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Jake Allison-Mallard Duck
Jake Allison-Mallard Duck
Jake Allison-Mallard Duck
Jake Allison-Mallard Duck
Jake Allison-Mallard Duck
Jake Allison-Mallard Duck
Jake Allison-Mallard Duck
Jake Allison-Mallard Duck
Jake Allison-Mallard Duck
Jake Allison-Mallard Duck
Jake Allison-Mallard Duck
Jake Allison-Mallard Duck
Jake Allison-Mallard Duck
Jake Allison-Mallard Duck
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Jake Allison-Mallard Duck

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  • 1. Riparian Zone Retreat and population studies Jake Allison Biology 2 Pd. 1
  • 2.  
  • 3. Niche of Mallard Duck Mallard Duck ( Anas platyrhynchos ) <ul><li>Mallards tend to live by water because they are considered Waterfowl. The areas in which they live include ponds, lakes, marshes, or streams. </li></ul><ul><li>Young Mallards eat a variety of insects and plants while adult Mallards will eat insect larvae, small fish, tadpoles, and earthworms. Adult Mallards also eat corn, wheat and seeds from oak and hackberry. </li></ul><ul><li>Mallards a very good fliers and they use this and their swimming ability to help them catch their food. Usually they will fly into a body of water and swim around searching for food. Once then find food they are often seen feeding on them bottom’s up with 75% of their body submerged under the water. </li></ul>
  • 4. Mallard Duck Reproduction <ul><li>Mallards will pair off with each other in August and wait until March or April to breed </li></ul><ul><li>The breeding process occurs once a year for Mallards </li></ul><ul><li>The gestation period for Mallards is 28 days. </li></ul><ul><li>8-12 offspring as produced each year </li></ul><ul><li>Female will build a nest lined with soft feathers from her belly and will sit on the nest for one month until the eggs hatch. Once they do hatch the mother is all on her own to take care of the offspring until they can learn how to fly. </li></ul>
  • 5. Mallard Duck Death Rate <ul><li>Young Mallards do not learn how to fly until they are two months old which makes them very easy prey when they are on water or land. Foxes, Raccoons, large fish, and Snapping Turtles are all top predators of Mallards. </li></ul><ul><li>Mallard Ducks can be expected to live up to 15 years in the wild and upwards of 20 years in captivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Sarcocystosis is a common parasite that affects waterfowl, is nonfatal, and not harmful to humans because it is destroyed by cooking </li></ul>
  • 6. Food Chain of Mallard Duck The food chain starts off at the producer level which in this case is Water Elm. The Water Elm is then consumed by the primary consumer known as the Mallard Duck. The Mallard Duck will eventually be consumed by the secondary consumer know as the Red Fox. Last but not least, the Red Fox will be consumed by the Tertiary Consumer know as the Hawk. Producer Autotroph Primary Consumer Omnivore Secondary Consumer Omnivore Tertiary Consumer Carnivore
  • 7. Food web of Mallard Duck Herbivore Producer Omnivore Carnivore Carnivore Producer Carnivore Herbivore Herbivore Omnivore Producer
  • 8. Population Sampling Techniques <ul><li>Ecologists use various ways to determine a species overall population, some of their methods involve studying population size, population density, patterns of dispersion, demographics, population growth, and limits on population growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Ecologists will mainly use the mark and recapture technique where they will catch an assigned animal and tag it then later come back and catch it again to record its growth and other various aspects of the animal. </li></ul>
  • 9. Stream Quality Data & Analysis <ul><li>The graphs data indicates that our stream was in the “Good Water Quality” category </li></ul><ul><li>With an overabundant number of class 1 organisms it is safe to say we had a good water quality stream because class 1 organisms are very sensitive to water quality therefore they could only survive in a good quality stream </li></ul><ul><li>The stream conditions above affected the organisms because if the stream was good water quality then class 1 organisms will flourish in it </li></ul><ul><li>The mallard duck can survive in many waters however its life would be hard to survive in a stream with class 3 organisms being the dominant species because they do not eat class 3 organisms. </li></ul>
  • 10. Water Testing Data & Analysis <ul><li>For the most part all of the water was healthy except for the mine drainage site. </li></ul><ul><li>The ideal range for water systems in Powdermill are pH 6.5-7.5, D.O. above 10, Nitrate and Phosphates 0 and low turbidity and temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>The mallard duck would survive in the stream way better then in the mine water however it still may be able to live close by to the mine it would just need to feed somewhere else. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature plays a major role in water quality as the lower the temperature the higher the dissolved oxygen will be. Turbidity also affects water quality because if it is not low then organisms have trouble breathing and eating in the water they live. </li></ul>
  • 11. Soil Testing & Analysis <ul><li>Ph , potash, Phosphorus, and Nitrogen levels in soil are important elements in not only growth of the vegetation around them but stream quality as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal ranges of pH in soil is 7 or neutral, ideal ranges of Potash is generally a high amount, Nitrogen and Phosphorus are generally looked down upon when close to a stream but for farming you want high amounts of both. </li></ul><ul><li>If soil is acidic plants will have a hard time growing, if soil has too may nitrates or phosphates then plants may thrive in those conditions but local streams will be hurt by there run off. </li></ul>
  • 12. Positive and Negative Factors <ul><li>In all three of the waters that we tested the mallard duck would be able to survive in. However, the duck would thrive in the marsh and stream rather then in the mine. </li></ul><ul><li>Soil conditions wouldn’t really affect the mallard duck unless it somehow had excess nitrates that leaked into the water and killed all of the insects and fish that the duck eats. </li></ul><ul><li>The riparian zone can be affected numerous ways. Some factors that can affect the riparian zone are climate change, increased runoff, and increased erosion. All of these factors could play a major role in determining where a mallard duck decides where it lives. </li></ul>
  • 13. Conclusion <ul><li>While working on our research projects I learned the various types of potentially harmful chemicals and natural elements that can all affect stream quality and overall health of its aquatic animals </li></ul><ul><li>During the research project I found out the importance of riparian zones to everyday life and I found that interesting. </li></ul><ul><li>I would like to further research larger bodies of water such as lakes and oceans and see what type of factors affect them. </li></ul>
  • 14. Works Cited <ul><li>&quot;Riparian Zone.&quot; Absolute Astronomy . N.p., 12 May 2010. Web. 12 May 2010. <http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Riparian_zone>. </li></ul><ul><li>Merton, Eric. &quot;The influence of partial timber harvesting in riparian buffers on macroinvertebrate and fish communities in small streams in Minnesota, USA.&quot; The influence of partial timber harvesting in riparian buffers on macroinvertebrate and fish communities in small streams in Minnesota, USA. 259 (Apr. 2010): 1946-1958. EBSCOAnimals . Web. 12 May 2010. <http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/ detail?vid=4&hid=105&sid=caff679a-1543-4696-a76f-ad4b28ff9771%40sessionmgr111&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3Qtb Gl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=8gh&AN=49109421>. </li></ul><ul><li>Pieronn, Matthew. Effects of Large-Scale Predator Reduction on Nest Success of Upland Nesting Ducks . Baton Rouge: School of Renewable Natural Resources, 2010. N. pag. EBSCO Animals . Web. 12 May 2010. <http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/ detail?vid=4&hid=105&sid=6bf016e6-d997-4b5b-9d9a-64c9700400f2%40sessionmgr113&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3Qtb Gl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=8gh&AN=47233675>. </li></ul>

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