Jess Merchant-Fisher pp


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Jess Merchant-Fisher pp

  1. 1. Riparian Zone Retreat and population studies Fisher Jessica Merchant Honors Biology II Period 1
  2. 3. Niche of Fisher/ Martes pennanti <ul><li>Prefer a coniferous habitat, but also have been found in mixed and deciduous forests </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer high canopy closure habitats and having many hollow trees for dens </li></ul><ul><li>Typical trees include fir, spruce, white cedar, and some hardwoods </li></ul><ul><li>Predators, and most prey are herbivores including mice, porcupines, squirrels, snowshoe hares, birds, and shrews </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes prey on other carnivores or fruits and berries </li></ul><ul><li>Possess the ability to elongate themselves to prey in the ground and hollow trees </li></ul><ul><li>Solitary hunters that seek prey of their size or smaller, although capable of capturing larger prey </li></ul>
  3. 4. Factors which Affect Birth Rate of Fisher <ul><li>Mates between March and May </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduces about once a year </li></ul><ul><li>Gestation lasts about 51 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>A litter of 2 to 4 is usually born </li></ul><ul><li>The mother begins to wean them when they reach about 8 to 10 weeks of age </li></ul><ul><li>At 5 weeks, they begin to live separately from the mother </li></ul>
  4. 5. Factors Which Affect the Death Rate of Fisher <ul><li>Fishers are predators to many animals; their primary prey includes snowshoe hares and porcupine. Other prey includes birds and small mammals. </li></ul><ul><li>Fishers are in high demand to hunters because of their fur. </li></ul><ul><li>They had nearly been wiped out by trappers and hunters in this area. </li></ul><ul><li>Fishers live for about 10 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Fishers were once found in many forests across the country. Due to overpopulation, they are now only found in small regions and avoid open spaced. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Food Chain of Fisher Producer Autotroph Primary Consumer Herbivore Secondary Consumer Omnivore Tertiary Consumer Omnivore
  6. 7. Food Web of Fisher Herbivore Producer Omnivore Omnivore Producer Carnivore Herbivore Herbivore Omnivore Producer
  7. 8. Population Sampling Techniques <ul><li>Ecologists catch and tag various species to estimate the population size. Then, they catch a sample of the species again and recount them. </li></ul><ul><li>Ecologists tag fishers to estimate their population size by tagging and counting them, releasing them, then catching and recounting them. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Stream Quality Data & Analysis <ul><li>The graph represents high stream quality. </li></ul><ul><li>The large number of class 1 organisms represents high stream quality because they are only able to survive in streams with little or no pollution., </li></ul><ul><li>Fishers generally do not live by streams, but this high quality of stream would be beneficial because it is not polluted. </li></ul><ul><li>The fisher would be indirectly affected by mostly class 3 organisms because of the high amount of pollution. Consuming organisms of that type would be unhealthy for the fisher. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Water Testing Data & Analysis <ul><li>The ideal range for Nitrates and Phosphates is 0. The Dissolved Oxygen should be around 6-10. This represents a healthy stream. The pH should be between 6.5 and 7.5, which is the range able to support life. </li></ul><ul><li>The fisher would have a hard time living near the marsh or the mine. It needs to live near the healthiest conditions, which is the stream. </li></ul><ul><li>In order for organisms to cling to the rocks, the turbidity must be low and the temperature must be cooler in order for there to be more dissolved oxygen. If it is too warm, the organisms will die from lack of oxygen. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Soil Testing & Analysis <ul><li>The ideal range of pH is 6.5-7.5., just like the water. The ideal range for potash should be medium, which is around 10. The ideal ranges for phosphates and nitrates are low-trace. </li></ul><ul><li>If chemical ranges are out of their ideal ranges, they can cause the soil to run into the streams and change its levels. The organisms would be heavily affected because they depend on the ideal ranges to live. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Positive and Negative Factors <ul><li>The current state of the stream is very healthy for the fisher, but the state of the mine and marsh are not healthy enough. This water could contaminate the food supply for the fisher. </li></ul><ul><li>If the soil conditions are not ideal for the fisher, the plants it consumes will be affected. </li></ul><ul><li>A common source of pollution in Pennsylvania’s stream is farmland runoff. This can be prevented by buffer zone filled with roots and lots of plants. These prevent erosion of the soil as well. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Conclusion <ul><li>I learned that there are three different classes of organisms that show stream quality. I already knew there is a wide variety of organisms living in streams, but it is very interesting that they can show the quality of it. </li></ul><ul><li>Something interesting I learned from this project is all the information on the fisher. I did not know much about this animal before and find it fascinating. </li></ul><ul><li>For further research, I would like to lean about things I can do to maintain a healthy environment. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Works Cited <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
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