LEED-EB O&M Basics


Published on

A basic overview and introduction to LEED-EB O&M, this is a presentation that OTJ can give to your organization so that you can better understand what is involved in bringing your building, or your portfolio, into the new "green age".

Published in: Business, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

LEED-EB O&M Basics

  1. 1. Kevin Sneed, LEED AP, AIA, IIDA Partner, Director of Architecture; OTJ Architects sneed@otj.com, 202.621.1364 Lew Brode, LEED AP, PE Branch Manager; Greenman-Pedersen, Inc. lbrode@gpinet.com, 240.268.1822 Lida Lewis, LEED AP, Associate AIA Project Designer; OTJ Architects An Introduction to LEED-EB O&M Presented By:
  2. 2. <ul><li>LEED buildings command rent premiums of $11.24/sf </li></ul><ul><li>LEED buildings have a 3.8% higher occupancy rate </li></ul><ul><li>LEED buildings sell for an average $171/sf more than their non-LEED-rated competitors </li></ul>LEED buildings make good business and financial sense: LEED buildings are in demand, and the available supply is relatively low. Working to take advantage of the LEED supply/demand gap makes solid business sense now, and their lower operating costs will continue to make good business sense into the future. Two recent studies (one by the New Buildings Institute, the other by CoStar) have confirmed that, nationally: <ul><li>LEED building energy use is 25-30% lower, on average, than non-rated buildings </li></ul><ul><li>LEED gold and platinum building energy use can be as high as 50% lower </li></ul>
  3. 3. Data taken from the national CoStar Realty Information Group study
  4. 4. Data taken from the national CoStar Realty Information Group study
  5. 5. Data taken from a joint study by Deloitte and Charles Lockwood, released July 2008 In a joint study released this summer by Deloitte and Charles Lockwood: The group analyzed more than 1,300 LEED Certified and ENERGY STAR buildings , representing about 351 million square feet in CoStar’s commercial property database of roughly 44 billion square feet, and assessed those buildings against non-green properties with similar size, location, class, tenancy, and year-built characteristics to generate the results.
  6. 6. Data taken from a joint study by Deloitte and Charles Lockwood, released July 2008 “ By and large, our respondents’ green retrofits achieved many of the stated objectives. 93 % of our respondents reported greater ability to attract talent, 81 % saw greater employee retention, 87 % reported an improvement in workforce productivity, 75 % saw an improvement in employee health, and 73 % reported that they had achieved cost reductions as a result of implementing green measures…” Deloitte and Lockwood Study, continued:
  7. 7. LEED projects are becoming more common and numerous across the US:
  8. 8. LEED projects are certified through several rating systems, to four certification levels:
  9. 9. LEED-EB O&M <ul><li>LEED-EB v 2.0: buildings could register under this system from 03.2000 – 09.01.2008 </li></ul><ul><li>LEED-EB O&M: currently in effect </li></ul><ul><li>LEED-EB O&M v 3.0: estimated to be issued in February/March of 2009 </li></ul>LEED-EB is a system that is in flux, as is the majority of the LEED system: No change Minor changes Significant changes New Credit LEED-EB 2.0 vs. LEED-EB O&M
  10. 10. <ul><li>4 levels: certified, silver, gold, & platinum </li></ul><ul><li>9 prerequisites </li></ul><ul><li>92 total possible credits </li></ul><ul><li>34 credits, minimum, for certification </li></ul><ul><li>3 month “performance period” </li></ul><ul><li>12 month occupancy minimum required </li></ul>LEED-EB O&M
  11. 11. A project MUST adhere to ALL of the prerequisites listed to obtain ANY LEED-EB certification rating LEED EB: Prerequisites WE PR1: Minimum Indoor Plumbing and Fixture Efficiency EA PR1: Energy Efficiency: Planning, Documentation, and Opportunity Assessment EA PR2: Minimum Energy Efficiency Performance EA PR3: Refrigerant Management MR PR1: Sustainable Purchasing Policy MR PR2: Solid Waste Management Policy EQ PR1: Outdoor Air Introduction and Exhaust Systems EQ PR2: Environmental Tobacco Smoke Control EQ PR3: Green Cleaning Policy
  12. 12. LEED EB O&M: Prerequisites WE PR1: Minimum Indoor Plumbing Efficiency A project MUST adhere to ALL of the prerequisites listed to obtain ANY LEED-EB certification rating Reduce potable water use to a level equal to or below the water use baseline, which is calculated relative to the building’s indoor plumbing fixtures and fittings compliance with the 2006 IPC, and sets a baseline relative to the substantial completion of the building’s plumbing system—which includes faucets, water closets, urinals, and showerheads. EA PR 1: Energy Efficiency Best Management Practices Requires documenting the current sequence of operations for the building, developing a building operations and maintenance plan, writing a descriptive narrative of the building mechanical and electrical systems and equipment, creating a preventative maintenance narrative and plan, and conducting an energy audit that meets the requirements of ASHRAE Level I: walk-through analysis. EA PR 2: Minimum Energy Efficiency Performance The building must gain at least 2 points under EA CR 1, which requires a minimum score of 69 under the EPA’s building EnergyStar rating system.
  13. 13. LEED EB O&M: Prerequisites WE PR 3: Refrigerant Management Prohibits the use of CFC-based refrigerants in the building HVAC&R systems unless a third-party audit shows that system replacement or conversion is not economically feasible (that simple payback of the system is greater than 10 years), or it is demonstrated that a phase-out plan for CFC refrigerants is in place. MR PR 1: Sustainable Purchasing Policy Requires the establishment of a policy, covering purchases within the building management’s control, for the sustainable purchase of ongoing building consumables, including at least one of MR credits 2, 3, or 4. Potential guidelines for such sustainable purchasing are available under the EPA’s Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP) Program. MR PR 2: Solid Waste Management Policy Requires the establishment of a policy for the building and site addressing the solid waste management of Ongoing Consumables (MR CR 7), Durable Goods (MR CR 8), Facility Alterations & Additions (MR CR 9), and mercury-containing lamps.
  14. 14. LEED EB O&M: Prerequisites EQ PR 1: Outdoor Air Introduction & Exhaust Systems Offers two paths to compliance: Option A: Modify or maintain each outside air intake, supply fan, and/or ventilation distribution system to supply the outdoor air ventilation rate required by ASHRAE 62.1-2007. Option B: If meeting ASHRAE 62.1-2007 is infeasible due to physical constraints, modify or maintain the system to supply at least 10 cfm of outdoor air per person under all normal operating conditions. EQ PR 2: Environmental Tobacco Smoke Control Offers two paths to compliance: Either prohibit smoking within 25 feet of all operable windows, building entries, and outdoor air intakes; OR prohibit smoking in the building except in specially designed, negatively-pressured smoking rooms, and locate any exterior smoking areas 25 feet away from all operable windows, building entries, and outdoor air intakes.
  15. 15. LEED EB O&M: Prerequisites EQ PR 3: Green Cleaning Policy Requires that the building purchase sustainable cleaning and hard floor & carpet care products, and purchase sustainable cleaning equipment. In addition, this prerequisite requires the establishment of policies regarding standard operating procedures, strategies for safe handling and storage of cleaning chemicals, requirements for promoting and improving hand hygiene, requirements for staff training, and provisions for collecting occupant feedback and maintaining continuous improvement based on that feedback. <ul><li>The building must be fully occupied for at least the 12 continuous months preceding the certification application. Vacant tenant space measuring 25% or less of the total floor area is permitted. </li></ul><ul><li>The project scope must include 100% of the total floor area of each building in the certification application. (Though up to 10% of that area may be excluded if under separate operations management control) </li></ul><ul><li>The building must be in compliance with federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, including, but not limited to, those addressing asbestos, PCBs, water discharge, and waste management. </li></ul>Additional General Requirements
  16. 16. LEED EB O&M: Sustainable Sites
  17. 17. LEED EB O&M: Sustainable Sites SS CR 1: LEED Certified Design & Construction One point is awarded to those buildings which have been previously certified under LEED-NC, OR certified under LEED-CS with at least 75% of tenant spaces certified under LEED-CI. SS CR 2: Building Exterior & Hardscape Management Plan <ul><li>To earn this credit, a building must have in place over the performance period a low-impact site and green building exterior management plan that reduces chemical use, energy and water waste, chemical runoff, etc. and addresses: </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Snow and ice removal </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning of the building exterior </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning of sidewalks, pavement, and other landscape </li></ul>
  18. 18. LEED EB O&M: Sustainable Sites, continued SS CR 3: Integrated Pest Management, Erosion Control, and Landscape Management Plan Requires the establishment of an environmentally sensitive management plan that reduces harmful chemical use, water and energy waste, solid waste, air pollution, and chemical runoff. Systems and policies must address pest management; erosion, sedimentation, and landscape erosion and waste control; and chemical fertilizer use. For projects in urban sites with little or no setback, this credit may be earned with policies that address vegetated roof surfaces, as long as the plants used are native or adapted species and the vegetated area covers at least 5% of the LEED project site area. SS CRs 4.1-4.4: Alternative Commuting Transportation Up to 4 points may be earned (depending on level of compliance), for increasing alternative commuting (commuting by bicycle, walking, carpool, metro, bus, telecommuting, car and van pools, low-emitting or alternative fuel vehicles, etc.). Reduction of traditional (one commuter, in one standard fuel vehicle) commuting by 10%, 25%, 50%, or 75% is required.
  19. 19. LEED EB O&M: Sustainable Sites, continued SS CR 5: Reduced Site Disturbance: Protect or Restore Open Space Awards 1 point to those projects which have native or adapted vegetation over at least 25% of the site area, excluding the building footprint. Projects may also restore off-site areas, with each 2 SF of off-site area counting as 1 SF on-site. For projects in urban sites with little or no setback, this credit may be earned with policies that address vegetated roof surfaces, as long as the plants used are native or adapted species and the vegetated area covers at least 5% of the LEED project site area. SS CR 6: Stormwater Management One point is awarded to those buildings which establish a stormwater management plan which infiltrates, collects, and reuses runoff from at least 15% of the precipitation falling on the project site. Offers two routes for compliance: Option A requires the use of strategies such as open paving, high-SRI pavers, landscape shading, etc. for 50% of the site hardscape area, OR Option B of this credit requires that a minimum of 50% of on-site parking spaces be underground. SS CR 7.1: Heat Island Reduction, Non-Roof
  20. 20. LEED EB O&M: Sustainable Sites, continued SS CR 7.2: Heat Island Reduction: Roof Offers three routes to compliance: <ul><li>White/highly reflective material for a minimum of 75% of the roof (white pavers or a white membrane, typically), </li></ul><ul><li>OR a green roof on at least 50% of the roof area, </li></ul><ul><li>OR a combination of green/landscaped roof and white roofing materials </li></ul>Interior non-emergency lighting with a direct line of sight to openings in the building envelope must shut off automatically after hours; and exterior/site lighting 50 Watts and greater must be fully or partially shielded, so that light generated by those luminaires is restricted from reaching the night sky and causing light pollution. SS CR 8: Light Pollution Reduction
  21. 21. LEED EB O&M: Water Efficiency
  22. 22. WE CRs 1.1 & 1.2: Water Performance Measurement LEED EB O&M: Water Efficiency CR 1.1, whole building metering, requires that a water meter be permanently installed in the building which measures the total potable water use for the building and grounds, and that meter data is recorded on a regular basis, with monthly and annual summary reports. CR 1.2, submetering, requires installation of submeters for one of the following: irrigation, indoor plumbing fixtures, cooling towers, domestic hot water, and process water. (Meters owned by third parties, such as utility companies, do not demonstrate compliance) WE CRs 2.1-2.3: Additional Indoor Plumbing Fixture Efficiency Up to 3 credits may be obtained for strategies and systems which reduce indoor plumbing fixture potable water use below the baseline established in WE Prerequisite 1 by 10%, 20%, or 30%.
  23. 23. WE CRs 4.1 & 4.2: Cooling Tower Water Management LEED EB O&M: Water Efficiency, continued CR 4.1, chemical management, requires the development and implementation of a water management plan that addresses chemical treatment, bleed-off, biological control, and staff training in cooling tower maintenance, as well as installing and/or maintaining a conductivity meter and automatic controls. CR 4.2, nonpotable water source use, requires the use of nonpotable water sources (such as harvested rainwater, harvested stormwater, treated wastewater, air-conditioner condensate, etc.) for cooling tower operations—where at least 50% of the water used in the cooling system comes from these nonpotable sources. WE CRs 3.1-3.3: Water Efficient Landscaping Up to 3 credits may be obtained for strategies and systems which reduce landscaping (including urban zero lot line buildings with vegetation or planters covering 5% of the roof area) potable water use, compared to conventional means, by 50%, 75%, or 100%.
  24. 24. LEED EB O&M: Energy & Atmosphere
  25. 25. Intended to increase the level of operating efficiency performance of LEED buildings relative to typical buildings of similar type. The EPA’s Energy Star rating system for buildings is used to evaluate the building, and anywhere from 2 (2 points are mandatory under the prerequisites) to 15 credits are awarded, depending on the building’s rating under that program. EA CR 1: Optimize Energy Efficiency Performance LEED EB O&M: Energy & Atmosphere Through a systematic process known as commissioning, an understanding is developed of the operation of the building’s major energy-using systems. Up to 6 points may be earned in this category. EA CRs 2.1-2.3: Existing Building Commissioning <ul><li>CR 2.1: Investigation and Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>CR 2.2: Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>CR 2.3: Ongoing Commissioning </li></ul>
  26. 26. Requires that a building have in place a computer-based building automation system (BAS) that monitors and controls key building systems including heating, cooling, ventilation, and lighting, and uses that system to inform decisions regarding changes in building operations and energy-saving investments. EA CR 3.1: Performance Measurement: Building Automation System LEED EB O&M: Energy & Atmosphere, continued In order to provide energy use information and identify potential energy-saving opportunities, these credits require system metering. In this credit, the team will first develop a breakdown of energy use in the building through energy bills or through EA CRs 2.1 & 2.2. Then, system-level metering must be installed to cover 40% to 80% of the total expected energy consumption of the building. Under CR 3.2, the building will have system-level metering in place for 40% of the total expected energy use, and in addition, at least one of the two largest energy use categories must be covered by 80% or more. Under CR 3.3, the building will have system-level metering in place for 80% of the total expected energy use, and in addition, at least two of the three largest energy use categories must be covered by 80% or more. Meters owned by third parties (such as utility companies) do not contribute toward compliance. EA CRs 3.2 & 3.3: Performance Measurement: System-Level Metering
  27. 27. LEED EB O&M: Energy & Atmosphere, continued EA CRs 4.1-4.4: On-Site and Off-Site Renewable Energy Over the performance period, meet some or all of the building’s total energy use through on-site or off-site (green-e certified power certificates) renewable energy sources. Points are awarded thusly: LEED-EB points on-site energy off-site energy 1 2 3 4 3% 6% 9% 12% 25% 50% 75% 100% EA CR 5: Refrigerant Management Two compliance methods apply: under Option A, buildings agree to not use HVAC&R equipment with refrigerants, and under Option B, some refrigerants may be used, which do not contribute to global warming. EA CR 6: Emissions Reduction Reporting Identify, track, and record emissions reductions delivered by building sustainable features and procedures, and record them using a third-party reporting or certification program (Energy Star, for example).
  28. 28. LEED EB: Materials & Resources
  29. 29. LEED EB: Materials & Resources MR CRs 1.1-1.3: Sustainable Purchasing: Ongoing Consumables Under this credit, sustainable purchasing policies are implemented for low cost per unit items (such as paper, batteries, envelopes, toner, etc.). This policy would encourage the use of items with high recycled content, FSC certification, local (within 500 miles) sourcing, et cetera. 1-3 points may be earned in this category. MR CRs 2.1 & 2.2: Sustainable Purchasing: Durable Goods Under this credit, sustainable purchasing policies are implemented for higher cost per unit items, are replaced infrequently, and/or may require capital improvement outlays CR 2.1, Electric-Powered Equipment, awards one point to projects which achieve sustainable purchases for at least 40% of electric-powered equipment (by cost), such as copiers, monitors, printers, appliances, televisions, and various types of AV equipment. Such equipment will be Energy Star labeled, or replaces conventional gas-powered equipment (such as some types of landscaping and cleaning equipment). CR 2.2, Furniture, awards one point to those projects which sustainably purchase at least 40% of total furniture purchases (by cost). These furniture types will typically be items with high recycled content, FSC certified components, local (within 500 miles) components, et cetera.
  30. 30. Under this credit category, a point is earned by implementing and maintaining a sustainable purchasing policy for building elements permanently or semi-permanently attached to the building itself. This includes, but is not limited to, drywall, ceiling panels, adhesives, sealants, paint, wall studs, doors, etc. This credit encourages the use of building elements with low VOC content, high recycled content, purchased within 500 miles of the project site, et cetera. MR CR 3: Facility Alterations & Additions This credit requires the development of a lighting purchasing plan that keeps mercury levels below 70-90 picograms per lumen-hour, and 1-2 points may be earned, depending on the level of compliance achieved. MR CR 4: Reduced Mercury in Lamps To reduce the environmental and transportation impacts associated with food purchase and distribution, a credit may be earned in this category by buildings which achieve sustainable purchasing levels (organic, Blue Eco-Label, Project Harvest Certified, etc., and purchased within 100 miles of the building) for 25% of food and beverage purchases (by cost). MR CR 5: Food LEED EB: Materials & Resources
  31. 31. LEED EB: Materials & Resources, continued MR CR 6: Waste Stream Audit Under this credit, the team must conduct a “waste stream audit”, identifying a current building baseline for waste types and amounts (including paper, glass, plastics, cardboard, and metals), and opportunities for waste diversion and increases in recycling. MR CRs 7.1-7.2: Solid Waste Management: Ongoing Consumables Maintain a waste reduction and recycling program, addressing materials with a low cost per unit item, and provide an easily accessible area that serves the entire building dedicated to the separation, collection, and storage of materials for recycling (including paper, glass, plastics, cardboard, and metals), of a capacity designed to accommodate 50 – 70% of the waste stream (1-2 points awarded). MR CR 8: Solid Waste Management: Durable Goods Maintain a waste reduction and recycling program, addressing durable, infrequently replaced materials (such as office equipment, appliances, televisions, power adapters, et cetera). Reuse or recycle 75% of this waste stream, by weight, volume, or replacement value. MR CR 9: Solid Waste Management: Facility Alterations & Additions Divert at least 70% of waste (by volume) generated by facility alterations & additions from landfills.
  32. 32. LEED EB: Indoor Environmental Quality
  33. 33. LEED EB: Indoor Environmental Quality EQ CR 1.1: IAQ Management Program In this category, a building will develop and implement, on an ongoing basis, an IAQ management program based on the EPA’s “Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM)”, which attempts to prevent the development of indoor air quality problems, and maintain the well-being of building occupants. EQ CR 1.2: Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring This credit requires the installation of permanent, continuous monitoring systems that provide feedback on ventilation system performance to ensure that the ventilation systems maintain expected system operating conditions within 15% of the design minimum. Monitoring must be performed for at least 80% of the building’s outdoor air intake flow serving occupied spaces, and generate alarms when noncompliance levels occur. In addition, CO2 sensors and/or sampling locations must be installed and/or established for all densely occupied spaces. EQ CR 1.3: Increased Ventilation For mechanically ventilated spaces, increase outdoor air ventilation rates for all air-handling units serving occupied spaces b at least 30% over ASHRAE 62.1-2007 minimums.
  34. 34. LEED EB: Indoor Environmental Quality, continued EQ CR 1.4: Reduce Particulates in Air Distribution To reduce exposure of building occupants and maintenance personnel to potentially hazardous particulate contaminants, have in place filtration media with a value greater than or equal to MERV 13 for all outside air intakes and inside air recirculation returns. EQ CR 1.5: IAQ Management for Facility Alterations and Additions This credit aims to prevent indoor air quality problems after construction, by requiring an IAQ management plan for construction and occupancy phases, including monitoring during construction to ensure that the contractor is: following SMACNA IAQ guidelines, protecting on-site absorptive construction materials, using MERV-8 filters during construction, and replacing all of those filters post construction and prior to tenant occupancy, and conducting a flush-out of the space after construction has concluded, and prior to occupancy by the tenant.
  35. 35. EQ CR 2.1: Occupant Survey Conduct at least one occupant survey during the performance period, to collect anonymous responses about thermal comfort, acoustics, indoor air quality, lighting levels, building cleanliness, and other occupant comfort issues, collecting responses from at least 30% of occupants. LEED EB: Indoor Environmental Quality, continued EQ CR 2.2: Occupant Controlled Lighting Requires the use of lighting controls that enable adjustments to suit the task needs and preferences of individuals for at least 50% of individual workstations, AND for groups sharing a multi-occupant space or working area for at least 50% of multi-occupant spaces in the building. EQ CR 2.3: Thermal Comfort Monitoring Aimed at providing a high level of control for building occupants, fostering greater workplace satisfaction and productivity, this credit requires the provision of a thermally comfortable environment, by designing a space that complies with ASHRAE Standard 55-2004. In addition to this compliance, there must be provided a permanent monitoring system to ensure that the systems are performing in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 55-2004.
  36. 36. LEED EB: Indoor Environmental Quality, continued EQ CRs 2.4 & 2.5: Daylight & Views In order to ensure that all building occupants have a connection to the outdoors, with access to daylight and views in all or most of the regularly occupied tenant spaces. Under CR 2.4, a 2% daylight factor must be achieved for 50% of spaces occupied for critical visual tasks, OR direct line of site vision glazing must be achieved for building occupants in 45% of all regularly occupied spaces. CR 2.5 requires that a 2% daylight factor be achieved for 75% of occupied critical visual task areas, OR direct lines of sight to vision glazing for building occupants in 90% of regularly occupied spaces.
  37. 37. LEED EB: Indoor Environmental Quality, continued EQ CRs 3.1-3.9: Green Cleaning In these credit categories, points are awarded for achieving increased sustainability and ergonomic performance levels in cleaning equipment, practices, and materials: <ul><li>3.1 High Performance Cleaning Program </li></ul><ul><li>3.2-3.3 Custodial Effectiveness Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>3.4-3.6 Sustainable Cleaning Products and Materials </li></ul><ul><li>3.7 Sustainable Cleaning Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>3.8 Entryway Systems </li></ul><ul><li>3.9 Indoor Integrated Pest Management </li></ul>
  38. 38. LEED EB: Innovation & Design
  39. 39. LEED Gold: Union of Concerned Scientists <ul><li>Maximized the use of existing construction and furniture </li></ul><ul><li>Building management was cooperative and supportive, adding bike racks, upgrading building core with water-conserving measures, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Very high energy light fixtures with a very low overall wattage/SF consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Many recycled and locally manufactured materials and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Low VOC paints and adhesives throughout </li></ul><ul><li>Greenguard certified furniture </li></ul><ul><li>On time, within a (very restrictive) budget </li></ul>Has been awarded a USBGC LEED Gold Rating
  40. 40. LEED Gold: The American Wind Energy Association <ul><li>Indoor air quality management, both during construction, and after (prior to occupancy) </li></ul><ul><li>Building management was cooperative and supportive, and is actually pursuing LEED-EB </li></ul><ul><li>Very high energy light fixtures with a very low overall wattage/SF consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Many recycled and locally manufactured materials and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Low VOC paints, adhesives, carpet, and furniture throughout </li></ul><ul><li>Daylight and views for 90% of regularly occupied spaces </li></ul><ul><li>75% Energy Star appliances and equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Double the requirement for Green Power </li></ul>Currently submitted to the USBGC LEED Online site with a LEED Gold Rating (under review)
  41. 41. LEED Gold: The American Legacy Foundation Winner of the AIA DC Chapter Presidential Citation for Sustainable Design <ul><li>Heat island effect mitigation at the roof level, with a combination of highly reflective white roof pavers and sections of green roof </li></ul><ul><li>Water efficient landscaping </li></ul><ul><li>Very high energy light fixtures with a very low overall wattage/SF consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Many recycled and locally manufactured materials and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Increased ventilation and outdoor air delivery monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal comfort design and compliance monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Certified woods </li></ul><ul><li>Diversion of construction wastes from landfills </li></ul>