Witch hunts

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  • Nigeria, Ghana,South Africa and Gambia.
  • Notes:African beliefs regarding health have two distinctions.
  • - A grandmother and retired teacher with a small business in Soweto of South Africa.
  • The ranges around the estimates in this table define the boundaries within which the actual numbers lie, based on the best available information.
  • Twin boys Itohowo and Kufre stand surrounded by angry villagers who believe they are bringing evil to their lives263 dollars us
  • NwanaokwoEdet, 9
  • - The table above describes the types of violence that are faced by those accused of witchcraft in South Africa. The analysis is based on a collection of newspaper reports from 2000 to 2009
  • Asara came from a village of Gushiegu in Ghana. She cook rice and sell them. When Mangoes is in season, she would travel to other place and buy and resell them in the village.
  • Run by Simon and EvelynNgotain Gushiegu
  • Witch hunts

    1. 1. WITCH-HUNTS: A MODERN SOCIALPROBLEM IN AFRICA
    2. 2. WITCH-HUNTS LOCATIONS
    3. 3. MAJOR CAUSES OF WITCH-HUNTS Culture And Beliefs  Ancestry; an important way to show honor and please their ancestors. Pleasing their ancestor would bring blessing, and neglect to do that would bring misfortune and curses.  One is natural illnesses; are treated by western medicine.  The other is “man-made” like HIV/AIDS; are immune to medicine and require spiritual healers “evil force”/malicious assault of witches.
    4. 4. CASE 1: MADUMO Madumo is based on a bewitched man name Madumo in Soweto of South Africa.  He was accused of using witchcraft to kill his mother and kicked out of his home by his relatives.  He went to an inyanga (spiritual healers or witch doctors) for help.  The spiritual doctor Mr. Zondi told him “about fate and misfortune and the lack of communication with [his] ancestors”  Madumo spent six hundred and fifty dollars for this spiritual healing.
    5. 5. CASE 2: THE DANGER OF WITCH-DOCTORS Up to 1,000 Gambian villagers have been abducted by witch doctors to secret detention centers and forced to drink potions “Witch doctors” forced these people to confess to being witches and were beaten, almost to the point of death. Most of the abducted were elders and there were two people died because of kidney problems due to the concoctions.
    6. 6. PERCENTAGE POPULATION LIVING ON LESSTHAN $1.25 PER DAY 2009
    7. 7. ECONOMIC FACTORS Extreme Poverty  To live on under $1 or $2 a day  Lacked access to basic needs: Water, electricity and sanitation  Little ownership of productive assets like bicycle, phone etc…  Lacked access to infrastructures like hospital, school etc…  Poor health condition and low morality rate  Lack of income and job. Jealousy  “They won’t want to see you progressing…It’s because most of the people don’t work and they don’t have the money and seeing that they don’t have [money] and if you are doing something and prospering then they become jealous” (Modiehe)
    8. 8. Regional HIV and AIDS statistics and features 2009 Adults and children Adults and children Adult prevalence Adult & child newly infected with living with HIV (15‒49) [%] deaths due to AIDS HIVSub-Saharan Africa 22.5 million 1.8 million 5.0% 1.3 million [20.9 million – 24.2 million] [1.6 million – 2.0 million] [4.7% – 5.2%] [1.1 million – 1.5 million]Middle East and North Africa 460 000 75 000 0.2% 24 000 [400 000 – 530 000] [61 000 – 92 000] [0.2% – 0.3%] [20 000 – 27 000]South and South-East Asia 4.1 million 270 000 0.3% 260 000 [3.7 million – 4.6 million] [240 000 – 320 000] [0.3% – 0.3%] [230 000 – 300 000]East Asia 770 000 82 000 0.1% 36 000 [560 000 – 1.0 million] [48 000 – 140 000] [0.1% – 0.1%] [25 000 – 50 000]Central and South America 1.4 million 92 000 0.5% 58 000 [1.2 million – 1.6 million] [70 000 – 120 000] [0.4% – 0.6%] [43 000 – 70 000]Caribbean 240 000 17 000 1.0% 12 000 [220 000 – 270 000] [13 000 – 21 000] [0.9% – 1.1%] [8500 – 15 000]Eastern Europe and Central Asia 1.4 million 130 000 0.8% 76 000 [1.3 million – 1.6 million] [110 000 – 160 000] [0.7% – 0.9%] [60 000 – 95 000]Western and Central Europe 820 000 31 000 0.2% 8500 [720 000 – 910 000] [23 000 – 40 000] [0.2% – 0.2%] [6800 – 19 000]North America 1.5 million 70 000 0.5% 26 000 [1.2 million – 2.0 million] [44 000 – 130 000] [0.4% – 0.7%] [22 000 – 44 000]Oceania 57 000 4500 0.3% 1400 [50 000 – 64 000] [3400 – 6000] [0.2% – 0.3%] [<1000 – 2400]TOTAL 33.3 million 2.6 million 0.8% 1.8 million [31.4 million – 35.3 million] [2.3 million – 2.8 million] [0.7% - 0.8%] [1.6 million – 2.1 million]
    9. 9. RELIGIOUS FACTORS Christianity  “For these nations, whose land you are taking, give attention to readers of signs and to those using secret arts: but the Lord your God will not let you do so” (Deut 18:14)  “Deliverance” – casting out of demons or exorcism for money  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HWSUAsC3ITg&feature=related
    10. 10. PUNISHMENT FOR BEING SUSPECTED AS A “WITCH”• Abandoned, isolated, or discriminated• Taken to the forest and slaughtered• Disgraced publicly and murdered• Bathed in acid• Poisoned to death• Buried alive• Chained and tortured in churches in order to extract confession
    11. 11. TYPES OF VIOLENCE
    12. 12. WHY MAJORITY VICTIMS IN WITCH-HUNTS ARE WOMEN Sexist ideology  Women would only to bad things with powers while men are allow to have the powers and use it positive way.  Women are born “under a shadow of Suspicious” Polygamy Successful Independent women  “People in my community thought that I was the cause of the sickness because I lived independently, away from my husband. I was doing fine” (Asara Azindow).
    13. 13. LAW & GOVERNMENT Witchcraft Suppression Act 1957 of South Africa  States that another has used supernatural forces to cause disease or damage, or names another as a wizard;  Professes to a knowledge of witchcraft or tells anyone else how to bewitch or injure any other person or thing;  Acts on the advice of a witch doctor to put into operation any process intended to damage or injure anyone;  Pretends, for gain, to exercise supernatural powers or undertakes to tell fortunes or pretends to be able to discover where anything lost or stolen may be found.
    14. 14.  Penalties  In the case of the accused has been proved to be by habit or repute a witchdoctor or witch-finder, to imprisonment for a period not exceeding twenty years;  In the case of an offence professes a knowledge of witchcraft, employs or solicits any witchdoctor or act on the advice of any witchdoctor will fine not exceeding five hundred rand or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding five years or to both such fine and such imprisonment;  In the case of an offence pretending to exercise supernatural powers for personal gain will be fine two hundred rand or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding two years. Mpumalanga Witchcraft Suppression Bill, 2007  "The purpose of the bill is to suppress Acts of witchcraft including naming and pointing of any body as a wizard or witch. To deal with the violence associated with allegations of witchcraft and deal with killings including ritual killing associated with witchcraft and empowering Traditional leaders to deal with Witchcraft aspects.“
    15. 15. NIGERIA; AKWA IBOM CHILD RIGHTS ACT 2008  Everyone under 16 years whatever their race, religion, abilities, whatever they think or say, whatever family background is affected and covered by this law, receives government protection, and has rights spelt out in this law.  Children must not be separated from their parents unless it is for their own good.  Government will ensure that children are properly cared for, and protect them from violence, abuse and neglect by their parents, or guardian. Penalties  The law prescribes up to 15 years imprisonment without an option of a fine or both for offenders in Child stigmatization, accusation of witchcraft or torture.
    16. 16. ORGANIZATIONS Presbyterian Church of Ghana Witch-Hunt Victims Empowerment Project Stepping Stones Nigeria’s CRARN (Child Rights and Rehabilitation Network) South African Pagan Rights Alliance Touchstone Advocacy
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