made to dosomething becomes the indirect object. In Italian, the indirect object isintroduced by a.Il maestro fa leggere lo studente. The teacher makes the student read.Il maestro fa leggere la lettura allo studente. The teacher makes thestudent read the passage.To avoid ambiguity with the indirect object, the preposition da insteadof a can be used. The sentence Abbiamo fatto mandare il pacco aMaria can mean two things: 1) We had Mary send the package or 2) Wehad the package sent to Mary. If the first meaning is intended, then da canreplace a.80. OFFICE & SCHOOL SUPPLIESbackpack / smallbackpacklo zaino / lozainettopaper clip la graffettabinder / folder la camicia pen la pennablackboard la lavagna pencil la matitabook il libro pencil case lastuccio per le matitebookcase la libreria pencil sharpener il temperamatitebriefcase la cartella periodical la rivistacabinet larmadietto planner lagenda
  18. 18. calculator la calcolatrice ruler il righellocalendar il calendario scissors i forbicichair la sedia sheet of paper il foglio di cartachalk il gessetto staple il punto metallicocrayon il pastello staplerla spillatrice / lacucitricedate la data text book il libro di testodesk la scrivania typewriterla macchina dascriveredictionary il dizionario computer il computerdrawer il cassetto laptop il portatile / laptopenvelope la busta monitor il monitoreraser la gomma keyboard la tastieraexercise book il quaderno mouse il mouseglobe il mappamondo printer la stampanteglue la colla scanner lo scannerink linchiostro cable il cavolamp la lampada microphone il microfonomap la carta disk (floppy) il dischettomarker il pennarello document il documentonews le notizie fax machine lapparecchionewspaper il giornale photocopier la fotocopiatricenotebook il quaderno software il softwarenovel il romanzo file il file / il dossierpage la paginaUSB key /flashdriveil pendrivepaper la carta external hard drive il hard disk esterni

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