Hackers
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Hackers

on

  • 2,193 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
2,193
Slideshare-icon Views on SlideShare
2,193
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
71
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Hackers Hackers Presentation Transcript

    • Phreaks and Hackers Part2: HackLilya NachalovaMohammad Eghlima
    • Introduction programmer subcultures Definition Hobbyist subcultures Hack Categories Jargon files Computer security subcultures Resource && AppendixesWe are going to give answers to these questions:• Who is the hacker?• What is the meaning of hack?• How many types of hackers exist?• Do they have any moral lows or beliefs?• Do they have any specific languages for themselves? 2
    • Introduction programmer subcultures Definition Hobbyist subcultures Hack Categories Jargon files Computer security subcultures Resource && AppendixesHacker People committed to circumvention of computer security. A community of enthusiast computer programmers and systemsdesigners. originated in the 1960s around the MassachusettsInstitute of Technologys (MITs) Tech Model Railroad Club (TMRC)and MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. The hobbyist home computing community: (The community included Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Bill Gates and created the personal computing industry). 3
    • Introduction programmer subcultures Definition Hobbyist subcultures Hack Categories Jargon files Computer security subcultures Resource && AppendixesOver the course of 2011, the word "hacker" gained a fourth meaning• someone who challenges the existing order, most often using science, engineering, or information technology• popularized by: – internet pop culture (such as the web comic xkcd) – large corporations (particularly Facebook, whose new headquarters prominently encourages its employees to "hack")• Examples of these new age "hacks“: – Facebook timeline: as a revolution of social networking. – successful protest against SOPA. – social media driven revolutions (Syria, and Yemen, Libya, Egypt, and Iran) 4
    • Introduction programmer subcultures Definition Hobbyist subcultures Hack Categories Jargon files Computer security subcultures Resource && Appendixes(1) Hacking meansfinding out weaknesses in a computer or computer networkand exploiting thembysomeone with an advanced understanding of computers andcomputer networksmotivated bya multitude of reasons, such as profit, protest, or challenge. 5
    • Introduction programmer subcultures Definition Hobbyist subcultures Hack Categories Jargon files Computer security subcultures Resource && AppendixesSubgroups:may be defined by the legal status of their activities. White hat (ethical hacker):•breaks security for non-malicious reasons, perhaps to test their own security system•perform penetration tests and vulnerability assessments within a contractualagreement Black hat:• "violates computer security for little reason beyond maliciousness or for personalgain"(Moore,2005).•the best example of public fears in computer crimes. Grey hat:• is a combination of a Black Hat and a White Hat Hacker• may use his skills for legal or illegal acts, but NOT for personal gains• The moment they cross that boundary, they become black hat hackers 6
    • Introduction programmer subcultures Definition Hobbyist subcultures Hack Categories Jargon files Computer security subcultures Resource && AppendixesElite hacker: elite is used to describe the most skilled.Script kiddie: is a non-expert who breaks into computer systems byusing pre-packaged automated tools written by others, usually withlittle understanding of the underlying concept.Neophyte: A neophyte, "n00b", or "newbie" is someone who is newto hacking or phreaking and has almost no knowledge or experience ofthe workings of technology, and hacking.Blue hat: is someone outside computer security consulting firms whois used to bug test a system prior to its launch.Hacktivist: A hacktivist is a hacker who utilizes technology toannounce a social, ideological, religious, or political message. 7
    • Introduction programmer subcultures Definition Hobbyist subcultures Hack Categories Jargon files Computer security subcultures Resource && AppendixesComputer security (continue …) – Attacks type:A typical approach in an attack on Internet-connected system is:• Network enumeration: Discovering information about the intended target.• Vulnerability analysis: Identifying potential ways of attack.• Exploitation: Attempting to compromise the system by employing the vulnerabilities found through the vulnerability analysis.Security exploits: SQL injection, Cross Site Scripting and Cross Site Request Forgery.These are very common in website/domain hacking.Vulnerability scanner: is a tool used to quickly check computers on a network forknown weaknesses.Password cracking: is the process of recovering passwords from data that has beenstored in or transmitted by a computer system.Packet sniffer: A packet sniffer is an application that captures data packets.Spoofing attack (Phishing): A spoofing attack involves one program, system, orwebsite successfully masquerading as another by falsifying data and thereby beingtreated as a trusted system. 8
    • Introduction programmer subcultures Definition Hobbyist subcultures Hack Categories Jargon files Computer security subcultures Resource && AppendixesComputer security (continue …) – Attacks type:Rootkit: set of programs which work to subvert control of an operating system fromits legitimate operators. Usually, a rootkit will obscure its installation and attempt toprevent its removal through a subversion of standard system security.Social engineering: in the second stage of the targeting process, he or she willtypically use some social engineering tactics to get enough information to access thenetwork.A common practice for hackers who use this technique, is to contact the systemadministrator and play the role of a user who cannot get access to his or her system.Hackers who use this technique have to be quite savvy and choose the words theyuse carefully, in order to trick the system administrator into giving them information.Trojan horses: A Trojan horse is a program which seems to be doing one thing, but isactually doing another.Viruses: A virus is a self-replicating program that spreads by inserting copies of itselfinto other executable code or documents.Worms: Like a virus, a worm is also a self-replicating program. A worm differs from avirus in that it propagates through computer networks without user intervention.Key loggers: record (log) every keystroke on an affected machine for later retrieval. 9
    • Introduction programmer subcultures Definition Hobbyist subcultures Hack Categories Jargon files Computer security subcultures Resource && AppendixesComputer security (continue …)Hacker groups and conventions:The computer underground is supported by regular real-worldgatherings called hacker conventions or "hacker cons".These draw many people every year including SummerCon(Summer), DEF CON, HoHoCon (Christmas), ShmooCon (February),BlackHat, Hacker Halted, and H.O.P.E.Hacker magazinesThe most notable hacker-oriented magazine publications are Phrak, Hakin9. 10
    • Introduction programmer subcultures Definition Hobbyist subcultures Hack Categories Jargon files Computer security subcultures Resource && Appendixes(2) Hacker (programmer subculture)A hacker is an adherent of the computer programmer subculture that originallyemerged in academia in the 1960s in particular around the Massachusetts Instituteof Technology (MIT)sTech Model Railroad Club (TMRC) and MIT Artificial IntelligenceLaboratory.•It defines hacker "A person who enjoys exploring the details ofprogrammable systems and stretching their capabilities, as opposed tomost users, who prefer to learn only the minimum necessary.•This community is notable for launching the free software movement•The World Wide Web and the Internet itself are also hacker artifacts. 11
    • Introduction programmer subcultures Definition Hobbyist subcultures Hack Categories Jargon files Computer security subcultures Resource && AppendixesHacker (programmer subculture) – History• Before communications between computers and computer users were as networked as they are now.• there were multiple independent and parallel hacker subcultures, often unaware or only partially aware of each others existence.• All of these had certain important traits in common: – Creating software and sharing it with each other – Placing a high value on freedom of inquiry; hostility to secrecy – Information-sharing as both an ideal and a practical strategy – Emphasis on rationality – Distaste for authority – Playful cleverness, taking the serious humorously and their humor seriously.• These sorts of subcultures were commonly found at academic settings.• They evolved in parallel, and largely unconsciously, until the Internet• Over time, the academic hacker subculture has tended to become more conscious, more cohesive, and better organized. 12
    • Introduction programmer subcultures Definition Hobbyist subcultures Hack Categories Jargon files Computer security subcultures Resource && AppendixesHacker (programmer subculture) – History• The most important consciousness-raising moments: – the composition of the first Jargon File in 1973 – the promulgation of the GNU Manifesto in 1985 – and the publication of The Cathedral and the Bazaar in 1997 – Correlated with this has been the gradual recognition of a set of shared culture heroes: • Bill Joy, Donald Knuth, Dennis Ritchie, Paul Graham, Alan Kay, Ken Thompson, Richard M. Stallman, Linus Torvalds, Larry Wall, and Guido Van Rossum.• In 1975, hacker Dom was scattered across several different families of operating systems and disparate networks; today it is largely a Unix and TCP/IP phenomenon. 13
    • Introduction programmer subcultures Definition Hobbyist subcultures Hack Categories Jargon files Computer security subcultures Resource && AppendixesHacker (programmer subculture) – Ethics and PrinciplesHacker Ethics: describes the moral values and philosophythat are standard in the hacker community.The term hacker ethic was described by journalist Steven Levy in hisbook titled “Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution”, written in1984.According to Levy the general tenets or principles of hacker ethicinclude: • Sharing • Openness • Decentralization • Free access to computers • World Improvement 14
    • Introduction programmer subcultures Definition Hobbyist subcultures Hack Categories Jargon files Computer security subcultures Resource && AppendixesHacker (programmer subculture) – Ethics and Principles•In addition to those principles, Levy also described more specific hacker ethics andbeliefs in chapter 2, The Hacker Ethic: The ethics he described in chapter 2 are: – Access to computers—and anything which might teach you something about the way the world works—should be unlimited and total. Always yield to the Hands-On Imperative! – All information should be free. – Mistrust authority — promote decentralization. – Hackers should be judged by their hacking, not criteria such as degrees, age, race, sex, or position. – You can create art and beauty on a computer. – Computers can change your life for the better. 15
    • Introduction programmer subcultures Definition Hobbyist subcultures Hack Categories Jargon files Computer security subcultures Resource && AppendixesHacker (programmer subculture) – Levys "true hackers"Levy identifies several "true hackers" who significantly influenced the hacker ethic:•John McCarthy: Co-founder of the MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab and Stanford AILaboratory•Bill Gosper: Mathematician and hacker•Richard Greenblatt: Programmer and early designer of LISP machines•Richard Stallman: Programmer and political activist who is well known for GNU,Emacs and the Free Software MovementLevy also identified the:•"hardware hackers" (the "second generation", mostly centered in Silicon Valley)•The "game hackers" (or the "third generation").All three generations of hackers, according to Levy, embodied the principles of thehacker ethic. 16
    • Introduction programmer subcultures Definition Hobbyist subcultures Hack Categories Jargon files Computer security subcultures Resource && AppendixesHacker (programmer subculture) – Levys "true hackers"Some of Levys "second-generation" hackers include:•Steve Wozniak: One of the founders of Apple Computer•Bob Marsh: A designer of the Sol-20 computer•Fred Moore: Activist and founder of the Homebrew Computer Club•Steve Dompier: Homebrew Computer Club member, worked with Altair 8800• Lee Felsenstein: A hardware hacker and co-founder of Community Memory andHomebrew Computer Club; a designer of the Sol-20 computer•John Draper: A legendary figure in the computer programming world. He wroteEasyWriter, the first word processor.Levys "third generation" practitioners of hacker ethic include:•John Harris: One of the first programmers hired at On-Line Systems (which laterbecame Sierra Entertainment)•Ken Williams: Along with wife Roberta, founded On-Line Systems after working at 17IBM
    • Introduction programmer subcultures Definition Hobbyist subcultures Hack Categories Jargon files Computer security subcultures Resource && Appendixes(3) Hacker (hobbyist)•In home and hobby circles, a hacker is a person who heavily modifies the softwareor hardware of their own computer system.•It includes building, rebuilding, modifying, and creating to make it better or faster orto give it added features or to make it do something it was never intended to do.Hardware modifier: those who modify hardware to expand capabilities.•they have the ability to write circuit-level code, device drivers, firmware, low-levelnetworking (and even more impressively, using these techniques to make devices dothings outside of their spec sheets).•Are typically in very high regard among hacker communities. 18
    • Introduction programmer subcultures Definition Hobbyist subcultures Hack Categories Jargon files Computer security subcultures Resource && AppendixesHacker (hobbyist) - (continue …)Hacker artists: create art by hacking on technology asan artistic medium.•A successful software and hardware hacker artist is Mark Lottor (mkl),who has created the 3-D light art projects entitled the Cubatron, andthe Big Round Cubatron. This art is made using custom computertechnology, with specially designed circuit boards and programmingfor microprocessor chips to manipulate the LED lights.•Some hacker artists create art by writing computer code, and others,by developing hardware. Some create with existing software tools suchas Adobe Photoshop or GIMP. 19
    • Introduction programmer subcultures Definition Hobbyist subcultures Hack Categories Jargon files Computer security subcultures Resource && AppendixesJargon File:Is a glossary of computer programmer slang.•The original Jargon File was a collection of terms from technical culturessuch as the MIT AI Lab, the Stanford AI Lab(SAIL) and others of theold ARPANET AI/LISP/PDP-10 communities, including Bolt, Beranek andNewman, Carnegie Mellon University, and Worcester Polytechnic Institute.Jargons file versions:If you are intersted to know speciall vocabulary of hackers, we advice to read thesource denoted in appendixes number 12. In general there are three versions ofJargon in computer programmer.•1975 – 1983•1983 – 1990•1990 – later 20
    • Introduction programmer subcultures Definition Hobbyist subcultures Hack Categories Jargon files Computer security subcultures Resource && AppendixesHack terminology:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hack_(technology_slang)#cite_ref-0Hacker – Computer security:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hacker_(computer_security)Hacker – Programmer subculture:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hacker_(programmer_subculture)Hacker – Hobbyist:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hacker_(hobbyist)MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIT_Artificial_Intelligence_LaboratoryTech Model Railroad Club:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tech_Model_Railroad_Club 21
    • Introduction programmer subcultures Definition Hobbyist subcultures Hack Categories Jargon files Computer security subcultures Resource && Appendixes1. Löwgren, Jonas (February 23, 2000). "Hacker culture(s): Origins". Retrieved 2008-10-18.2. http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc19833. Sterling, Bruce (1993). "Part 2(d)". The Hacker Crackdown. McLean, Virginia: IndyPublish.com. p. 61. ISBN 1-4043-0641-24. Blomquist, Brian (May 29, 1999). "FBIs Web Site Socked as Hackers Target Feds".New York Post. Retrieved on October 21, 20085. Wilhelm, Douglas. "2". Professional Penetration Testing. Syngress Press. p. 503.ISBN 9781597494250.6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethical_hacker7. Wilhelm, Douglas. "2". Professional Penetration Testing. Syngress Press. p. 503.ISBN 9781597494250.8. Moore, Robert (2005). Cybercrime: Investigating High Technology Computer Crime. Matthew Bender & Company. p. 258. ISBN 1-59345-303-5.Robert Moore9. Moore, Robert (2006). Cybercrime: Investigating High-Technology Computer Crime(1st ed.). Cincinnati, Ohio: Anderson Publishing. ISBN 9781593453039.22
    • Introduction programmer subcultures Definition Hobbyist subcultures Hack Categories Jargon files Computer security subcultures Resource && Appendixes10. Eric Chabrow (February 25, 2012). "7 Levels of Hackers: Applying An Ancient Chinese Lesson: Know Your Enemies". GovInfo Security. Retrieved February 27, 201211. "The Hackers Ethics". Retrieved 31 August 201112. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jargon_file 23