Current Trends and Transformation
in Libraries in the United States
米国における図書館の現在の傾向と変化

By Michael Dowling
Director, Inter...
58,000 members (mainly librarians, but also
libraries, library trustees, corporations)
43 Members from Japan
Represent all...
Libraries and Skills Needed for Global Economy
キーポイント

http://skills.oecd.org/documents/OECD_Skills_Outlook_2013.pdf

Japa...
A Tale of Two Countries-Where Does Japan Fit?

•400 Public libraries closed in United
Kingdom 2005-2012
•Only 32% visited ...
Japan Public Library Usage
35% of Japanese visited a
public library in a year
Chiyoda Ward Hibiya Library and Museum
exten...
Numbers of Libraries
UNITED STATES (315 million people)

JAPAN (127 million people)

Total- 119,987
Public Libraries -

8,...
What Are Libraries Doing?
•
•
•
•

•
•
•
•

Community Engagement
Customer Focused
Conducive Environments
Partnerships and
...
Library Evolution
ALA Annual State of America’s Libraries Report
• 公立図書館
•Public Libraries
•Academic Libraries
•School Libraries
•Ebooks
•So...
More Demand for Services with Equal or Less
Funding

•

•

http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/4673a369#/4673a369/1

Use o...
Skills Training and Resources for Employment
•

•

http://www.plinternetsurvey.org/sites/default/files/publications/Emplo
...
Libraries Helping Kids Succeed
•

Homework Help at Public Libraries

•

Focused centers and activities on
science, math, a...
Creating New Services and Programs to Attract
Specific Populations
•Gaming nights are now taking place
in many libraries- ...
Libraries Partnering to Solve Community
Problems
•

Libraries working with state and local
government agencies, and others...
Libraries and New Health Care Program
•

Libraries create programming and
resources for new federal
government initiative ...
Libraries Help After Disasters
•

Libraries provided support, meeting place,
Internet, information on government
relief se...
Technology Providers
•
•
•
•
•
•

Ebooks
Mobile Apps
Maker Spaces with 3D Printers
Tablets to borrow
Software to Check Out...
Ebooks in Public Libraries
Growth and Challenges
•

In 2011,76% of public libraries offered access to
e-books

•

Ebooks w...
Japan Ebook Market- Similar Challenges
• Kodokawa, Kodansha,
Kinokuniya new service

http://goodereader.com/blog/e-book-ne...
New and Old Libraries –New Spaces
•Innovative technology integrated into new
library
•Teen Spaces
•More Meeting Space (lar...
Social Media and Mobile Applications
•
•
•
•

Libraries reaching out to where the public is,
in cyberspace.
New York Publi...
Visibility for Libraries- Statewide Snapshot Days
Local libraries have increased efforts to
promote themselves.
Many large...
Privatizing Libraries
•

A number of U.S. library systems have
outsourced the management of their library to a
private com...
The Value Academic Libraries
Administrators seek evidence based reports of
measurable impact. Outcome based evaluation.

h...
Academic Library Design Trends
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Envision library as place.
Make collaboration a must
See that technology...
Information/Learning
Commons




•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Focus on the needs of students
Considering how and wh...
Embedded Librarians
Academic Liaisons
•

Embedded librarians work join a
semester-long course, maintaining an
ongoing pres...
Demand Driven Acquisition
•

Demand-driven acquisition (DDA) is
transforming collection development
strategies for a growi...
Mobile Access To Academic Library Resources
•

Crucial that academic libraries have
mobile apps for students

•

大学図書館で学生の...
Libraries and Online Education
•

Big increase in students taking online
courses

•

Libraries need to provide resources a...
Adopting New Standards
•

RDA, designed for the digital world,
covers all type of content and media.

•

RDA はデジタル世界のためにデザ...
School Librarian Crisis

Since 2005-2006, there has been a 4.27
percent reduction in the number of school
librarians acros...
Trying to Make the Case
Studies that show schools with a
trained school librarian have
higher test scores that similar
sch...
Developing the Next Generation of Library
Leaders
ALA Emerging Leaders Program
State and Regional Level Leadership Program...
Visibility for Librarians
Very important to raise the
awareness of librarians, not just
libraries.
ALA grant from Carnegie...
Thank you!
mdowling@ala.org
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M Dowling ALA Presentation at the 15th Library Fair and Forum in Yokohama, Japan

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第15回図書館総合展 主催者フォーラム
アメリカにおける図書館と図書館司書の変革
新たに課せられた役割と使命の達成に向けて
【日時】2013年10月29日(火)15:30-17:00

Current Trends and Transformation in Libraries in the United States  米国における図書館の現在の傾向と変化

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M Dowling ALA Presentation at the 15th Library Fair and Forum in Yokohama, Japan

  1. 1. Current Trends and Transformation in Libraries in the United States 米国における図書館の現在の傾向と変化 By Michael Dowling Director, International Relations Office and Chapter Relations Office American Library Association mdowling@ala.org
  2. 2. 58,000 members (mainly librarians, but also libraries, library trustees, corporations) 43 Members from Japan Represent all types of libraries but primarily public, academic and school Key Action AreasAdvocacy for Libraries and the Profession Equitable Access to Information and Library Service Literacy Intellectual Freedom Education and Lifelong Learning Diversity Transforming Libraries 重要な行動 • 図書館と図書館専門職のPR活 動 • 情報、図書館サービスへの公 平なアクセス • リテラシー • 知的自由 • 教育と生涯学習 • 多様性 • 図書館を変化させる
  3. 3. Libraries and Skills Needed for Global Economy キーポイント http://skills.oecd.org/documents/OECD_Skills_Outlook_2013.pdf Japan # 1 Literacy and #1 Numeracy United States #13 Literacy and #19 in Numeracy Key Points for Policy • • • Provide high-quality initial education and lifelong learning opportunities Make lifelong learning opportunities accessible to all Make sure all children have a strong start in education • 質の高い初期教育と生 涯学習の機会を提供す る • 生涯学習の機会を全て の人が持てるようにす る • 子どもたちが最初から しっかり学ぶことを確 実にする
  4. 4. A Tale of Two Countries-Where Does Japan Fit? •400 Public libraries closed in United Kingdom 2005-2012 •Only 32% visited a public library in last 12 months https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data /file/244895/Taking_Part_2013_14_Quarter_1_Report.doc.pdf •Over 100 public library building projects completed in U.S. in 2012 •53% visited a public library in last 12 months http://libraries.pewinternet.org/files/legacypdf/PIP_Library%20services_Report.pdf
  5. 5. Japan Public Library Usage 35% of Japanese visited a public library in a year Chiyoda Ward Hibiya Library and Museum extended weekday evening hours, and expanded business related materials in collection Tokorozawa City Library working with eight convenience stores where people can drop off and pick up reading materials from the library. Service used 55,000 times since 2012. http://japandailypress.com/japans-public-libraries-add-services-to-get-more-peoplereading-2138139/
  6. 6. Numbers of Libraries UNITED STATES (315 million people) JAPAN (127 million people) Total- 119,987 Public Libraries - 8,951 (plus branches 16,417) Public Libraries- 3,106 Academic Libraries- 3,689 (four and two year) Academic Libraries- 1,293 School Libraries- 39,697 Special Libraries- 1,761 School LibrariesSpecial Libraries- 98,460 7,616 (medical, law, corp.) Government Libraries- 1,006 Armed Forces Libraries- 265 http://www.ala.org/tools/libfactsheets/alalibraryfactsheet01 http://www.jla.or.jp/portals/0/html/libraries-e.html#general
  7. 7. What Are Libraries Doing? • • • • • • • • Community Engagement Customer Focused Conducive Environments Partnerships and Collaborations Technology providers Transformative Assessment Visible • 地域コミュニティーと の関わり • 利用者中心の考え方 • 利用者に役立つ環境 • パートナーシップとコ ラボレーション • テクノロジーの提供者 • 変化できる • 評価 • 目に見える
  8. 8. Library Evolution
  9. 9. ALA Annual State of America’s Libraries Report • 公立図書館 •Public Libraries •Academic Libraries •School Libraries •Ebooks •Social Media •Intellectual Freedom •Copyright (83 pages) http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/33759128#/33759128/1 • 大学・短期大学 図書館 • 学校図書館 • 電子書籍 • ソーシャルメ ディア • 知的自由 • 著作権
  10. 10. More Demand for Services with Equal or Less Funding • • http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/4673a369#/4673a369/1 Use of libraries goes up during economic hard times, but funding decreases 図書館の利用は経済状況のよくな いときには増えるが、財源は減る。
  11. 11. Skills Training and Resources for Employment • • http://www.plinternetsurvey.org/sites/default/files/publications/Emplo ymentBrief2012.pdf Public libraries became more involved in helping those who lost jobs during the economic recession, many with no access to the Internet at home 84% libraries reported that providing employment services important • 景気後退期に失業した人の多 くは家でインターネットへの アクセスがなかったが、公共 図書館ではこうした人々が雇 用を得るための援助に関わる ことが多くなった。 • 84%の図書館が雇用サービ スを提供することは大切だと 答えている。
  12. 12. Libraries Helping Kids Succeed • Homework Help at Public Libraries • Focused centers and activities on science, math, and technology (STEM) • 公共図書館での宿題サポート • 科学、数学、テクノロジー (STEM) • に関するフォーカスセンターとそ の活動
  13. 13. Creating New Services and Programs to Attract Specific Populations •Gaming nights are now taking place in many libraries- both electronic and board games •Increase in Older Americans, Different needs and interests. •Overall more programming taking place. •図書館の多くでゲームナイトが 行われており、電子ゲームや盤 面ゲームで遊ぶことができる。 •高齢者の使用の増加に伴い、 ニーズや興味が多様化している。 •より多くの企画行事が行われて いる。
  14. 14. Libraries Partnering to Solve Community Problems • Libraries working with state and local government agencies, and others to combat societal issues. • • • Obesity Financial Illiteracy Discussions of Societal Issues at Libraries • 図書館が州や地方自治体 機関などと共に社会問題 と戦う • • • 肥満 財務管理上の能力欠如 図書館での社会問題に 関するディスカッ ション
  15. 15. Libraries and New Health Care Program • Libraries create programming and resources for new federal government initiative (Obamacare) • Example of libraries engaging/helping public on important issues. • オバマケア(包括的医療保険制度改 革)など政府改善策に関する企画 プログラムや資料の作成 • 図書館の重要問題に関する市民へ の関与や援助の例
  16. 16. Libraries Help After Disasters • Libraries provided support, meeting place, Internet, information on government relief services after Hurricane Katrina (2005) and Sandy (2013). Recognized and appreciated. • ハリケーン「カトリナ」(2005年)や 「サンディー」(2013年)の後、図書館 は、支援、待合所、インターネット、 政府救援活動に関する情報を提供した。 これら一環の図書館の援助は人々に認 められ評価された。
  17. 17. Technology Providers • • • • • • Ebooks Mobile Apps Maker Spaces with 3D Printers Tablets to borrow Software to Check Out Training on how to use • • • • • • 電子書籍 モバイルアプリ 3Dプリンタ付きののMakerスペース 貸し出し用タブレット端末・PC 貸し出し用ソフト 使い方の訓練
  18. 18. Ebooks in Public Libraries Growth and Challenges • In 2011,76% of public libraries offered access to e-books • Ebooks were available in 92% of urban libraries, but only 65% of rural libraries • Publishers not wanting to provide libraries with access to new ebooks, and also want to charge higher prices to libraries. • Raise awareness among library users of issue. • 2011年には、公共図書館の76%が電子書 籍へのアクセスを提供した。 電子書籍は都市部の図書館の92%で利用でき るが、都市部を離れると65%に減る。 出版者は最新の電子書籍を図書館に提供し たがらない傾向がある。提供する場合は、 図書館に対して割高な価格を求める。 電子書籍に関する問題に対して、図書館使 用者の関心を高める • • •
  19. 19. Japan Ebook Market- Similar Challenges • Kodokawa, Kodansha, Kinokuniya new service http://goodereader.com/blog/e-book-news/japan-digital-library-service-launchesearly-2014-aims-to-define-standards-of-digital-library-services
  20. 20. New and Old Libraries –New Spaces •Innovative technology integrated into new library •Teen Spaces •More Meeting Space (large and small groups) •新しい図書館に取り入れられた革新的なな テクノロジー •ティーンエイジャーのためのスペース •大小グループ向けのミーティングスペース をより多く設ける
  21. 21. Social Media and Mobile Applications • • • • Libraries reaching out to where the public is, in cyberspace. New York Public Library Facebook pace has almost 300,000 followers In 2012, 70% of libraries had a social media presence In 2012, 7% had mobile apps • 図書館がサイバースペースで人々のいる ところに手を差し伸べる。 • ニューヨーク市図書館のフェースブック はは30万人にフォローされている。 • 2012年には、図書館の70%がソーシャル メディアに存在している。 • 2012人には図書館の7%がモバイルアプリ を持つ
  22. 22. Visibility for Libraries- Statewide Snapshot Days Local libraries have increased efforts to promote themselves. Many large and mid-size libraries have dedicated staff for marketing State association efforts to capture all the activity going on in libraries 地域図書館では、セルフプロモー ションの取り組みの増大に努めてい る。 中規模、大規模図書館では、マーケ ティング担当のスタッフが、図書館 使用の促進に当たっている。 州協会の、州内図書館での全ての活 動の把握 http://www.ala.org/advocacy/advleg/statelocalefforts/snapshotday
  23. 23. Privatizing Libraries • A number of U.S. library systems have outsourced the management of their library to a private company. • ALA policy opposes the shifting of policy making and management oversight of library services from the public to the private for-profit sector. • Checklist for community to consider when making decision. • Takeo City Library privatization may interest other municipal officials in Japan. http://www.ala.org/tools/sites/ala.org.tools/files/content/outsourcing/REVIS EDSEPT2011_ALAKeepingPublicLibraries%20PublicFINAL2.pdf http://japandailypress.com/japanese-public-library-opens-with-a-starbucks-inside0226228/
  24. 24. The Value Academic Libraries Administrators seek evidence based reports of measurable impact. Outcome based evaluation. http://www.ala.org/acrl/sites/ala.org.acrl/files/content/issues/value/vasummit.pdf Librarians need to articulate and promote demonstrated impact on student learning and Success • 管理者は根拠に基づく測 定可能な効果の報告を求 める。結果重視の査定、 評価。 http://www.acrl.ala.org/value/ • 図書館司書は、生徒の学 習と成功に関して、影響 を明確に表現し、奨励し て行く必要がある。
  25. 25. Academic Library Design Trends • • • • • • • • • Envision library as place. Make collaboration a must See that technology drives the bus Plan for change Use the library to attract and retain top students Optimize spaces between spaces Consolidate emerging specialty spaces. Rethink library programming Design for environmental sustainability From Thomas Sens, AIA, LEED AP http://www.libraryworks.com/LW_Best%20Practices/WP_12_Trends_Libr ary_Design.aspx • 図書館を場所としてとらえる。 • 協力は必須。 • テクノロジーが図書館を動か すと考える。 • 変化への計画を立てる。 • 図書館を優秀な学生を集め、 保持するためのツールにする。 • スペースを最大限に生かす • 特別使用の為のスペースを統 合する。 • 図書館のコンピュータプログ ラムを再検討する。 • 環境保持のために設計する。
  26. 26. Information/Learning Commons    • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Focus on the needs of students Considering how and why we access and use information Providing a one-stop shopping experience for all types of information needs: Library research, technology and more Assistive Technology Computing Services Connections Café Digital Media Lab Digital Media Support Faculty Drop-In Support Equipment Loan Services Group Study Rooms Help Desk Meeting & Event Spaces Reference Services ReservationNet Statistical Advising Video Conferencing Writing Center • 学生のニーズに注目する。 • なぜ情報にアクセスし、 情報を使用するのか考え る。 • 図書館でのリサーチ、テ クノロジーなど、全ての 種類の情報のニーズを 一ヶ所で得られる場所を 提供する。 • デジタルメディアサポー ト
  27. 27. Embedded Librarians Academic Liaisons • Embedded librarians work join a semester-long course, maintaining an ongoing presence in online courses, participating in broad curriculum planning efforts. • Connecting and assisting faculty and students through skillful communication and resource utilization with coverage of key topics such as: Orientation meetings Acquiring Subject specialization Advice on faculty communication and assistance Online tutorial creation Collection development Information literacy instruction Library guides Evaluation methods • • 図書館司書が学期を通してコースに参加し、広 くカリキュラムの作成に参加する。 巧みななコミュニケーションと資料使用を通じ て教授陣と学生をつなぐ手助けをする。以下の ような重要な事柄を網羅することができる。 オリエンテーションミーティング 専攻学科の修得 学生とのコミュニケーションに関するアシス タンス オンラインでの指導アシスタンス 図書館書籍資料の開発 情報リテラシーのインストラクション 図書館ガイド 評価方法
  28. 28. Demand Driven Acquisition • Demand-driven acquisition (DDA) is transforming collection development strategies for a growing number of academic libraries. • Library users in the driver’s seat, DDA offers libraries a unique opportunity to better maximize budgets by shedding traditional “just in case” collection development to fine-tuned collections that meet actual user needs. From www.niso.org/nuser • 需要駆動型購入方式(DDA)は変 化する書籍資料開発方法で、 より多くの大学図書館でこの 方法が取り入れられています。 • 図書館利用者が先導をとるこ とによって、DDAは従来の「も しものために」購入する書籍 資料を減らし、利用者のニー ズにあったコレクションをを 構築することを可能にします。 その結果図書館は予算を最大 限に活かす機会を得られます。
  29. 29. Mobile Access To Academic Library Resources • Crucial that academic libraries have mobile apps for students • 大学図書館で学生のためのモバイ ルアプリを持つことは重大
  30. 30. Libraries and Online Education • Big increase in students taking online courses • Libraries need to provide resources and assistance • オンラインコースを受講する学生の増 加 • 図書館の資料や援助を提供する必要性
  31. 31. Adopting New Standards • RDA, designed for the digital world, covers all type of content and media. • RDA はデジタル世界のためにデザ インされており、全ての内容や媒 体を網羅する。 • Japan Distributor- iGroup Kazuki Kasama kazuki.k@ijapan-groupnet.jp
  32. 32. School Librarian Crisis Since 2005-2006, there has been a 4.27 percent reduction in the number of school librarians across the United States. • In six years 7% of school librarian positions across the country were eliminated. The trend continues as school district face cuts to their budgets
  33. 33. Trying to Make the Case Studies that show schools with a trained school librarian have higher test scores that similar schools without Grassroots (parents) efforts Media attention http://www.lrs.org/data-tools/school-libraries/impact-studies/
  34. 34. Developing the Next Generation of Library Leaders ALA Emerging Leaders Program State and Regional Level Leadership Programs • Leadership skills, networking, positions in associations
  35. 35. Visibility for Librarians Very important to raise the awareness of librarians, not just libraries. ALA grant from Carnegie Corporation to annual ‘I Love My Librarian’ Award. Open nomination from the public. Over 1,000 librarians nominated each year. Caroline Kennedy presented the awards last year.
  36. 36. Thank you! mdowling@ala.org

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