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Impact of sexual abuse on women prisoners arrested for substance abuse related crimes.

Impact of sexual abuse on women prisoners arrested for substance abuse related crimes.

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    Power point 7 17-2013 Power point 7 17-2013 Presentation Transcript

    • IMPACT OF SEXUAL ABUSE ONIMPACT OF SEXUAL ABUSE ON WOMEN PRISONERS ARRESTEDWOMEN PRISONERS ARRESTED FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSEFOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE RELATED CRIMESRELATED CRIMES Lillian Rosell IrwinLillian Rosell Irwin Masters of Psychology Program,Masters of Psychology Program, Kaplan UniversityKaplan University July 2013July 2013
    • AgendaAgenda  Literature Review: Background/Scope of StudyLiterature Review: Background/Scope of Study  Methodology: What I DidMethodology: What I Did  Results: What I FoundResults: What I Found  Discussion: What It MeansDiscussion: What It Means
    • Sexual AbuseSexual Abuse  Research suggests that sexual abuse (SA) increases likelihood ofResearch suggests that sexual abuse (SA) increases likelihood of alcohol/drug use (AOD), and that AOD increases criminality.alcohol/drug use (AOD), and that AOD increases criminality.  Girls are three times more likely to have been sexually abused thanGirls are three times more likely to have been sexually abused than boys (US Department of Health and Human Services, 1996).boys (US Department of Health and Human Services, 1996).  An estimated seven to 36 percent of women in the US who wereAn estimated seven to 36 percent of women in the US who were sexually abused in childhood have never reported the abuse.sexually abused in childhood have never reported the abuse.  The US Department of Justice (2010) estimates that 54 percent ofThe US Department of Justice (2010) estimates that 54 percent of adult sexual assault victims do not report the crime. Michael,adult sexual assault victims do not report the crime. Michael, Gagnon, Laumann, and Kolata (1994), 96% of victims knew theirGagnon, Laumann, and Kolata (1994), 96% of victims knew their attackers .attackers .
    • Sexual AbuseSexual Abuse  Drug abuse is the primary reason why men and women in the USDrug abuse is the primary reason why men and women in the US become involved in the criminal justice system and land in prisonbecome involved in the criminal justice system and land in prison (NIDA, 2012).(NIDA, 2012).  Women who were sexually abused as children are more likely toWomen who were sexually abused as children are more likely to have substance abuse problems (Ullman, Najdowski & Filipas,have substance abuse problems (Ullman, Najdowski & Filipas, 2009)2009)  Sexually abused girls are prone to increased academic failure,Sexually abused girls are prone to increased academic failure, interpersonal distrust, eating disorders, and higher rates of teeninterpersonal distrust, eating disorders, and higher rates of teen pregnancy (Acoca, 1998).pregnancy (Acoca, 1998).
    • Sexual AbuseSexual Abuse  Childhood sexual abuse affects the development of the human brainChildhood sexual abuse affects the development of the human brain (Teicher, Andersen, Polcari, Navalta, & Kim, 2003) and may be(Teicher, Andersen, Polcari, Navalta, & Kim, 2003) and may be linked to neurochemical mechanisms that predispose personslinked to neurochemical mechanisms that predispose persons directly to addictions as well as to dysfunctions in emotions thatdirectly to addictions as well as to dysfunctions in emotions that mediate the use of substances, such as Depression, Posttraumaticmediate the use of substances, such as Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and other Anxiety Disorders. women areStress Disorder (PTSD), and other Anxiety Disorders. women are twice as likely as men to develop Post Traumatic Stress Disordertwice as likely as men to develop Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (Keane, Weathers, & Friedman, 2000).(Keane, Weathers, & Friedman, 2000).  Teicher (2002) brain scans in sexually abused children showTeicher (2002) brain scans in sexually abused children show decreased functioning in the area of the brain that deals withdecreased functioning in the area of the brain that deals with attention and emotion. Women with a known history of sexualattention and emotion. Women with a known history of sexual abuse have less blood flow in the cerebellar vermis area of the brain,abuse have less blood flow in the cerebellar vermis area of the brain, the area of the brain that is related to maintaining emotional balancethe area of the brain that is related to maintaining emotional balance (Cromie, 2003).(Cromie, 2003).
    • Sexual AbuseSexual Abuse  SA causes damage to the amygdala which heightens state ofSA causes damage to the amygdala which heightens state of awareness of preconceived threats, causing the individual to overawareness of preconceived threats, causing the individual to over respond and become hypervigilant at the first hint of dangerrespond and become hypervigilant at the first hint of danger (Goodman, Quas, & Ogle, 2009)This neurobiological(Goodman, Quas, & Ogle, 2009)This neurobiological hypervigilance can lead to PTSD, anxiety, depression, and otherhypervigilance can lead to PTSD, anxiety, depression, and other mental health issues (LeDoux, 1996). This situation may bemental health issues (LeDoux, 1996). This situation may be exacerbated by structural abnormalities in the amygdala causedexacerbated by structural abnormalities in the amygdala caused by CSA.by CSA.
    • Sexual AbuseSexual Abuse  Culture can affect how a victim of abuse will view the problem,Culture can affect how a victim of abuse will view the problem, assess the meaning and impact of the abuse, and whether or notassess the meaning and impact of the abuse, and whether or not the victim will seek further assistance and report the crimethe victim will seek further assistance and report the crime (Brabecl & Guzman, 2009). Yet Moses, Reed, Marzelis, and(Brabecl & Guzman, 2009). Yet Moses, Reed, Marzelis, and D’Ambrosio, (2003) state that violence against women is soD’Ambrosio, (2003) state that violence against women is so widespread across socioeconomic classes and cultures that it iswidespread across socioeconomic classes and cultures that it is considered part of a female’s normal experience in most parts ofconsidered part of a female’s normal experience in most parts of America.America.
    • Sexual AbuseSexual Abuse  According to Boudewyn and Liem (1995), women who do notAccording to Boudewyn and Liem (1995), women who do not receive treatment for their SA are more likely to blamereceive treatment for their SA are more likely to blame themselves, this increases rate of self-harming behavior andthemselves, this increases rate of self-harming behavior and mental illnesses, such as panic attacks, anxiety, and flashbacks.mental illnesses, such as panic attacks, anxiety, and flashbacks. Women with a history of unreported and untreated sexual abuseWomen with a history of unreported and untreated sexual abuse are more likely to feel ongoing guilt and/or shame related to theare more likely to feel ongoing guilt and/or shame related to the experience, and it is well documented that continuing feelings ofexperience, and it is well documented that continuing feelings of guilt and shame are related to the development of substanceguilt and shame are related to the development of substance abuse (Bradshaw, 2005). Unreported and untreated childhoodabuse (Bradshaw, 2005). Unreported and untreated childhood sexual abuse may also predispose the children and women tosexual abuse may also predispose the children and women to repeat instances of trauma (Bradshaw, 2005).repeat instances of trauma (Bradshaw, 2005).
    • Sexual AbuseSexual Abuse  20% fewer sexually abused women attend college compared with20% fewer sexually abused women attend college compared with women who have not been abused (Butcher, Mineka, & Hooley,women who have not been abused (Butcher, Mineka, & Hooley, 2009). Goodman, Quas, and Ogle (2009) state that women who2009). Goodman, Quas, and Ogle (2009) state that women who suffered from sexual abuse will also have a greater inability tosuffered from sexual abuse will also have a greater inability to create and maintain healthy attachments within relationships, andcreate and maintain healthy attachments within relationships, and attachment problems are also a known pathway to substanceattachment problems are also a known pathway to substance abuse.abuse.
    • Sexual AbuseSexual Abuse  Females who were sexually abused are more likely to use hardFemales who were sexually abused are more likely to use hard drugs as adolescents and are more likely to be multiple substancedrugs as adolescents and are more likely to be multiple substance abusers (Harrison, Fulkerson, & Beebe, 1997). Likewise,abusers (Harrison, Fulkerson, & Beebe, 1997). Likewise, according to Wingood and DiClemente (1997), women whoaccording to Wingood and DiClemente (1997), women who were sexually abused as children have a higher rate of alcoholismwere sexually abused as children have a higher rate of alcoholism and hard drug usage. Childhood sexual abuse is associated with aand hard drug usage. Childhood sexual abuse is associated with a higher rate of drug and alcohol usage for victims during bothhigher rate of drug and alcohol usage for victims during both their adolescence and adulthood. Drugs might be a way that thetheir adolescence and adulthood. Drugs might be a way that the individual copes with the emotional trauma of the sexual abuseindividual copes with the emotional trauma of the sexual abuse (Singer, Petchers, & Hussey, 1989)(Singer, Petchers, & Hussey, 1989)
    • Substance Abuse to CriminalSubstance Abuse to Criminal BehaviorBehavior  Drug usage increases the risk of involvement in criminalDrug usage increases the risk of involvement in criminal behavior (Hiller, Garrity, Webster, Leukefeld, Narevic, & Staton,behavior (Hiller, Garrity, Webster, Leukefeld, Narevic, & Staton, 2005). ). Drug usage leads to decrease cognitive functioning and2005). ). Drug usage leads to decrease cognitive functioning and increases disregard for the law (Sinha & Easton, 1999).increases disregard for the law (Sinha & Easton, 1999). According to Hiller et al. (2005), individuals with a mental illnessAccording to Hiller et al. (2005), individuals with a mental illness who self-medicate by using drugs and alcohol typically end up inwho self-medicate by using drugs and alcohol typically end up in court or jail. For instance, two million individuals suffering fromcourt or jail. For instance, two million individuals suffering from mental illness along with substance abuse were incarcerated inmental illness along with substance abuse were incarcerated in 2000 (Hiller et al., 2005). According to Sommers and Basking2000 (Hiller et al., 2005). According to Sommers and Basking (1994), a large percentage of women reported being under the(1994), a large percentage of women reported being under the influence or intoxicated when committing criminal acts.influence or intoxicated when committing criminal acts.
    • Substance Abuse to CriminalSubstance Abuse to Criminal BehaviorBehavior  CSA often causes children to runaway , these children lack theCSA often causes children to runaway , these children lack the skills for legitimate employment panhandling, theft, prostitution,skills for legitimate employment panhandling, theft, prostitution, and drug dealing (Wormer & Bartollas, 2011).and drug dealing (Wormer & Bartollas, 2011). Bennett,Bennett, Holloway, and Farrington (2008), individuals who use drugs areHolloway, and Farrington (2008), individuals who use drugs are more likely to commit all crimes, both violent and propertymore likely to commit all crimes, both violent and property crimes.crimes.  Sterk and Elifson (1990), other acts of violence also arise fromSterk and Elifson (1990), other acts of violence also arise from the income-generating needs of drug involved prostitutes: theythe income-generating needs of drug involved prostitutes: they can become violent and steal, or beat and rob others to obtaincan become violent and steal, or beat and rob others to obtain money for drugs.money for drugs.
    • Substance Abuse to CriminalSubstance Abuse to Criminal BehaviorBehavior  Individuals who abuse drugs experience a cortisol relatedIndividuals who abuse drugs experience a cortisol related interference with intellectual functioning. More specifically,interference with intellectual functioning. More specifically, according to Tapert and Brown (1999), substance abuse canaccording to Tapert and Brown (1999), substance abuse can cause problems with sustaining attention, speed of informationcause problems with sustaining attention, speed of information processing, verbal and non-verbal learning, memory retrieval,processing, verbal and non-verbal learning, memory retrieval, language ability, and academic achievement.language ability, and academic achievement.
    • Substance Abuse to CriminalSubstance Abuse to Criminal BehaviorBehavior  Drug addiction and crime are also intertwined because of howDrug addiction and crime are also intertwined because of how addictive drugs can be. Once individuals use an addictive drugaddictive drugs can be. Once individuals use an addictive drug over a period of time, they will need more of that drug to obtainover a period of time, they will need more of that drug to obtain the desired effect. This is known as drug tolerance because ofthe desired effect. This is known as drug tolerance because of drug tolerance, drug addicts need to obtain a higher dosage ofdrug tolerance, drug addicts need to obtain a higher dosage of the drug they use . Drugs are expensive, and often crime will bethe drug they use . Drugs are expensive, and often crime will be involved within a drug addict’s life to obtain income for theirinvolved within a drug addict’s life to obtain income for their drug of choice. A very common crime in these situations isdrug of choice. A very common crime in these situations is prostitution (Nurco, Hanlon, & Kinlock, 1990). Winick (1992),prostitution (Nurco, Hanlon, & Kinlock, 1990). Winick (1992), prostitution normally precedes drug addictionprostitution normally precedes drug addiction
    • Substance Abuse to CriminalSubstance Abuse to Criminal BehaviorBehavior  Impaired intellectual functioning also hinders judgment andImpaired intellectual functioning also hinders judgment and reasoning, again predisposing individuals to poor choices, suchreasoning, again predisposing individuals to poor choices, such as criminal activities aimed at obtaining money to pay for drugs.as criminal activities aimed at obtaining money to pay for drugs.  Gordon and Tarter (1994) also demonstrate that drug abuse isGordon and Tarter (1994) also demonstrate that drug abuse is associated with abstract reasoning and problem solving deficits,associated with abstract reasoning and problem solving deficits, resulting in lower measured intelligence. According to Herrnsteinresulting in lower measured intelligence. According to Herrnstein & Murray (1994), there is a strong association between lower& Murray (1994), there is a strong association between lower intelligence and criminal behavior. Criminal offenders as a wholeintelligence and criminal behavior. Criminal offenders as a whole have lower than average intelligence by at least eight points.have lower than average intelligence by at least eight points. Moffitt (1990) explains this phenomenon in terms of their abilityMoffitt (1990) explains this phenomenon in terms of their ability to understand society as a whole. In order to be a productiveto understand society as a whole. In order to be a productive member of society, individuals must collaborate. This ismember of society, individuals must collaborate. This is accomplished through verbal and non-verbal skills along withaccomplished through verbal and non-verbal skills along with abstract reasoning.abstract reasoning.
    • Research QuestionsResearch Questions  There is a strong likelihood of a link betweenThere is a strong likelihood of a link between substance abuse, crime and Sexual Abuse (SA)substance abuse, crime and Sexual Abuse (SA) Therefore, we ask:Therefore, we ask:  Does untreated CSA/ASA lead to earlier andDoes untreated CSA/ASA lead to earlier and more severe drug abuse and criminality?more severe drug abuse and criminality?
    • MethodologyMethodology  The participants were chosen randomly fromThe participants were chosen randomly from Facebook groups that are directly linked to theFacebook groups that are directly linked to the subject matter.subject matter.  50 Participants responded and participated in50 Participants responded and participated in the study.the study.
    • SurveySurvey  All major issues identified in theAll major issues identified in the literature review were turned intoliterature review were turned into questions for the surveyquestions for the survey  Questions were also asked about theQuestions were also asked about the sociodemographics of the participantssociodemographics of the participants
    • Survey QuestionsSurvey Questions  How old were you when you first starting using drugs orHow old were you when you first starting using drugs or alcohol?alcohol?  In your opinion, did you ever or do you now abuse alcohol?In your opinion, did you ever or do you now abuse alcohol?  Has anyone ever told you that you are abusing alcohol or thatHas anyone ever told you that you are abusing alcohol or that you are an alcoholic?you are an alcoholic?  What was the first drug you ever abused, if any?What was the first drug you ever abused, if any?  list all drugs that you have ever abused.list all drugs that you have ever abused.  How old were you when you committed your first crime?How old were you when you committed your first crime?  What was your first crime?What was your first crime?
    • Survey QuestionsSurvey Questions  How old were you when you first went to jail?How old were you when you first went to jail?  For what crime did you first go to jail?For what crime did you first go to jail?  What crimes have you been convicted of?What crimes have you been convicted of?  How long did you serve in prison for each?How long did you serve in prison for each?  When you have engaged in a crime, have you usually beenWhen you have engaged in a crime, have you usually been under the influence of any type of substance or alcohol?under the influence of any type of substance or alcohol?
    • Survey QuestionsSurvey Questions  Have you been a victim of any type of sexual abuse, incest,Have you been a victim of any type of sexual abuse, incest, rape, or sexual assault?rape, or sexual assault?  If so, how old were you when it occurred?If so, how old were you when it occurred?  Did you use drugs or alcohol prior to the sexualDid you use drugs or alcohol prior to the sexual abuse/assault?abuse/assault?  If you answered yes to being a victim of any type of sexualIf you answered yes to being a victim of any type of sexual abuse, did you report the abuse/assault?abuse, did you report the abuse/assault?  If you answered yes to being a victim of any type of sexualIf you answered yes to being a victim of any type of sexual abuse, did you get any type of psychological treatment orabuse, did you get any type of psychological treatment or counseling for the sexual abuse/assault?counseling for the sexual abuse/assault?
    • Survey QuestionsSurvey Questions  Was the person who committed the sexual abuse/assault aWas the person who committed the sexual abuse/assault a relative?relative?  If so, how were they related to you?If so, how were they related to you?  Have you ever gotten treatment for substance abuse?Have you ever gotten treatment for substance abuse?  If so, was it outpatient, inpatient, and/or 12 step?If so, was it outpatient, inpatient, and/or 12 step?  If you have gotten treatment for substance abuse, was theIf you have gotten treatment for substance abuse, was the treatment court ordered?treatment court ordered?  If you have gotten treatment for substance abuse, was theIf you have gotten treatment for substance abuse, was the screening and assessment process done by a male of by ascreening and assessment process done by a male of by a female counselor?female counselor?  If you were ever sexually abused/assaulted, did youIf you were ever sexually abused/assaulted, did you disclose this information to the person who was doing yourdisclose this information to the person who was doing your intake process for the substance abuse treatment?intake process for the substance abuse treatment?  If you did not disclose the sexual abuse/assault to theIf you did not disclose the sexual abuse/assault to the counselor, what were your reasons for choosing not tocounselor, what were your reasons for choosing not to disclose?disclose?
    • Survey QuestionsSurvey Questions  If you have ever been a victim of sexual abuse/assault, haveIf you have ever been a victim of sexual abuse/assault, have you ever disclosed this experience on a written form, such as ayou ever disclosed this experience on a written form, such as a questionnaire or survey, other than this present questionnaire?questionnaire or survey, other than this present questionnaire?  If you have ever been a victim of sexual abuse/assault, haveIf you have ever been a victim of sexual abuse/assault, have you ever disclosed this information to anyone? If so, toyou ever disclosed this information to anyone? If so, to whom?whom?
    • 10 Sociodemographics of the Participants  Age  Gender  Marital Status  Highest Degree Achieved  Living situation  Housing  Sexuality  Spirituality  Ethnicity  Community
    • AnalysisAnalysis  MANOVAs were run to analyze 3 predictive factors in relationMANOVAs were run to analyze 3 predictive factors in relation to 5 outcome measures.to 5 outcome measures.  Chi-Square was run for the comparison questions.Chi-Square was run for the comparison questions.  13 out of 15 trended in the correct direction, statistically13 out of 15 trended in the correct direction, statistically significant.significant.  5 means trended correct direction for those participants that5 means trended correct direction for those participants that reported SA vs those who did not, and for those whoreported SA vs those who did not, and for those who received treatment for SA vs. those who did not.received treatment for SA vs. those who did not.  3 out of five means trended in the correct direction for those3 out of five means trended in the correct direction for those with a history of SA vs. those without.with a history of SA vs. those without.
    • RESULTS/RESULTS/ DISCUSSIONDISCUSSION
    • Marital StatusMarital Status  38% were married38% were married  24% were divorced or separated24% were divorced or separated  28% were never married28% were never married  10% widowed10% widowed
    • EducationEducation  34% have some High School34% have some High School  10% have a High School/GED10% have a High School/GED  32% have a some college32% have a some college  10% have their Associates Degree10% have their Associates Degree  4% have their Bachelors Degree4% have their Bachelors Degree  10% have their Graduates Degree10% have their Graduates Degree
    • SexualitySexuality  52% Heterosexuals52% Heterosexuals  8% Homosexual, Gay/Lesbian8% Homosexual, Gay/Lesbian  34% Bisexual34% Bisexual  2% Asexual2% Asexual
    • SpiritualitySpirituality  32% are Christian32% are Christian  4% are Buddhist4% are Buddhist  4% are Muslim4% are Muslim  4% are Hindu4% are Hindu  4% are A follower of another religion4% are A follower of another religion  34% are Not religious but still spiritual34% are Not religious but still spiritual  6% are Agnostic6% are Agnostic  12% are Atheist12% are Atheist
    • MANOVAsMANOVAs  Three MANOVAs were run to analyze the three predictiveThree MANOVAs were run to analyze the three predictive factors in relation to five outcome measures. Of the threefactors in relation to five outcome measures. Of the three MANOVAs only one reached statistical significance, such thatMANOVAs only one reached statistical significance, such that having received treatment for sexual abuse was related overall tohaving received treatment for sexual abuse was related overall to the five outcome measures, which included age of first drug use,the five outcome measures, which included age of first drug use, total number of drugs used, age of first crime, age of firsttotal number of drugs used, age of first crime, age of first incarceration, and total prison time.incarceration, and total prison time.
    • MANOVAsMANOVAs  The outcomes for the five measurements in relation toThe outcomes for the five measurements in relation to treatment vs. no-treatment received, for all five the meanstreatment vs. no-treatment received, for all five the means trended in the hypothesized direction, such that those who didtrended in the hypothesized direction, such that those who did not receive treatment for sexual abuse had a lower age of firstnot receive treatment for sexual abuse had a lower age of first drug use, used more drugs, had a lower age of first crime, had adrug use, used more drugs, had a lower age of first crime, had a lower age of first incarceration, and reported longer total prisonlower age of first incarceration, and reported longer total prison time. The age of first crime was itself significantly differenttime. The age of first crime was itself significantly different between those who received treatment for sex abuse and thosebetween those who received treatment for sex abuse and those who did not.who did not.  Two out of three MANOVAs failed to reach significance moreTwo out of three MANOVAs failed to reach significance more than likely do to the low number of participants. and otherthan likely do to the low number of participants. and other limitations for the study. Because of this factor the means werelimitations for the study. Because of this factor the means were analyzedanalyzed post hocpost hoc using a Chi squareusing a Chi square
    • Chi Square Results:Chi Square Results:  Of the 15 comparisons, 13 trended in the correctOf the 15 comparisons, 13 trended in the correct direction. A 2 x 1 Chi square on these trend datadirection. A 2 x 1 Chi square on these trend data suggests that the proportion of endorsements in linesuggests that the proportion of endorsements in line with the hypotheses is statistically significantly differentwith the hypotheses is statistically significantly different from chance;from chance; XX22 = 4.66,= 4.66, dfdf = 1,= 1, pp < .05. In particular, all< .05. In particular, all five means trended in the correct direction for thosefive means trended in the correct direction for those who reported their sexual abuse vs. those who did not,who reported their sexual abuse vs. those who did not, and for those who received treatment for their sexualand for those who received treatment for their sexual abuse vs. those who did not. Only three of five meansabuse vs. those who did not. Only three of five means trended in the correct direction for those with a historytrended in the correct direction for those with a history of sexual abuse vs. those without such a history.of sexual abuse vs. those without such a history.
    • TablesTables Outcome Measures by History of Sexual AbuseOutcome Measures by History of Sexual Abuse  MeasureMeasure No CSA/ASANo CSA/ASA CSA/ASACSA/ASA FF(1,48)(1,48)  ((nn = 12)= 12) ((nn = 38)= 38)  Age of 1Age of 1stst Drug UseDrug Use  15.25 (4.35) 18.89 (15.15) 0.6315.25 (4.35) 18.89 (15.15) 0.63  Total # Drugs UsedTotal # Drugs Used  3.08 (3.03) 3.82 (2.71) 0.433.08 (3.03) 3.82 (2.71) 0.43  Age 1Age 1stst CrimeCrime  19.50 (6.76) 20.68 (13.08) 0.8819.50 (6.76) 20.68 (13.08) 0.88  Age 1Age 1stst IncarcerationIncarceration  23.00 (8.02) 22.78 (13.49) 0.6723.00 (8.02) 22.78 (13.49) 0.67  Total Prison TimeTotal Prison Time  2.75 (2.45) 3.66 (2.89) 0.332.75 (2.45) 3.66 (2.89) 0.33  Wilks’ Lamba = 0.90,Wilks’ Lamba = 0.90, FF(5,44) = 1.01,(5,44) = 1.01, pp = .43= .43
    • TablesTables Outcome Measures by Sexual Abuse ReportingOutcome Measures by Sexual Abuse Reporting  MeasureMeasure Did Not Reported Sex AbuseDid Not Reported Sex Abuse Reported Sex AbuseReported Sex Abuse FF(1,48)(1,48)  ((nn = 42)= 42) ((nn = 8)= 8)  Age of 1Age of 1stst Drug UseDrug Use  16.85 (11.15) 24.13 (12.92) 0.9616.85 (11.15) 24.13 (12.92) 0.96  Total # Drugs UsedTotal # Drugs Used  3.74 (2.93) 3.13 (1.81) 0.323.74 (2.93) 3.13 (1.81) 0.32  Age 1Age 1stst CrimeCrime  19.21 (9.80) 26.63 (19.06) 1.7919.21 (9.80) 26.63 (19.06) 1.79  Age 1Age 1stst IncarcerationIncarceration  21.73 (9.99) 28.63 (20.79) 0.6421.73 (9.99) 28.63 (20.79) 0.64  Total Prison TimeTotal Prison Time  4.00 (3.42) 3.33 (2.69) 0.384.00 (3.42) 3.33 (2.69) 0.38 Wilks’ Lamba = 0.94,Wilks’ Lamba = 0.94, FF(6,43) = 0.53,(6,43) = 0.53, pp = .75.= .75.
    • TablesTables Outcome Measures by Sex Abuse TreatmentOutcome Measures by Sex Abuse Treatment  MeasureMeasure No TreatmentNo Treatment TreatmentTreatment FF(1,48)(1,48)  ((nn = 40)= 40) ((nn = 10)= 10)  Age of 1Age of 1stst Drug UseDrug Use  16.40 (11.46) 24.45 (18.78) 2.9716.40 (11.46) 24.45 (18.78) 2.97  Total # Drugs UsedTotal # Drugs Used  3.8 3 (2.94) 2.90 (1.91) 0.893.8 3 (2.94) 2.90 (1.91) 0.89  Age 1Age 1stst CrimeCrime  18.70 (10.09) 27.20 (15.99) 3.86*18.70 (10.09) 27.20 (15.99) 3.86*  Age 1Age 1stst IncarcerationIncarceration  21.48 (10.14) 28.25 (18.43) 1.5621.48 (10.14) 28.25 (18.43) 1.56  Total Prison TimeTotal Prison Time  3.60 (2.68) 3.40 (3.37) 0.403.60 (2.68) 3.40 (3.37) 0.40  Wilks’ Lamba = 0.90,Wilks’ Lamba = 0.90, FF(5,44) = 1.01,(5,44) = 1.01, pp = .42. *= .42. *pp < .05< .05
    • DiscussionDiscussion  The study shows a link between CSA and the early start of drugThe study shows a link between CSA and the early start of drug use, which causes a host of problems itself; yet combining theseuse, which causes a host of problems itself; yet combining these life experiences increases the downward spiral of a victim’s life.life experiences increases the downward spiral of a victim’s life. Sexual abuse has social stigma attached to it, leading manySexual abuse has social stigma attached to it, leading many victims to be ashamed. The more victims know their abuser, thevictims to be ashamed. The more victims know their abuser, the more stress and self-blame occur, making the likelihood ofmore stress and self-blame occur, making the likelihood of reporting the crime dim. A host of mental illnesses, includingreporting the crime dim. A host of mental illnesses, including PTSD and depression, often arise and cause more problems forPTSD and depression, often arise and cause more problems for these victims. Self-medicating with drugs to feel numb and forgetthese victims. Self-medicating with drugs to feel numb and forget the pain that was inflicted upon them leads to more problems inthe pain that was inflicted upon them leads to more problems in the long run.the long run.
    • DiscussionDiscussion  Drugs clearly lead to crime and crime has landed theseDrugs clearly lead to crime and crime has landed these participants behind bars. This study demonstrates thatparticipants behind bars. This study demonstrates that unreported sexual abuse, and untreated sexual abuse, bothunreported sexual abuse, and untreated sexual abuse, both appear to lead to greater and earlier drug use, earlier crime, andappear to lead to greater and earlier drug use, earlier crime, and more time in prison. These relationships support the causalmore time in prison. These relationships support the causal pathways described at the beginning of this study, namely, thatpathways described at the beginning of this study, namely, that CSA leads to drug use, which leads to crime and imprisonment.CSA leads to drug use, which leads to crime and imprisonment.  Thus, it may be important to consider treating women withThus, it may be important to consider treating women with CSA/ASA not only for their addiction issues, but also for theirCSA/ASA not only for their addiction issues, but also for their sexual abuse, since this appears to be in many cases the ultimatesexual abuse, since this appears to be in many cases the ultimate cause of a series of dysfunctional behaviors that compromise lifecause of a series of dysfunctional behaviors that compromise life optionsoptions
    • DiscussionDiscussion  The findings suggest that a change may need to occur in the wayThe findings suggest that a change may need to occur in the way women are screened in mental health and doctor offices, and inwomen are screened in mental health and doctor offices, and in the court system, since many are reporting that they are notthe court system, since many are reporting that they are not voluntarily disclosing their histories of sexual abuse. A simplevoluntarily disclosing their histories of sexual abuse. A simple added question to normal intake paperwork might actually save aadded question to normal intake paperwork might actually save a victim from a life full of heartache by precipitating neededvictim from a life full of heartache by precipitating needed treatment for the core issue of sexual abuse.treatment for the core issue of sexual abuse.
    • ConclusionConclusion  This study hypothesized that there is a link betweenThis study hypothesized that there is a link between substance abuse, crime, and SAsubstance abuse, crime, and SA  Therefore, we asked:Therefore, we asked:  Does untreated CSA/ASA lead to earlier and moreDoes untreated CSA/ASA lead to earlier and more severe drugs abuse and criminality?severe drugs abuse and criminality?  Results suggest that this hypothesis has been amplyResults suggest that this hypothesis has been amply confirmed.confirmed.
    • LimitationsLimitations  The questionnaire used was developedThe questionnaire used was developed specifically for this study, and thus no reliabilityspecifically for this study, and thus no reliability of validity data exist for it.of validity data exist for it.  Small sample size of 50Small sample size of 50  Uneven cell distributionsUneven cell distributions
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    • Thank you forThank you for attending!attending! Lillian Rosell IrwinLillian Rosell Irwin Masters of Psychology ProgramMasters of Psychology Program Kaplan UniversityKaplan University Lillianirwin@live.comLillianirwin@live.com