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  • Supersededto replace in power, authority, effectiveness, acceptance, use, etc., as by another person or thing. Federation  uniting of a league
  • Chapter 9 Powerpoint 1

    1. 1. CHAPTER NINE<br />Howdid Singaporegainindependence?<br />Ang Leck Mien [2]<br />Caitlin De Boer [5]<br />Jessica Swain [17]<br />Nayli Irdina Bte Imran [27]<br />Nur Arafah Banu [28]<br />
    2. 2. Learning Objectives<br />Understand the reasons for Singapore`s merger with Malaya<br />Comprehend reasons for separation<br /> Know the challenges faced<br />
    3. 3. Contents<br />Singapore’s views<br />Malaya’s views<br />Britain’s view<br />Reasons for Singapore’s merger with Malaysia<br />Formation of Malaysia<br />Challenges to Singapore’s peace and prosperity<br />Reasons for separation<br />
    4. 4. General : What has happened so far?<br />1945 – SG was still a British Colony<br /> 1948 – SG`s first baby step [Not a British colony anymore]<br />1955 – SG is a child<br />1959 – SG is in its teenage years<br />Now, SG wants independence [To break free from the British] <br />
    5. 5. Solution???<br />MERGER!!!<br />
    6. 6. Merger with Malaya<br />Singapore’s merger with Malaya was closely associated to the idea of Federation of Malaya.<br /> The Federation of Malaya is the name given to a federation of 11 states that existed from 31 January until 16 September 1963.<br />It was eventually superseded by Malaysia, which comprised of the nine Malay states [Perlis, Kedah, Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Johore, Pahang, Terengganu and Kelantan] and the British settlements of Penang and Malacca.<br />
    7. 7. Why did Singapore want to merge with Malaya ?<br />Political Reasons<br />Economic Reasons<br />
    8. 8. Gain Full Independence<br />Singapore’s government wanted to gain FULL independence from the British.<br />British did not want to grant Singapore full independence because they fear that Singapore will fall to the Communists.<br />Singapore’s way to freedom was through a merger with Malaya [neighboring country].<br />
    9. 9. Why merger?<br /><ul><li> We want independence from the British (decolonisation)</li></ul>They were not taking very good care of Singapore either. Their ‘betrayal’ of Singapore in WWII made the people in Singapore upset with colonial rule.<br />‘Singapore got self-government in 1959. But the British had control of internal security and defence… Many felt a merger between Malaysia and Singapore would help Singapore achieve early independence, riding on Malaysia’s independence which was attained on Aug 31, 1957.’<br />
    10. 10. Free from Communists<br />Singapore was facing a communist threat at that time<br />PAP believed that if Singapore were to merge with Malaya, Malaya could suppress the communists.<br />Malaya is a strong anti-communist country.<br />
    11. 11. Fulfill promise made during the 1959 elections [PAP]<br />PAP had promised the locals that SG would gain independence.<br />If SG doesn’t merge with Malaya, this means that SG would not be able to fulfill their promise they made during the 1959 elections [gain full independence]<br />Locals would then not trust PAP anymore.<br />
    12. 12. Why did Singapore want to merge with Malaya?<br />Political Reasons<br />Economic Reasons<br />
    13. 13. Why merger?<br /><ul><li> Malaya has the natural resources that Singapore lacks </li></ul>  merging with them will help boost Singapore’s growth.<br />‘Without merger … [and] an integration of our two economies, our economic position will slowly and steadily get worse. Your livelihood will get worse.’<br />‘Malaya is important to Singapore. It is the hinterland which produces the rubber and tin that keeps our economy going…. Without this economic base, Singapore would not be able to survive.’<br />
    14. 14. Economic Problems Faced<br />Singapore lacked natural resources<br />Slow economic growth [Declining Entrepot Trade]<br />Increasing unemployment<br />Declining trade due to tariffs<br /> introduced by Malaya on goods<br /> traded between the two countries.<br />
    15. 15. Lack of Natural Resources<br />If SG merges with Malaya, Malaya could share its natural resources and raw materials.<br />Malaya had many natural resources and other raw materials such as clean water, etc.<br />SG could then tap on these resources if both countries merge.<br />
    16. 16. Increase in Unemployment<br />There were more people than jobs in Singapore.<br />If SG merges with Malaya, more jobs would be created.<br />Also, Singaporeans can look for jobs in Malaya too.<br />Thus, the unemployment rate in SG would then decrease. <br />
    17. 17. Common Market<br />A common market will be set up.<br />Agreement between countries allowing goods produced in one country to enter another country without having to pay taxes.<br />Goods can be bought and sold freely<br />Lead to an increase in trade, expansion of industries and create more jobs for Singaporeans.<br />Overall, merger increase trade and<br /> industries, job opportunities and<br /> economic growth for Singapore.<br />*** Merger -> SG + Malaya = Solves<br />Singapore`s declining entrepot trade and<br /> high unemployment.<br />
    18. 18. Did Malaya Want Singapore?<br />Initially, before 1961, Malaya did NOT want Singapore.<br />The question now is WHY ? ? ! ! !<br />
    19. 19. Quote Taken from Malaya’s then Prime Minister<br />“Firstly, Singapore has about ONE MILLION CHINESE. The inclusion of this one million into the Federation will upset the racial balance of power in the Federation. <br />Secondly, Singapore has too MANY PRO-COMMUNISTS who are supported by the Chinese in Singapore.”<br /><ul><li>Tunku Abdul Rahman</li></ul>(Malaya`s Prime Minister)<br />
    20. 20. Did Malaya Want Singapore?<br />Initially, in 1961, Malaya did NOT want Singapore, due to the following reasons :<br />Tunku was scared that Malaya will have more Chinese than Malays.<br />Tunku was scared that Malaya would be influenced by the communists in Singapore. [Communists might use Singapore as a base to spread communism to other countries, such as Malaya]<br />
    21. 21. Did Malaya Want Singapore?<br />After 1961, Tunku changed his mind, due to the following reasons. <br />
    22. 22. Troublesome Situation in SG<br /><ul><li>Pro-communist PAP leader, Ong Eng Guan left PAP and challenged them in a by-election.
    23. 23. He won the Hong Lim by-election and defeated the PAP candidate.
    24. 24. This made Tunku scared that the radicals would take over PAP and make SG a communist country.
    25. 25. Communists could use SG as a base to spread Communism to Malaya.
    26. 26. Tunku did not want this to happen.</li></li></ul><li>For Security<br />Tunku wanted to avoid the situation whereby Singapore becomes a communist country and gives trouble to Malaya. <br />
    27. 27. A quick SUMMARY!<br />
    28. 28. And so, Malaya and SG began to work on the terms of the merger.<br />Main Reason why Singapore want to MERGE.<br />Manage the communist threats<br />Ensure the continued support from the locals<br />Raw materials<br />Get full independence from the British<br />Economic growth [Trade, Jobs, $$$]<br />
    29. 29. Why merger?<br /><ul><li> Malaya was initially against the idea of merger. </li></ul>‘The Prime Minister of Malaysia, Tunku Abdul Rahman, was initially against the idea.<br />He felt that the predominantly Chinese population in Singapore would upset the delicate racial balance in Malaysia. At that time, Malays formed 49% of Malaysia’s total population while the Chinese formed 37%.’<br />‘… Singapore has too many pro-Communists who are supported by the Chinese in Singapore.’<br />
    30. 30. Conditions of Merger<br />
    31. 31. Was the merger smooth?<br />Internal issues<br />External issues<br />
    32. 32. Formation of Malaysia<br />It was initially planned for Malaya, Singapore, Sabah, Sarawak and Brunei to merge and form the Federation of Malaysia<br />However, Brunei did not join in the end, due to disagreements over economic issues.<br />
    33. 33. Information on Referendum<br />Held on 1st September 1962<br />Referendum :<br />- A direct vote by people of the country to decide on a particular issue, instead of the government making decision [democratic].<br />
    34. 34. Opposition : Referendum<br />Radicals, of whom supported the Communists, in PAP hated merger.<br />PAP split. The Radicals left PAP and formed BarisanSosialis.<br />Its aim was to convince locals and organize campaigns to oppose the merger.<br />PAP had tried to convince SG that Malaya was necessary [a NEED, not a WANT] for Singapore’s stability and survival. <br />
    35. 35. 71% voted for Choice A (:<br />
    36. 36. Was the merger smooth?<br />Internal issues<br />External issues<br />
    37. 37. Konfrontasi : Cobbold Commission<br />Made up of 3 British men and 2 Malays from Sabah and Sarawak.<br />Led by Lord Cobbold.<br />The aim was to find out whether the people of Sabah and Sarawak wanted to join Malaysia.<br />Results : more than 2/3 of the people wanted merger.<br />
    38. 38. Konfrontasi<br />A campaign by Indonesia and Philippines to oppose the merger.<br />-Indonesia : Sabah and Sarawak should belong to them.<br />- Philippines : Claimed that Sabah belonged to them.<br />
    39. 39. 16th September 1963<br />SG, Sabah and Sarawak joined the Federation of Malaya to form MALAYSIA <br />
    40. 40. Separation<br />However, in 1965, SG and Malaysia ‘broke up’.<br />
    41. 41. What led to separation?<br />Political Reasons<br />Economic Reasons<br />
    42. 42. Problems faced : Background<br />SG politics : Multiracial<br />Alliance Party<br />Singapore Alliance<br />Malaysia politics : Communal<br />UMNO<br />MCA<br />MIC<br />
    43. 43. Problem : 1963 SG Elections<br />SG Alliance decided to challenge PAP in the SG elections of 1963.<br />However, in the end, SG Alliance did not win any seats in the elections.<br />This made the SG Alliance angry.<br />
    44. 44. Problem : 1963 SG Elections<br />UMNO too became unhappy because it meant they were not popular in SG.<br />Alliance Party vowed to re-organized Singapore Alliance to defeat PAP in the next elections.<br />Such comments affected the relationship between UMNO and PAP in a NEGATIVE manner. <br />
    45. 45. Problem :1964 Federal Elections <br />PAP participated in the 1964 Federal Elections of Malaysia [April].<br />Their political campaigns attracted large crowds.<br />Sadly, PAP won only 1 seat. <br />The Alliance won 89 out of 104 seats.<br />
    46. 46. Problem : 1964 Federal Elections<br />Even though Alliance won, they was upset with PAP as they felt politically threatened.<br />Alliance Party started an anti-PAP campaign using media (newspaper)<br />Spread rumours to Malays [tarnish PAP`s reputations]<br />Created more tensions and problems between PAP and Alliance Party.<br />
    47. 47. Problem : 1964 Racial Riots<br />Alliance Party`s anti-PAP campaign created tensions and anger between the Chinese and Malays in SG.<br />This turned into violence during Prophet Muhammad’s birthday celebrations.<br />
    48. 48. Problem : 1964 Racial Riots<br />During the celebration of Prophet Muhammad’s birthday in July 1964, there was a clash between Chinese policemen and Malay participants.<br />Turned into full-blown race riots.<br />
    49. 49. Problem : 1964 Racial Riots<br />36 people were killed<br />556 people were injured<br />3000+ people were arrested<br />Serious damage of properties<br />Fear and suspicion between the Chinese and the Malays.<br />
    50. 50. Problem : Malaysian Solidarity Convention<br />Political party formed by PAP and other Malaysia political parties who opposed/against the Alliance Party .<br />The aim was to campaign for a “Malaysian Malaysia”, where everyone would be treated equally regardless of their race or religion.<br />It was formed as a response to what the Alliance Party did.<br />Alliance Party and PAP had an agreement not to challenge each other politically.<br />Alliance Party did not keep their promise and wanted to participate again in SG’s 1967 elections.<br />
    51. 51. Problem : Malaysian Solidarity Convention<br /><ul><li>The campaign was seen as a challenge to Alliance Party.
    52. 52. It was also seen as a threat to the special privileges enjoyed by Malays.
    53. 53. Cause a further strain in relations between PAP and UMNO.</li></li></ul><li>Difference in political ideology<br />Communalism VS Multiracialism<br />Malaya expected SG to follow their political system .<br />Malay : Communal Politics (political parties were formed along racial groups)<br />Singapore : Multiracialism (political parties include different races)<br />
    54. 54. Different Treatment of Races <br />Malaya : Malays were given special privileges and rights to help them improve on their standard of living.<br />Singapore : Meritocracy for all – everyone is equal and is treated equally regardless of race or religion.<br />Meritocracy<br />
    55. 55. Political Rivalry between Alliance Party and PAP<br />This can be seen from the 1963 SG Elections, 1964 Federal Elections and the Malaysia Solidarity Convention.<br />
    56. 56. What led to separation?<br />Political Reasons<br />Economic Reasons<br />
    57. 57. Not enough economic benefits<br />The Central Government delayed the setting up of the Common Market.<br />Introduction of new taxes by the Central Government.<br />Increase of SG’s contribution of its revenue to Central Government [from 40% to 60%]<br />SG was seen as an economic rival [for Malaya]<br />
    58. 58. Link<br />These political and economic differences led to disagreements and increase tensions between the Alliance Party and PAP.<br />Tunku Abdul Rahman, then, realized that many disagreements could not be settles.<br />He felt that it was best for SG to leave Malaysia.<br />PAP finally agreed to the decision. <br />
    59. 59. Singapore’s Independence  <br />9th August 1965 was a joyful day for all Singaporeans! <br />Singapore is now an independent nation and a republic! <br />Nation : consists of organized population and government<br />Republic : nation governed by representatives elected by the people, and where the Head of the State is not a king or a queen, but a President. <br />
    60. 60.
    61. 61. Singapore’s Journey<br />SG joined the United Nations on 16th September 1965.<br />Formed ASEAN [Association of Southeast Asian Nations] on 8th August 1967.<br />This is to help promote keeping peace among neighboring countries.<br />Founding Members : Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and Thailand.<br />
    62. 62. Video: Lee Kuan Yew, the man behind Singapore’s independence<br /><br />
    63. 63. For your kind attention…<br />