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Transcript

  • 1. Riparian Zone Retreat and population studies Debbie DiDiano, H.Biology II, Period 1.
  • 2.       
  • 3. Niche of a Woodchuck (Marmota Monax) (Groundhog or Whistle Pig)
    • Live in fields, lawns, gardens, and woods.
    • Dig large burrows up to 5 feet deep and 30 feet long.
      • Inside the burrow there is a main entrance, a nest chamber lined with grasses, and escape openings
    • Depends on plants for food
      • grasses, clovers, plantain, Flowering Dogwood, Black Cherry, and honeysuckle. Occasionally, they will eat snails, insects, baby birds, or eggs
    • Foxes, hawks, raccoons, and dogs are their predators
    • Climbs trees for food and swims
  • 4. Factors which Affect Birth Rate of Woodchuck
    • Breeding takes place in early March or April
    • Reproduce once a year
    • 31 or 32 day gestation period
    • 2-7 offspring are born each pregnancy
    • Time to weaning is 6 weeks
    • Begins reproduction in the Spring and ends in the Summer
  • 5. Factors Which Affect the Death Rate of the Woodchuck
    • Predator-prey relationships occur mostly when they are young
    • Average life span in the wild is up to six years and ten years in captivity
    • Baylisascaris procyonis found in raccoons and Microfilariae are common parasites which can fatally harm a woodchuck
    • Over-population affects your animal by lessening the population of woodchucks and their habitats.
  • 6. Food Chain of Woodchuck Producer Autotroph Primary Consumer Omnivore Secondary Consumer Carnivore Tertiary Consumer Omnivore
  • 7. Food web of a Woodchuck Herbivore Producer Omnivore Carnivore Carnivore Producer Carnivore Herbivore Herbivore Omnivore Producer
  • 8. Population Sampling Techniques
    • Ecologist use various population sampling techniques to estimate the population size of different species including probability sampling, where every individual in the population has an equal chance of being researched and non-probability sampling, members of a population don’t have an equal chance of being researched.
    • Population sampling techniques used to estimate the size of my animal are random sampling, ratified sampling, cluster sampling, and systematic sampling.
  • 9. Stream Quality Data & Analysis
    • The stream had good water quality.
    • Since a large number of organisms are found in Class I, we know the stream has good water quality.
    • The above stream conditions affects the woodchuck by providing it with a good water drinking source.
    • The woodchuck and the ecosystem would be affected if the majority of the organisms found were in class III because the poor water quality would not provide a source of drinking water for the woodchuck to live.
  • 10. Water Testing Data & Analysis
    • A low pH level means that the water is very acidic, the higher the oxygen level the healthier the stream, phosphates and nitrates indicate very poor water quality.
    • The ideal range for Powdermill is for a nitrate and phosphate level of 0, dissolved oxygen level of 10-15 and a pH level of 7.
    • The woodchucks habitat is ideally near a stream and not near a marsh or mine.
    • A temperature of about 55 is ideal and low turbidity.
  • 11. Soil Testing & Analysis
    • pH is important because the nutrients are carried in the soil, potash, phosphorus, & nitrogen because plants need these in specific amounts to grow, thrive, and fight off diseases
    • The ideal ranges are a pH of 6-7, potash that is high, phosphorus that is trace and nitrogen that is trace.
    • If the soil is too acidic, plants can’t utilize nutrients they need for life.
  • 12. Positive and Negative Factors
    • The stream would provide a source of drinking water for the woodchuck but it wouldn’t benefit off of the marsh and mine.
    • Good soil conditions provide the woodchuck with plants to eat.
    • Factors that negatively affect the riparian ecosystem are Abandon Mine Drainage and agricultural runoff in streams, fertilizers on grasses affect the soil. Ways to conserve and preserve the riparian habitat are to not use fertilizers and other chemicals that could harm it. These factors affect the woodchuck negatively by causing a lack of fresh water to drink from and plants that may harm them.
  • 13. Conclusion
    • Something new that I learned about the ecosystem is the pollution factors which affect PA streams the most.
    • Something that I found interesting is that PA has a very large number of streams compared to all other states.
    • An environmental topic that I might want to research further is Agricultural runoff.
  • 14. Works Cited
    • Whitaker, John O., Jr. National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mammals . New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996.
    • Wernert, Susan J., ed. North American Wildlife . Pleasantville, NY: Reader's Digest Association, 1982.
    • Martin, Alexander C., Herbert S. Zim, and Arnold L. Nelson.  American Wildlife & Plants, A Guide To Wildlife Food Habits .  Toronto, Ontario:  Dover Books, 1951.
    • Smuskiewicz, Alfred. &quot;The Woodchuck (Groundhog).&quot; Big Run Wolf Ranch . N.p., 2008. Web. 13 May 2010. <hthttp://www.bigrunwolfranch.org/woodchuck.htmltp://>.