CHAPTER ONESPECIAL EDUCATION IN AN ERA OF INCLUSION AND STANDARDS STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING LEARNERS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS
CHAPTER 1 OVERVIEW TARGET POPULATION / ASSOCIATED CONCERNS CRITICAL LEGISLATIVE / FEDERAL INITIATIVES NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ACT (NCLB) INDIVIDUAL WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION ACT OF 2004 (IDEA) SECTION 504 AMERICANS WITH DISABITIES ACT (ADA)
Critical Legislative/Federal Initiatives 94-142 Education of all handicapped act (1975) Individuals with disabilities education act Free appropriate public education (FAPE) IDEA IEP process Due process Discipline provisions Section 504 Standards Curriculum Individual courses, instructional strategies, and materials Assessment for school accountability
Critical Legislative/Federal initiative Americans with disabilities act (ADA) Civil rights laws prohibits discrimination Individuals with disabilities (physical, or mental impairment) Free appropriate public education (FAPE) Accommodations Funding to implement requirements Procedural safeguards Evaluation/placement procedures Due process NCLB Standardized test Elementary and secondary education act of 1965 (ESEA) Adequate yearly progress (AYP)
Chapter overview PL-94-142 The PURPOSE of this is to assure that all handicapped students have available to them, (FAPE) free appropriate public education . Which emphasizes special education and related services. Free appropriate public education (FAPE) (A) Provides public expense , under the supervision and direction without charge (B) Meets standards of the State educational Agency (C) Appropriate education in pre-school, elementary, or secondary school in the state. (D) Provided an Individualized educational program (IEP)
chapter one overview Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) the purpose is to ensure that all children with disabilities have available to them a (FAPE). Between the ages of 3 and 21 years. Identify, locate and evaluate all children with disabilities Develop and individualized education program for each child with a disability, and review it annually. Educate children in the “least restrictive environment” (LRE) (with children who are not disabled) to the maximum extent possible. Ensure that children are participating in early- intervention programs. With a smooth and effective transition into preschool, elementary, or secondary school programs. Ensure that all teachers are adequately prepared and trained
chapter one overview Section 504 is a federal law designed to protect the rights of individuals with disabilities in programs and activities that receive federal financial assistance from the U.S. Department of Education. Section 504 regulations requires that school districts provide a free appropriate public education (FAPE) to qualified students with disabilities (regardless of the nature of the disability). Section 504 also offers educational services designed to meet the individual education needs of students with disabilities as adequately as the needs of non disabled students are met. Education with non disabled students, with maximum extent appropriate to the needs of the student with disability. Evaluation and placement procedures to be established. And periodic re-evaluation of students who have been provided special education and related services.
chapter one overview American disabilities act (ADA) the purpose of this act is to provide a clear and comprehensive national mandate for the elimination of discrimination against individuals with disabilities. ADA also provides a clear, strong, consistent, enforceable standards addressing discrimination against individuals with disabilities. ADA ensures that the federal government plays a central role in enforcing the standards established in the act on behalf of individuals with disabilities. ADA also establishes guidelines of employment, public accommodations, transportations, and state and local governmental operations.
chapter one overview No child left behind act 2004 (NCLB) is federal legislation that promotes student achievement through school and district reform. NCLB requires that each state develop and implement a system for holding all district and schools accountable for the education of students. NCLB also requires that all title 1 schools promote academic excellence, enhances educational opportunities, ensure equity for all of America's children and families and improve the quality of teaching and learning.
Chapter one key elements Standard-Based education: ( core subjects) Curriculum Instruction Assessment Environment
chapter one key elements Standard based education: Academic standards Acquiring Specific skills Competency level Formal testing (higher level) Meeting set standards Responsible for learning/ achievement
chapter one key elements Inclusion: Self- worth Accepting differences Responding to individual needs Being part of an organization, and community. And also being valued, and respected as a contributing member. Positive interactions Opportunities for students with disabilities
Chapter one key elements Response to intervention: “Three tiers” Differentiated instruction Benchmark ( strategies, evidence and based interventions) small groups or general education Intensive, evidence base interventions ( individual or small groups)
Chapter one key elements Universal design learning: Designed Curriculum (that is learned and understood by students) Learners bring strengths, needs, and interest Gaining knowledge, skills and interest for learning Representation of work ( shown in different ways) expression, models and feedback Engagement in learning ( keeping children engage in task) interesting, choices, and model activities
chapter one key elements Differentiated instruction: Planning ( variety of learning styles) Grouping ( monitoring, observations of individual/ groups ability) Implementation ( introduction of skills to be learned) Assessment (informal, formal style of standardized testing) Environment ( student centered classroom), in which child will be learning.
chapter one key elements Evidence based practice: Strategy for learning ( instructional) Criteria ( inclusion/exclusion) Target practice, subjects and contexts Conditions ( how, why , and what) are students learning
Chapter one key elements Diversity consideration: The three main dimensions Behavioral Physical/ sensory Intellectual/cognitive