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Behaviourism
Behaviourism
Behaviourism
Behaviourism
Behaviourism
Behaviourism
Behaviourism
Behaviourism
Behaviourism
Behaviourism
Behaviourism
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Behaviourism

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  • 1. Explanations of learning: Behaviourism 12 October 2009
  • 2. What is learning?
  • 3. What is learning? <ul><li>A relatively persistent change in an individual’s potential behaviour due to experience. </li></ul><ul><li>It must change the individual in some way. </li></ul><ul><li>This change comes about as a result of experience. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a change in potential behaviour. </li></ul>
  • 4. Psychologists have attempted to develop convincing theories about how leaning comes about. But they don’t always agree…..
  • 5. Ivan Petrovich PAVLOV(1849-1936) <ul><li>Demonstrated simple experimental techniques to teach an animal to make novel responses to new stimuli </li></ul>
  • 6. Classical conditioning or stimulus-response (S-R) theory
  • 7. John Watson (1878-1958) <ul><li>Like Pavlov, rejected introspection and defined psychology as the objective study of overt behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that all learning could be explained in terms of Pavlovian conditioning. </li></ul><ul><li>If you could control the stimulus, you could control behaviour. </li></ul>
  • 8. B.F.Skinner (1904-1990) <ul><li>Animals (and people) learn best when they are rewarded for the ‘right’ responses or those that can eventually lead to the right responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour can be shaped and learnt through habit formation. If a piece of behaviour that occurs spontaneously is followed by a reward, it is reinforced and is more likely to re-occur. </li></ul>
  • 9. Operant conditioning in the classroom <ul><li>Skinner wanted his theories to be applied to the world outside the laboratory. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers shouldn’t concentrate on negative responses but only praise to reinforce positive responses. </li></ul><ul><li>’ </li></ul>
  • 10. Criticisms of Skinner’s operant conditioning <ul><li>People are not seen as autonomous beings. </li></ul><ul><li>The attitudes and feelings of the learner were not </li></ul><ul><li>taken into account. No room for perseverance in the form </li></ul><ul><li>of adversity or deeply-rooted motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>The same environmental stimuli can give rise to varying </li></ul><ul><li>responses from different individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Making mistakes is an important part of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Over emphasis on control. Who decides what is the </li></ul><ul><li>‘ correct’ behaviour? </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of evidence that humans will allow themselves to be </li></ul><ul><li>controlled by reinforcement alone . </li></ul>
  • 11. Who would have said this – Pavlov or Skinner ? <ul><li>The learner is passive. Animals and people are ‘biologically wired’ so that a stimulus (food) that will elicit a response (salivation). </li></ul><ul><li>The experimenter has to wait for the desired response to appear before it can be rewarded and learning can proceed. </li></ul><ul><li>The experimenter can manipulate a response to a stimulus that would not normally be associated with that response. </li></ul><ul><li>When a reward such as praise follows a response it is more likely to be repeated. </li></ul>

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