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LibertyLink® Trait & Technology Use Manual
 

LibertyLink® Trait & Technology Use Manual

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"Use Liberty® herbicide with the LibertyLink® trait as part of an Integrated Weed Management (IWM) system. Liberty herbicide with the LibertyLink® trait allows growers to spray Liberty® in-crop ...

"Use Liberty® herbicide with the LibertyLink® trait as part of an Integrated Weed Management (IWM) system. Liberty herbicide with the LibertyLink® trait allows growers to spray Liberty® in-crop for nonselective postemergence control of the toughest weeds, including Palmer amaranth, giant ragweed, waterhemp and marestail.

LibertyLink®: http://www.bayercropscience.us/products/traits/libertylink/
Liberty®: http://www.bayercropscience.us/products/herbicides/liberty/ "

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    LibertyLink® Trait & Technology Use Manual LibertyLink® Trait & Technology Use Manual Document Transcript

    • Trait and TechnologyTrait and Technology 2014 Use Manual Trait and Technology
    • T A B L E O F C O N T E N T ST A B L E O F C O N T E N T S Trait and Technology Foreword 1 Integrated Pest Management 5 Liberty Herbicide 9 LibertyLink Soybeans 17 LibertyLink Corn 21 GlyTol • LibertyLink • TwinLink Traits in Cotton 27 InVigor Canola 33
    • PROVIDING SUSTAINABLE CROP SOLUTIONS FROM SEED TO HARVEST At Bayer CropScience, we help growers meet the ever increasing demand for affordable and high-quality food, feed, fiber and energy crops by helping you exceed your yield expectations and grow your business. We have a passion for discovering new integrated solutions and pioneering high-quality products to boost agricultural productivity and profitability, while at the same time, providing outstanding technologies to safeguard harvests. Bayer CropScience is accelerating the growth of its seed and trait business, from offering high-yielding seed varieties in cotton, canola and soybeans to high-performance trait solutions for weed and pest management. Our strategy is based on advancements involving plant trait technologies, and the evolution from a supplier of traditional crop protection products into a supplier of integrated solutions comprised of products, technologies and services. We are providing Integrated Pest Management (IPM) solutions through our portfolio of biological products that complement our current crop protection products, seed and trait technologies, and seed treatments. PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY HELPS BOOST PRODUCTIVITY The application of biotechnology in agriculture has resulted in benefits for both producers and consumers. For example, genetically engineered insect-resistant cotton has allowed for a significant reduction in the use of insecticides. Similarly, herbicide-tolerant soybeans, cotton, canola and corn have enabled improved weed control and use of herbicides with greater margins of safety. Herbicide-tolerant crops help preserve topsoil from erosion by permitting use of no-till or reduced-tillage agriculture systems.1 Bayer CropScience is among the industry leaders in research, investing more than 50 percent of research and development dollars toward the development of new seed and trait products. Additionally, our research is augmented by numerous cooperative agreements with research partners. STEWARDSHIP At Bayer CropScience, stewardship comprises responsible and ethical management of our products, from invention to commercialization and beyond — throughout the period of product sales and on to discontinuation. Bayer CropScience sets a high standard in customer care and stewardship and takes a responsible approach to product launches, including products derived through plant biotechnology. In advance of commercializing a plant biotechnology product, Bayer CropScience is committed to fulfilling applicable regulatory requirements in all countries where the product will be cultivated and in key importing countries with functioning regulatory systems. In addition, as members of Excellence Through Stewardship® (ETS), we have adopted stewardship programs for product launches consistent with the ETS Guide to Product Launch Stewardship. Stewardship also applies to you, the grower. Growers planting varieties and hybrids with biotechnology traits agree to implement stewardship requirements, including, but not limited to: • Reading, signing and complying with the Bayer Grower Technology Agreement (BGTA) and reading all license term updates before purchase or use of any seed containing a Bayer CropScience trait. • Reading and following the directions for use on all product labels. • Following applicable stewardship guidelines as outlined in this Trait and Technology Use Manual. • Reading and following the Insect Resistance Management (IRM) Guide prior to planting and complying with the applicable IRM requirements for specific biotechnology traits as mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to help minimize the risk of resistance development. • Observing planting restrictions mandated by the EPA. • Following weed resistance management guidelines to help minimize the risk of resistance development. • Using seed containing Bayer CropScience biotechnology solely for planting a single commercial crop. • Complying with any additional stewardship requirements, such as grain or feed use agreements or geographical planting restrictions, which Bayer CropScience deems appropriate or necessary to implement for proper stewardship or regulatory compliance. • Selling crops or material containing biotechnology traits only to entities that confirm authorization for use at export destinations. • Not moving material containing biotechnology traits across boundaries into nations where import is not permitted. • Not selling, promoting and/or distributing within a state where the product is not yet registered. You benefit as a grower when you practice good stewardship. Signing the BGTA provides you access to Bayer CropScience hybrids and varieties and the biotechnology associated with the seeds. Following resistance management guidelines for weeds and insects detailed herein guards against rapid development of resistance, enhances long-term durability of products and ensures compliance with EPA registration requirements. Finally, complying with the requirement to plant biotechnology seed products for only a single commercial crop helps preserve the effectiveness of the technology and supports investment in future innovation. 1 See page 36 for source information. 1 T R A I T & T E C H N O L O G Y F O R E W O R DT R A I T & T E C H N O L O G Y F O R E W O R D 2
    • THE BAYER GROWER TECHNOLOGY AGREEMENT (BGTA) AND YOU Bayer CropScience is committed to investing in the discovery and development of new seed, chemical and biological technologies for crop protection. We thank you for your purchase of Bayer cotton, soybean and/or canola products and for signing a BGTA. Bayer CropScience is now collaborating with AgCelerate™ to provide seed retailers and growers an easy and automated process to manage BGTAs. AgCelerate is a one-stop seed technology licensing source for the U.S. seed industry. Currently Bayer CropScience, Dow AgroSciences, WestBred, Monsanto, Syngenta, Terral Seed and Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc. are adopting the AgCelerate industry grower licensing solution, which will save time and hassle, reduce duplicate accounts and give growers peace of mind knowing that their personal information is secure. Through a simple online registration and electronic signature process, growers will be able to complete the BGTA of their choosing and receive the latest stewardship information for the products they buy. For supplier partners, AgCelerate will provide a single, easy-to-access web tool with a customized dashboard that enables authorized seed companies and seed retailers the ability to look up the BGTA status for multiple trait providers, as well as invite grower customers to sign a technology agreement. AgCelerate is offered as a free service for seed companies and seed retailers. For more information, visit www.AgCelerate.com. Your BGTA includes a limited-use license for commercialized, authorized FiberMax® or Stoneville® cotton seed with combinations of LibertyLink® , GlyTol® or TwinLink™ traits; LibertyLink soybean seed, including HBK® LibertyLink soybean seed; and InVigor® canola seed. By purchasing and using Bayer CropScience technologies and traits under this license agreement, you affirm your commitment to the agreement you signed. The seed you purchase is for your use and cannot be given, sold or otherwise transferred to others who have not signed a BGTA and for which you have not informed Bayer CropScience of such transfer. In addition, you cannot transfer Bayer CropScience technologies and traits to anyone outside of the United States. If Bayer CropScience reasonably believes that a grower has saved and planted Bayer CropScience germplasm containing GlyTol, LibertyLink, TwinLink or other traits, Bayer CropScience may request that the grower produce documentation to confirm purchase of the seed. If appropriate documentation is not provided within 30 days, the grower grants Bayer CropScience the right to inspect fields and take samples to determine if saved seeds have been planted. Bayer CropScience will provide the grower advance notice of any inspections, which will be performed during regular working hours so that the grower may be present if desired. If you received a BGTA card but have not signed a BGTA, the card is invalid. For questions regarding your BGTA, please call AgCelerate at 1-866-784-4630. To anonymously report noncompliance matters regarding seed piracy, IRM or program claims, please call 1-877-365-4287. 2014 BAYER CROPSCIENCE TRAIT AND TECHNOLOGY USE MANUAL This manual provides technical information and recommended best management practices for LibertyLink soybean seed, including HBK LibertyLink soybean seed; LibertyLink corn seed; FiberMax and Stoneville cotton seed with combinations of LibertyLink, GlyTol or TwinLink traits; and InVigor canola seed. The guide also provides information on IPM and the proper use of Liberty®  herbicide. We appreciate your business and look forward to continuing to serve your seed, technology and crop production needs. It’s our mission to help every field thrive so our communities thrive. In doing so, we will not only grow a healthier world, but also provide peace of mind for our communities. Learn more at www.BayerCropScience.us or join us on Twitter @Bayer4CropsUS T R A I T & T E C H N O L O G Y F O R E W O R DT R A I T & T E C H N O L O G Y F O R E W O R D 3 4 Return to Table of Contents
    • 5 6 INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT As defined by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an effective and environmentally sensitive approach to pest management that relies on a combination of common-sense practices. Successful IPM programs rely on current, comprehensive information on the life cycles of pests and their interaction with the environment. This information, in combination with available pest control methods, is used to manage pest damage by the most economical means while minimizing hazards to people, property and the environment. IPM applies to all pests — diseases, weeds and insects — and should be an important component of every grower’s operation. INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN PRACTICE Good IPM programs are designed such that all methods of pest suppression are utilized. Overreliance on any one pest suppression tool, such as a biotechnology trait, will lead to problems such as weed or insect resistance. Growers are advised to follow agronomic best management practices, coupled with IPM recommendations of appropriate local experts (Extension or consultant) and the Integrated Weed Management (IWM) recommendations detailed in this manual. All IPM programs have several characteristics in common. They include some type of pest monitoring, reliable identification of pests — disease, weed or insect — good record keeping, intervention to reduce pest numbers and program performance evaluation. Managing pests starts ideally at the end of every growing season, when growers evaluate crop performance and management tactics. Where appropriate, good stalk destruction will minimize the opportunities for pests to overwinter. The end of the season is also a good time to assess fields for potential problems, such as surviving weeds or severe weed, insect or disease pressure. Rotations of crops and pesticide modes of action (MOA), in addition to other IPM practices, are powerful tools for managing such problems and delaying the onset of resistance. By the start of the growing season, growers should have most of their IPM program in place. Biotechnology traits perform best when the crop is growing well and environmental stress is low. Good hybrid or variety selection, recommended seeding rates, planting dates and planting depths can all promote plant health and thus, optimal trait performance. Scouting crops for key pests is essential. Growers must be aware of the growth stages of weeds, disease pressure and insect populations to make good decisions. Fields should be monitored on a consistent basis — at least once per week and more frequently when the pest threat is higher, such as when the bollworm egg deposition in cotton is at its peak. INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT Bayer takes weed management very seriously, which includes our Respect the Rotation™ initiative. It elevates the importance and grower adoption of herbicide diversity through the rotation of crops, traits and MOAs. • Rotate crops. Crop rotation diversifies weed management tools. • Rotate herbicide-tolerant traits. Alternate herbicide-tolerant traits and/or use herbicide- tolerant trait stacks for more efficient herbicide rotation. • Rotate modes of action. Reduce the selection pressure of a single MOA by using multiple MOAs both during the growing season and from year to year. In addition, the following IWM techniques are effective in reducing problems with herbicide- tolerant and/or herbicide-resistant weed biotypes. It is best to use multiple practices to manage or delay resistance, as no single strategy is likely to be totally effective. 1. Know Your Weeds, Know Your Fields Today’s herbicides control a broad spectrum of weed species, which minimizes the importance of weed identification. However, proper identification of weed species will help pinpoint which herbicide program will work best on every acre. It is equally important to understand the weed pressure and history within each field. Closely monitor problematic areas with difficult-to-control weeds or dense weed populations. Scout for weed escapes and look for the indicators listed below to identify resistant weeds. Take every opportunity to stop surviving weeds from producing seed. This will reduce the soil seed bank and the selection pressure, slowing the development of resistant weeds. Indicators of Potential Weed Resistance ✔ A patch of weeds occurs in the same area year after year and is spreading. ✔ Dead weeds appear next to surviving weeds after the same herbicide application. ✔ Many weed species are managed, but one particular weed species is no longer controlled. For example, following a glyphosate application, actively growing marestail can still be seen in the absence of other weeds. ✔ The field has been sprayed repeatedly with the same herbicide MOA, particularly if there was no MOA diversity in the weed management system. I N T E G R A T E D P E S T M A N A G E M E N TI N T E G R A T E D P E S T M A N A G E M E N T “What Bayer is doing really ties into the university message because it talks about utilizing different herbicide modes of action and also rotating traits in a way that keeps a sustainable focus on our crop production and weed management. Utilizing one herbicide, one mode of action or one technology only leads us down the path where we lose that product or that technology for future use.” –Wes Everman, North Carolina State University
    • 4. Apply Herbicides Correctly Product efficacy is influenced by a multitude of factors. Ensuring proper application maximizes weed control and minimizes potential for weed escapes. • Apply to Actively Growing Weeds. Herbicides provide peak performance when applied to small, actively growing weeds. These weeds absorb more of the active ingredient, particularly with adequate soil moisture, sunlight and optimal soil nutrients. • Timing. Apply postemergence herbicides soon after crop emergence when weeds are no more than 3 to 4 inches tall. This is typically 10 to 14 days after crop emergence. The use of pre-emergence residual herbicides provides critical control of early season weeds that result in the greatest crop yield reduction. Plus, residual herbicides help ensure optimal weed management, particularly if environmental conditions delay timely post applications. • Application Technique. Herbicides differ in application guidelines. Read and follow all label instructions to ensure proper application. Factors affecting weed control include: spray coverage, carrier volume, application speed, adjuvants and tankmix partners. • Product Rate. The rate listed on the product label has been researched and tested by manufacturers and university researchers to provide optimal control of weeds at the height listed on the label. When you apply a herbicide at a rate less than listed on the label, the result can be insufficient control that will have a significant impact on the immediate weed development and resistance risk. 5. Do Not Allow Weed Escapes Treat every weed escape as if it is a resistant weed. Problematic weeds that escape herbicide applications should be controlled to reduce weed seed production. Consider spot herbicide applications, row wicking, cultivation, hand removal of weeds or other techniques that stop seed production to improve weed management for the subsequent growing seasons. 6. Zero Tolerance — Reduce The Seed Bank Do not allow surviving weeds to set seed in order to decrease weed population shifts year after year. Ensure that weeds are controlled up to the edge of the field and discourage weed seed production on field borders. One Palmer amaranth plant can produce up to 1 million seeds per plant in optimal conditions.3 Therefore, the weed seed bank grows by allowing partially controlled weeds to reproduce and set seed. Creating a larger pool of weed seed in the soil seed bank increases the probability weed resistance will arise. 7. Clean Equipment Avoid moving equipment that has not been thoroughly cleaned to prevent the spread of herbicide-resistant weeds and their seeds and to reduce the potential to introduce new invasive weeds onto uninfested acres. INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT SUMMARY Overreliance on a single weed control method causes resistant weeds to develop. It also adds to the risk of the consequential loss of a particular herbicide-tolerant system, and may eventually jeopardize the ability to grow a specific crop in a specific field. Growers face additional costs to control resistant weeds through unplanned herbicide applications, intense manual labor, and in extreme cases, total crop loss. Work preemptively through IWM practices for successful management of a resistant weed population. 2 See page 36 for source information. 3 See page 36 for source information. I N T E G R A T E D P E S T M A N A G E M E N TI N T E G R A T E D P E S T M A N A G E M E N T 7 8 Counties with confirmed glyphosate-resistant weed species:2 2. Start Clean Yields can be reduced significantly by early season weed competition. Effective tillage or the use of a burndown herbicide program can control emerged weeds prior to planting. Regardless of the tillage system (conventional, minimal or no-till), a pre-emergence or early postemergence soil-applied residual herbicide should be a part of every weed control program. 3. Stay Clean — Use Overlapping Residual Herbicides In any weed management program, the goal should be to control at least 80 percent of the weed population with residual herbicides. Residual herbicides applied at burndown, planting or tankmixed in the first post application with Liberty herbicide help ensure optimal weed management, particularly if environmental conditions delay timely post applications. Residual herbicides also can reduce early season weed competition and are a key element of good weed resistance management practices. Under intense weed pressure, use overlapping residual herbicides to minimize weed competition for soil moisture, light and nutrients. Maintain soil residual herbicide activity with overlapping soil residual herbicide applications from burndown through canopy closure. This reduces weed selection pressure and helps avoid weed escapes. Examples of Residual Herbicides Soybean: Authority® Assist (2*, 14), Authority First (2, 14), metolachlor (15), metribuzin (5), Prefix®  (14, 15), Sonic®  (2, 14), Valor®  (14), Valor XLT (2, 14), Warrant™ (15) Corn: Balance® Flexx (27), Capreno®  (2, 27), Corvus®  (2, 27), Laudis®  (27) Cotton: Caparol® (5), Cotoran® (7), diuron (7), metolachlor (15), pendimethalin (3), Staple®  (2) Canola: Sonalan® (3), Treflan® (3) *Numbers in parentheses denote herbicide MOA as designated by the Weed Science Society of America (WSSA). Glyphosate-Resistant Weed Species Confirmed in the U.S. - Common ragweed - Common waterhemp - Giant ragweed - Goosegrass - Horseweed (marestail) - Johnsongrass - Kochia - Palmer amaranth - Ryegrass spp. Return to Table of Contents
    • LIBERTY HERBICIDE • Liberty herbicide plus the LibertyLink trait is the preeminent weed management system for hard-to-control weeds. • Use Liberty herbicide with the LibertyLink trait as part of an Integrated Weed Management (IWM) system. • Liberty herbicide with the LibertyLink trait allows growers to spray Liberty in-crop for nonselective postemergence control of the toughest weeds, including Palmer amaranth, giant ragweed, waterhemp and marestail. • Spray Liberty, with its unique mode of action, early to control weeds quickly before they jeopardize yield potential. • Liberty herbicide with the LibertyLink trait provides efficient weed management that enables nonselective and selective herbicide rotation. Liberty is a contact-based herbicide that requires good coverage for maximum weed control efficacy. Rainfast in four hours, Liberty works fast, controlling weeds within days versus weeks, under favorable growing conditions. Weeds that emerge after the application will not be controlled, but adding a herbicide tankmix partner for residual control can help keep fields clean longer. For best results, apply Liberty to young, actively growing weeds to eliminate them quickly and reduce the chance that they will rob crops of yield potential. Warm temperatures, high humidity and bright sunlight improve the performance of Liberty. In dry climates, take advantage of early morning humidity by making spray applications during that time. Additionally, spraying Liberty within two hours of sunset could result in reduced velvetleaf and lambsquarters control. Liberty activity is optimized when daytime temperatures reach at least 60 degrees and relative humidity is at least 30 percent. Apply Liberty at 15 gallons per acre (GPA) with nozzles and pressure that produce a medium-size spray droplet to ensure maximum herbicide performance. HOW TO SPRAY As a contact herbicide, follow application guidelines to ensure adequate coverage and maximum weed control. 1. Apply early when weeds are no more than 3 to 4 inches tall. 2. Use nozzles and pressure that generate a medium-size spray droplet. 3. Apply Liberty at 15 GPA of water; increase water if dense weed canopy exists. 4. Apply at ground speed of less than 15 mph to attain adequate coverage. 5. Apply when wind speeds are less than 10 mph. 6. Add ammonium sulfate (AMS) at 1.5 lb/A (8.5 lb per 100 gal) to 3 lb/A (17 lb per 100 gal).* Rates are dependent on conditions. 7. Add tankmix partner. Mixing Instructions: 1. Start with properly calibrated and cleaned equipment. 2. Fill spray tank half full with water. 3. Start agitation. 4. Add AMS to spray tank. 5. Add tankmix partner. 6. Complete filling spray tank with water. 7. Add Liberty herbicide and continue agitation. 8. If foaming occurs, use a silicone-based antifoam agent. *Research has consistently shown AMS with Liberty herbicide improves weed control. AMS is especially needed for difficult-to-control weeds, like velvetleaf and lambsquarters, under difficult environmental conditions (low relative humidity) or hard water. 9 L I B E R T Y H E R B I C I D EL I B E R T Y H E R B I C I D E 10 “Liberty herbicide certainly provides an alternative to other technologies and herbicides. Any technology and herbicide needs to be used appropriately to optimize and maintain its effectiveness. Following label guidelines is very important to achieve good results.” –Dallas Peterson, Kansas State University
    • ROTATIONAL CROP RESTRICTIONS NOZZLE SELECTION Nozzle selection is a process that maximizes product performance by managing the interaction between application volume (GPA), nozzle flow rate (GPM), nozzle type, operating pressure, travel speed (MPH), nozzle spacing (W) and droplet size category. Nozzle Type Recommendations Liberty herbicide should be applied with nozzles that deliver a medium-sized spray droplet to enhance coverage and reduce the possibility of drift. The following examples of nozzles from four manufacturers are capable of delivering medium sprays when properly selected and operated. • Spraying Systems: TeeJet® VisiFlo®  Flat, XR TeeJet Extended Range Flat or Turbo TwinJet® Flat spray tips • Greenleaf Technologies: TurboDrop® XL, TurboDrop TwinFan® or AirMix® spray tips • Hypro: Guardian™ , Variable Pressure™ , Total Range™ or Albuz® AXI spray tips • Delavan AgSpray: VariTarget™ Refer to nozzle manufacturers’ catalogs, tech sheets or websites for additional guidance. • Spraying Systems: www.teejet.com • Greenleaf Technologies: www.turbodrop.com • Hypro: www.hypropumps.com • Delavan AgSpray: www.delavanagspray.com NOZZLE CALIBRATION AND SELECTION STEPS 1. Determine desired travel speed, nozzle spacing and application volume based upon equipment available, crop or weed size, and field conditions. 2. Use the equation below to calculate the nozzle flow rate required to deliver the required GPA. GPM = Nozzle flow rate (gallons per minute per nozzle) GPA = Gallons per acre MPH = Vehicle speed (miles per hour) W = Nozzle spacing (inches) 5940 = Constant NOZZLE FLOW RATE TABLE The following table contains the calculated value of GPM for the indicated GPA, MPH and W = 20 inches when using the aforementioned equation. Use the GPM calculated in the nozzle flow rate table and refer to nozzle manufacturer resources for nozzle selection. 11 12 Rotational Crop Plant-Back Interval Canola, corn, cotton, rice, soybeans, sugarbeets and sweet corn Anytime Root and tuber vegetables, leafy vegetables, brassica leafy vegetables and small grains (barley, buckwheat, oats, rye, teosinte and wheat) 70 days All other crops 180 days Key Points to Remember: ✔ Thorough coverage is essential to achieve maximum herbicide performance. ✔ Select nozzles and operating pressure that produce medium spray droplets and deliver at least 15 GPA. If a dense canopy is present, increase the water volume to 20 GPA and maintain a medium spray droplet to increase efficacy. ✔ Nozzle manufacturers provide recommendations for nozzles that meet the medium specifications of ASABE S-572 standard. GPM = GPA x MPH x W 5940 Example: What size (GPM) flat fan nozzle is required to deliver 15 GPA when each nozzle is spaced on 20-inch centers and the sprayer is traveling at 10 MPH? What operating pressure is recommended to deliver medium spray droplets? Use GPM = 0.51 to select the appropriate size nozzle from nozzle catalog, tech sheet or website. Below are some nozzles that will deliver 0.51 GPM to produce medium spray droplets. • VisiFlo Flat Fan TP8005 nozzle operated at ~41 PSI. • TwinJet Twin Fan TJ-8006 operated at ~29 PSI. • TurboDrop XL TDXL11004 operated at ~66 PSI. • AirMix AM11004 operated at ~66 PSI. • Guardian 120-04 operated at ~66 PSI. = 0.505 = 0.51 GPM15 x 10 x 20 5940 L I B E R T Y H E R B I C I D EL I B E R T Y H E R B I C I D E GALLONS PER MINUTE PER NOZZLE GPA MPH 15 16 17 18 19 20 8 0.40 0.43 0.46 0.48 0.51 0.54 9 0.45 0.48 0.52 0.55 0.58 0.61 10 0.51 0.54 0.57 0.61 0.64 0.67 11 0.56 0.59 0.63 0.67 0.70 0.74 12 0.61 0.65 0.69 0.73 0.77 0.81 13 0.66 0.70 0.74 0.79 0.83 0.88 14 0.71 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.94 15 0.76 0.81 0.86 0.91 0.96 1.01
    • BROADLEAF WEEDS CONTROLLED WITH LIBERTY GRASS WEEDS CONTROLLED WITH LIBERTY BIENNIAL AND PERENNIAL WEED CONTROL For control of the biennial and perennial weeds listed below, sequential applications of Liberty are recommended according to maximum label rates and intervals for each crop.1 13 14 Maximum Weed Height or Diameter Maximum Weed Height or Diameter 22 fl oz/A 29 fl oz/Aa,b 22 fl oz/A 29 fl oz/Aa,b Amaranth, Palmer2 NR 4” Morningglory, sharppod2 2” 4” Anoda, spurred 3” 5” Morningglory, smallflower2 4” 6” Beggarweed, Florida 4” 5” Morningglory, tall2 6” 8” Black medic 5” 7” Mustard, wild 4” 6” Blueweed, Texas 5” 7” Nightshade, black 4” 6” Buckwheat, wild 6” 7” Nightshade, eastern black 6” 8” Buffalobur 6” 7” Nightshade, hairy 6” 8” Burcucumber 6” 10” Pennycress 4” 6” Carpetweed 4” 6” Pigweed, prostrate2 3” 4” Catchweed bedstraw (cleavers) 2” 4” Pigweed, redroot2 3” 4” Chickweed, common 6” 8” Pigweed, smooth2 3” 4” Cocklebur, common 6” 14” Pigweed, spiny2 3” 4” Copperleaf, hophornbeam 4” 6” Pigweed, tumble2 3” 4” Cotton, volunteer1 6” 8” Puncturevine 4” 6” Croton, tropic 3” 5” Purslane, common 2” 4” Croton, woolly 2” 4” Pusley, Florida Sii 3” Devil’s claw 2” 4” Ragweed, common 6” 10” Eclipta 4” 6” Ragweed, giant 6” 12” Fleabane, annual 6” 8” Senna coffee 4” 6” Galinsoga, hairy 6” 8” Sesbania, hemp 6” 8” Galinsoga, small flower 6” 7” Shepherd’s purse 6” 8” Geranium, cutleaf 4” 6” Sicklepod 4” 6” Groundcherry, cutleaf 4” 5” Sida, prickly 4” 5” Hempnettle 4” 6” Smartweed, Pennsylvania 6” 14” Horsenettle, Carolina3 2” 4” Smellmelon 4” 6” Jimsonweed 6” 10” Sowthistle, annual 6” 8” Knotweed 3” 5” Soybeans, volunteer1 6” 8” Kochia2 4” 6” Spurge, prostrate 2” 4” Ladysthumb 6” 14” Spurge, spotted 2” 4” Lambsquarters, common2 4” 6” Starbur, bristly 4” 6” Mallow, common 4” 6” Sunflower, common 6” 14” Mallow, Venice 6” 8” Sunflower, prairie 3” 5” Marestail3,4 Sii 6” – 12” Sunflower, volunteer 6” 10” Marshelder, annual 4” 6” Thistle, Russian3,4 Sii 6” – 12” Morningglory, entireleaf2 6” 8” Velvetleaf2 3” 4” Morningglory, ivyleaf2 6” 8” Waterhemp, common2 NR 5” Morningglory, pitted2 6” 8” Waterhemp, tall2 NR 5” Maximum Weed Height or Diameter Maximum Weed Height or Diameter 22 fl oz/A 29 fl oz/Aa,b 22 fl oz/A 29 fl oz/Aa,b Barley, volunteer3 3” 4” Millet, proso volunteer 6” 7” Barnyardgrass 3” 5” Millet, wild proso 6” 7” Bluegrass, annual 3” 5” Oat, wild2 3” 4” Corn, volunteer1 10” 12” Panicum, fall 3” 5” Crabgrass, large2 3” 5” Panicum, Texas 4” 6” Crabgrass, smooth2 3” 5” Rice, red 4” 6” Cupgrass, woolly 6” 12” Rice, volunteer1 4” 6” Foxtail, bristly 6” 8” Sandbur, field2 S” 2” Foxtail, giant 6” 12” Shattercane 6” 8” Foxtail, green 6” 12” Signalgrass, broadleaf 3” 5” Foxtail, robust purple 6” 8” Sorghum, volunteer 6” 8” Foxtail, yellow2 3” 4” Sprangletop 4” 6” Goosegrass3 2” 3” Stinkgrass 4” 6” Johnsongrass, seedling 3” 5” Wheat, volunteer2 4” 5” Junglerice 3” 5” Witchgrass 4” 6” Controlled Sequentially Controlled Sequentially Controlled Sequentially Alfalfa ✔ Clover, Alsike ✔ Nutsedge, purple2 ✔ Artichoke, Jerusalem ✔ Clover, red ✔ Nutsedge, yellow2 ✔ Bermudagrass ✔ Dandelion ✔ Orchardgrass ✔ Bindweed, field ✔ Dock, smooth ✔ Poinsettia, wild ✔ Bindweed, hedge ✔ Dogbane, hemp2 ✔ Pokeweed ✔ Bluegrass, Kentucky ✔ Goldenrod, gray2 ✔ Quackgrass2 ✔ Blueweed, Texas ✔ Johnsongrass, rhizome ✔ Sowthistle ✔ Bromegrass, smooth ✔ Milkweed, common2 ✔ Thistle, bull ✔ Burdock ✔ Milkweed, honeyvine2 ✔ Thistle, Canada ✔ Bursage, woollyleaf ✔ Muhly, wirestem2 ✔ Timothy2 ✔ Chickweed, mouseear ✔ Nightshade, silverleaf ✔ Wormwood ✔ S= Suppression NR= Not recommended a In cotton, Liberty 280 SL herbicide may be applied at 29 fl oz/A three times per season. b Do not apply more than 22 fl oz/A of Liberty 280 SL herbicide postemergence in a single application to canola and corn. 1 Volunteer LibertyLink crops from the previous season will not be controlled. 2 For applications to corn, tankmixing with atrazine may enhance weed control of this species. 3 May require sequential applications for control of populations of weeds with mixed heights. 4 For best control, do not apply before weeds reach 6 inches tall. S= Suppression a In cotton, Liberty 280 SL herbicide may be applied at 29 fl oz/A three times per season. b Do not apply more than 22 fl oz/A of Liberty 280 SL herbicide postemergence in a single application to canola and corn. 1 Volunteer LibertyLink crops from the previous season will not be controlled. A timely cultivation seven to 10 days after an application and/or retreatment 10 to 21 days after the first application is recommended for controlling dense clumps of volunteer corn or rice. 2 For best control, treat prior to tiller initiation. 3 May require sequential applications for control. 1 Sequential applications should be made 10 days after first application. 2 Indicates suppression. L I B E R T Y H E R B I C I D EL I B E R T Y H E R B I C I D E
    • LIBERTY HERBICIDE QUICK FACTS 15 16 Labeled Crops for In-Season Use InVigor canola, LibertyLink corn, LibertyLink cotton and LibertyLink soybeans Active Ingredient Glufosinate-ammonium Mode of Action Glutamine synthetase inhibitor Weed Science Society of America (WSSA) Group 10 Formulation 2.34 lb/gal SL (280 g/l) Package Size 2.5 gal jugs, 270 gal shuttles and bulk Use Rate In-Season Corn and canola: 22 fl oz/A Cotton and soybeans: 29 fl oz/A no later than 10 to 14 days after crop emergence Max. Season Use Rate Soybeans: 65 fl oz/A Cotton: 87 fl oz/A (72 fl oz/A if more than 29 fl oz/A was used on any application) Canola: 44 fl oz/A Corn: 44 fl oz/A Adjuvant AMS at 1.5 lb/A to 3.0 lb/A Surfactants/Oils The use of additional surfactants or crop oils may increase the risk of crop response. Application Timing Apply when weeds are no more than 3 inches to 4 inches tall and: Soybeans: emergence to bloom Corn: emergence up to and including V7 stage of growth Cotton: emergence up to early bloom Canola: emergence up to early bolting growth stage Spray Volume 15 GPA Rainfast 4 hours Crop Rotation Anytime: canola, corn, cotton, rice, soybeans, sugarbeets and sweet corn 70 days: root and tuber vegetables, leafy vegetables, brassica leafy vegetables and small grains 180 days: all other crops Pre-Harvest Interval Canola1 : 65 days Corn forage: 60 days Corn grain and fodder: 70 days Cotton: 70 days Soybeans1 : 70 days Restricted Entry Interval 12 hours Signal Word Warning 1 Do not graze treated canola or soybeans, or cut for hay. L I B E R T Y H E R B I C I D EL I B E R T Y H E R B I C I D E Return to Table of Contents
    • THE LIBERTYLINK TRAIT IN SOYBEANS • The LibertyLink system provides excellent weed control and preserves the yield of high-performing varieties. • LibertyLink soybeans allow growers to spray Liberty herbicide in-crop for nonselective postemergence control of the toughest weeds, including Palmer amaranth, giant ragweed, waterhemp and marestail. • With a unique mode of action (MOA), Liberty allows growers to control weeds within days, not weeks, under favorable conditions. WHERE YOU CAN FIND LIBERTYLINK SOYBEANS • Bayer CropScience has broadly licensed the LibertyLink trait to combine high-yielding genetics with the powerful, nonselective postemergence weed control of Liberty. • With soybean seed available through more than 100 seed companies, growers can manage their weed pressures with LibertyLink varieties that fit their growing conditions. Bayer CropScience continues to collaborate with leading soybean breeding programs to develop high-yielding LibertyLink soybean varieties for growers in the United States and Canada. Varieties developed are widely adapted and demonstrate yield and agronomic performance as good as or better than the best available commercial checks. APPLICATION INFORMATION & BEST WEED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES Hard-to-control weeds are a serious threat to row crop production. Intensive management is required to control the toughest weeds, especially driver weeds such as Palmer amaranth. Use all practical means to avoid any escaped weeds going to seed in or around fields. Use of robust herbicide rates, multiple modes of action and overlapping soil-applied residual herbicides from burndown through canopy closure are important practices. Proper stewardship of Liberty herbicide is necessary to ensure the long-term sustainability of LibertyLink technology. Rotating crops, traits and MOAs allows for diversity within a herbicide program and sustains the longevity of any given herbicide chemistry. Use cultural, mechanical and chemical weed control methods as necessary to ensure weeds do not produce viable seed and to prevent weed escapes from going to seed and depositing in the seed bank. Multiple practices to manage tough-to-control weeds are essential, as no single strategy is totally effective. 1. Start Clean:Start with a clean, weed-free field by using an effective burndown application or conventional tillage. 2. Stay Clean:Use an Overlapping Residual Weed Control Program. Be aggressive with early season weed management to avoid yield loss and weed escapes. Residual herbicides applied at burndown, pre-emergence and/or tankmixed in the first post application help ensure optimal weed management, particularly if environmental conditions delay timely post applications. Apply a broad-spectrum pre-emergence or PPI residual herbicide such as: Authority Assist (2*, 14), Authority First (2, 14), Enlite®  (2, 14), Envive®  (2, 14), metolachlor (15), metribuzin (5), Prefix (14, 15), Sonic (2, 14), Valor (14), Valor XLT (2, 14) or Warrant (15). Consider expected weed species and populations, as well as environmental variables in the area, when selecting a residual herbicide. 3. Scenario One — Residual Used Pre-emergence, PPI or At Planting: a. Apply Liberty at 29 fl oz/A over the top of LibertyLink soybeans from emergence to 14 days after crop emergence or when weeds are no more than 3 inches to 4 inches tall. b. Apply Liberty at 29 fl oz/A on an as-needed basis following the first application at 29 fl oz/A. 4. Scenario Two — Environmental Conditions Prevent Timely Application: a. If environmental conditions prevent timely Liberty application, a single application of up to 36 fl oz/A may be made. b. If 36 fl oz/A is used for the first application, a second application of 29 fl oz/A should be made at least 10 days after the first application. Increase water and shorten interval between post applications if canopy is heavy. 5. Additives:Ammonium sulfate (AMS) can be used at a rate of 1.5 lb/A to 3 lb/A**. Rates are dependent on conditions. 6. Water Volume:Liberty is a contact herbicide that requires good coverage with medium-size droplets applied at a minimum of 15 GPA water volume. If dense canopy, large weeds or unfavorable growing conditions are present, increase water volume to a minimum of 20 GPA. 7. Maximum Seasonal Use:Up to 65 fl oz/A of Liberty can be applied on soybeans per growing season. 8. Additional Use Directions: a. Make all Liberty applications at least 70 days before soybean harvest. b. Make all Liberty applications before soybeans begin to bloom. 17 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR WEED MANAGEMENT IN LIBERTYLINK SOYBEANS Weed Control Program 1st Post Application (Emergence to 14 days) 2nd Post Application Scenario One Residual pre-emergence, pre-plant incorporated (PPI) or at planting Liberty at 29 fl oz/A plus residual herbicide If needed, Liberty at 29 fl oz/A Scenario Two Environmental conditions prevent timely application Liberty at 36 fl oz/A plus residual herbicide Liberty at 29 fl oz/A applied at least 10 days after the first application Tankmix Partners for Liberty on LibertyLink Soybeans Assure® II (1*) Classic® (2) clethodim (1) Cobra® (14) FirstRate® (2) Fierce® (14, 15) Flexstar® (14) Fusilade® DX (1) Fusion® (1) Harmony® GT (2) metolachlor (15) OpTill® (2, 14) Phoenix™ (14) Poast Plus® (1) Prefix (14, 15) Pursuit® (2) Raptor® (2) Reflex® (14) Resource® (14) Select Max® (1) Sharpen® (14) Synchrony® XP (2) Ultra Blazer® (14) *Numbers in parentheses denote herbicide MOA as designated by the Weed Science Society of America (WSSA). L I B E R T Y L I N K S O Y B E A N SL I B E R T Y L I N K S O Y B E A N S * Numbers in parentheses denote herbicide MOA as designated by the WSSA. ** Research has consistently shown AMS with Liberty herbicide improves weed control. AMS is especially needed for difficult-to-control weeds, like velvetleaf and lambsquarters, under difficult environmental conditions (low relative humidity) or hard water. 18
    • Consult state Extension service for additional information on prebloom period for soybeans in a state. c. Maximum single application use rate: 36 fl oz/A. d. Do not apply Liberty if soybeans show injury from prior herbicide applications or environmental stress. KEY LIBERTY APPLICATION POINTS TO REMEMBER • Uniform, thorough spray coverage is essential to achieve consistent performance. • Use nozzles and pressure that generate a medium-size spray droplet. • Use 15 GPA; for dense canopies, increase water volume. • Maximum performance is achieved when applied to actively growing weeds. • Apply from emergence to bloom growth stage. • Sequential applications should be made at least 10 days after the first application, prior to bloom. • Liberty is rainfast in four hours. TOP 10 MOST FREQUENTLY SPRAYED WEEDS IN SOYBEANS YIELD LOSS DUE TO COMPETITION Weeds that emerge with the crop, or shortly thereafter, have the greatest potential to negatively affect yields. The yield loss associated with this flush of weeds is strongly influenced by how long weeds are allowed to remain in the field and compete with crops for light, water and nutrients. Residual herbicides can improve weed control, reduce problematic weeds and extend the time period between planting and the first postemergence treatment of Liberty herbicide. This allows for flexibility when weather conditions prevent timely postemergence applications. Additionally, using a residual herbicide in your weed control program introduces another herbicide MOA in the field, improving your weed management program. According to a 2010 University of Tennessee study4 , cotton and soybean growers lost nearly $138 million due to glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. Their weed control costs also increased as follows: • $78.5 million in increased herbicide costs -- $35 per acre on 1.6 million soybean acres -- $55 per acre on 0.4 million cotton acres • $10 million in increased application costs -- $5 per acre on 2 million acres • $49.35 million due to glyphosate-resistant weed competition -- 30 percent of soybean acres at 17 percent loss -- 15 percent of cotton acres at 25 percent loss A study conducted by the University of Nebraska5 determined that the critical period for weed removal in soybeans is based upon the soybean row spacing. For soybeans planted in 30-, 15-, and 7.5-inch rows, the critical removal time is V3, V2 and first trifoliate, respectively. Furthermore, the study shows there is a 2 percent yield loss for every soybean leaf-stage delay in applying a nonselective herbicide to the crop during the critical time for weed removal. YIELD LOSS EXAMPLES • Studies out of North Carolina State University and the University of Georgia6 in 2012 show soybean yield loss of as much as 68 percent as a result of Palmer amaranth interference at a density of one plant per square foot. $/Bushel $11 $12 $13 Lost $/A from Palmer amaranth* $374 $408 $442 Lost $/1,000 A from Palmer amaranth* $374,000 $408,000 $442,000 * Based on above study while assuming 50 bu/A initial yield. • Season-long competition by waterhemp (more than 20 plants per square foot) reduced soybean yields 44 percent in 30-inch rows and 37 percent in 7.5-inch rows. Waterhemp that emerged as late as the V5 soybean growth stage reduced yields up to 10 percent7 . $/Bushel $11 $12 $13 Lost $/A from waterhemp* $242 $264 $286 Lost $/1,000 A from waterhemp* $242,000 $264,000 $286,000 * Based on above study while assuming 50 bu/A initial yield planted in 30-inch rows. 19 20 Max. Weed Height with Liberty at 29 fl oz/A1 Confirmed Glyphosate- Resistant Weeds Foxtail (giant, green) 12” Lambsquarters 6” Velvetleaf 4” Cocklebur 14” Amaranth (Palmer, redroot and tumble) 4” ✔ Common waterhemp 5” ✔ Giant ragweed 12” ✔ Morningglory 8” Marestail2 6”-12” ✔ Johnsongrass 5” ✔ L I B E R T Y L I N K S O Y B E A N SL I B E R T Y L I N K S O Y B E A N S 4, 5, 6, 7 See page 36 for source information. 1 If more than 29 fl oz/A is used in any single application, see current label for additional use directions. 2 May require sequential applications for control. “People need to carefully evaluate their current programs to see the selection pressure put on weeds and modify their programs to increase the diversity of their management tactics.” –Bob Hartzler, Iowa State University Return to Table of Contents
    • THE LIBERTYLINK TRAIT IN CORN • The LibertyLink system provides excellent weed control and preserves the yield of high-performing hybrids. • LibertyLink corn hybrids are available in elite genetics for top yields, including all Herculex® , SmartStax® and Agrisure® hybrids with corn borer protection, as well as in-bag refuge products Genuity® SmartStax RIB Complete® , Refuge Advanced® powered by SmartStax and Optimum® AcreMax® 1. • Residual herbicides (such as atrazine, Laudis, Corvus and Capreno), in addition to timely applications of Liberty, are strongly recommended in a LibertyLink weed control program. • Crops with the LibertyLink trait allow growers to spray Liberty in-crop for nonselective postemergence control of the toughest weeds, including Palmer amaranth, giant ragweed, waterhemp and marestail. • With a unique mode of action, Liberty allows growers to control weeds within days, not weeks, under favorable conditions. • Liberty can be tankmixed with most other crop protection products labeled for use in corn. All LibertyLink corn hybrids have built-in tolerance to Liberty herbicide, while maintaining excellent crop safety, performance and yield. These hybrids are fully approved for food, feed and cultivation in the United States and Canada. LibertyLink corn is approved for export to many countries around the world. Today, this trait is widely available in high-yielding hybrids from elite germplasm providers. LibertyLink corn is ideal for U.S. growers, whether on rotated acreage or in aggressive corn-on-corn production systems. LIBERTY UTILITY IN Bt CORN REFUGE To preserve the efficacy of Bt corn technology, government regulations require growers to implement an Insect Resistance Management (IRM) plan. A proper IRM plan includes a non-Bt refuge planted in conjunction with Bt corn acres to prevent insect resistance to the technology. Selecting a Bt refuge hybrid for any of the previously mentioned LibertyLink Bt hybrids will allow for the use of Liberty herbicide across the entire area, enabling growers to obtain the full value and convenience of the LibertyLink trait. If a suitable LibertyLink hybrid is not available, configuring the refuge area in a separate field, or in a contiguous block within the same field as the Bt hybrid, will allow Liberty to be used for weed control in the Bt hybrid area. It is imperative that the location where each hybrid is planted is clearly documented and marked, either on a GPS map or with flags or markers in the field, to help ensure that Liberty is sprayed only on fields planted with LibertyLink hybrids. For more detailed information on refuge options and acceptable configurations for specific Bt products, consult with your seed seller or Bt trait provider. 21 L I B E R T Y L I N K C O R NL I B E R T Y L I N K C O R N 22 Where to Find LibertyLink Corn Herculex hybrids that come stacked with the LibertyLink trait are available in the following versions: • Herculex I (HX1), which provides protection against European corn borer, Southwestern corn borer, black cutworm, fall armyworm, Western bean cutworm, lesser cornstalk borer, Southern cornstalk borer and sugarcane borer. • Herculex Rootworm (HXRW) protects against Northern, Western, and Mexican corn rootworms. • Herculex XTRA (HXX) is a stacked-trait product that combines the aboveground insect protection of HX1 with the belowground protection of HXRW. Optimum AcreMax products offer single-bag integrated refuge in a variety of options to fit a wide range of situations. Many specific Optimum AcreMax systems are available in two different versions — one that includes LibertyLink in 100 percent of the seeds in the bag and can be sprayed with Liberty herbicide, and another that cannot be sprayed with Liberty herbicide. All Optimum AcreMax products with an “-R” suffix are NOT 100 percent LibertyLink and should not be sprayed with Liberty herbicide. • Optimum AcreMax 1 (AM1), Optimum AcreMax RW (AMRW), Optimum AcreMax (AM), Optimum AcreMax Xtra (AMX) and Optimum AcreMax XTreme (AMXT) have the LibertyLink trait in 100 percent of the seeds in the bag and can be sprayed over the top with Liberty herbicide. • Optimum AcreMax RW-R (AMRW-R), Optimum AcreMax-R (AM-R) and Optimum AcreMax Xtra-R (AMX-R) do NOT have the LibertyLink trait in 100 percent of the seeds in the bag and should NOT be sprayed over the top with Liberty herbicide. Agrisure hybrids with corn borer protection also come stacked with the LibertyLink trait in the following products: • Agrisure CB/LL protects against European corn borer and Southwestern corn borer and provides suppression of corn earworm, fall armyworm and Southern cornstalk borer. • Agrisure CB/LL/RW hybrids combine the aboveground insect protection of Agrisure CB with the belowground protection of Agrisure RW. • Agrisure 300GT is a quad stack that combines the aboveground insect protection of Agrisure CB with belowground protection of Agrisure RW, plus resistance to both glyphosate and Liberty herbicides. • Agrisure Viptera® 3111 offers the broadest available spectrum of above- and belowground insect control. • Agrisure Viptera 3110 offers unparalleled control of aboveground insects for growers who do not need to manage for corn rootworm. SmartStax hybrids also come stacked with the LibertyLink trait in the following products: • Genuity SmartStax corn offers broad-spectrum above- and belowground insect protection, plus LibertyLink and Roundup Ready® herbicide tolerance. • Genuity SmartStax RIB Complete corn blend is a single-bag refuge solution with broad-spectrum above- and belowground insect protection, plus LibertyLink and Roundup Ready herbicide tolerance. • Refuge Advanced powered by SmartStax also offers a single-bag refuge solution with the same above- and belowground protection of SmartStax, including LibertyLink and Roundup Ready herbicide tolerance traits.
    • 1. Start Clean.Start with a clean, weed-free field by using an effective burndown application or conventional tillage. 2. Stay Clean.Be aggressive with early season weed management to avoid yield loss and weed escapes. Residual herbicides applied at burndown, pre-emergence and/or tankmixed in the first post application help ensure optimal weed management, particularly if environmental conditions delay timely post applications. Bayer CropScience provides strong residual herbicide options — both pre-emergence and postemergence — to complement Liberty herbicide in a LibertyLink corn program. Consider expected weed species and populations as well as environmental variables in the area when selecting a residual herbicide. 3. Scenario — Two-Pass Program: a. Apply Corvus at 4.5 to 5.6 fl oz/A or Balance Flexx at 4.5 to 6.0 fl oz/A at pre-plant through V2 growth stage. b. Apply Liberty at 22 fl oz/A plus a residual postemergence herbicide. Apply Liberty over the top of corn when weeds are no more than 3 inches to 4 inches tall. 4. Additives:Ammonium sulfate (AMS) can be used at a rate of 1.5 lb/A to 3 lb/A*. Rates are dependent on conditions. 23 24 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR WEED MANAGEMENT IN LIBERTYLINK CORN Weed Control Program Pre-emergence Application Postemergence Application Scenario Two-pass program Corvus at 4.5-5.6 fl oz/A or Balance Flexx at 4.5-6.0 fl oz/A (pre-plant, pre-emergence or through V2 growth stage) Liberty herbicide at 22 fl oz/A plus residual postemergence herbicide 5. Water Volume:Liberty is a contact herbicide that requires good coverage with medium-size droplets applied at a minimum of 15 GPA water volume. If dense canopy, large weeds or unfavorable growing conditions are present, increase water volume to a minimum of 20 GPA. 6. Maximum Seasonal Use:Up to 44 fl oz/A of Liberty can be applied on corn per growing season. 7. Additional Use Directions: a. Liberty herbicide can be applied in-crop to LibertyLink corn from emergence up to and including V7 growth stage (seven fully developed leaf collars). b. Liberty herbicide should be applied when winds are less than 10 mph, and not during periods of temperature inversions. c. Maximum season use rate: 44 fl oz/A. d. Do not apply within 60 days of harvesting corn forage or 70 days of harvesting corn grain and corn fodder. e. Consult product label for full use directions and restrictions. KEY LIBERTY APPLICATION POINTS TO REMEMBER • Uniform, thorough spray coverage is essential to achieve consistent performance. • Use nozzles and pressure that generate a medium-size spray droplet. • Use a minimum 15 GPA; for dense canopies, increase water volume to a minimum 20 GPA. • Maximum performance is achieved when applied to actively growing weeds. • Apply from emergence up to and including V7 growth stage. • Sequential applications should be made 10 days after the first application. • Liberty is rainfast in four hours. “We’ve been pleased with the level of weed control that we have achieved when properly using glufosinate or Liberty herbicide applied at the appropriate rate to the appropriate stage of weeds. It has a unique mode of action — there isn’t one like that in another herbicide here in the U.S.” –Aaron Hager, University of Illinois APPLICATION INFORMATION & BEST WEED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES L I B E R T Y L I N K C O R NL I B E R T Y L I N K C O R N * Research has consistently shown AMS with Liberty herbicide improves weed control. AMS is especially needed for difficult-to-control weeds, like velvetleaf and lambsquarters, under difficult environmental conditions (low relative humidity) or hard water. Tankmix Partners for Liberty on LibertyLink Corn 2,4-D (4*) acetochlor (15) Aim® *** (14) Atrazine (5) Callisto® (27) Camix® *** (15, 27) Capreno (2,27) Guardsman Max® (5, 15) Hornet® WDG (2, 4) IMPACT® (27) Laudis (27) Lexar® *** (5, 15, 27) Lumax® *** (5, 15, 27) metolachlor*** (15) nicosulfuron (2) NorthStar® (2, 4) pendimethalin** (3) Permit® (2) Python® WDG (2) s-metolachlor*** (15) Spirit® (2) Status® (4, 19) Yukon® (2, 4) * Numbers in parentheses denote herbicide MOA as designated by the Weed Science Society of America (WSSA). ** Tankmixing with pendimethalin may result in reduced control of barnyardgrass, fall panicum, field sandbur, yellow foxtail and volunteer corn. *** It is recommended that these products are tankmixed at half the recommended use rate with Liberty herbicide to reduce risk of crop response.
    • BAYER RESIDUAL HERBICIDE OFFERINGS Bayer CropScience provides strong residual herbicide options — both pre-emergence and postemergence — to complement Liberty herbicide in a LibertyLink corn program. Pre-emergence Herbicides: • Corvus (2, 27*) pre-emergence corn herbicide provides consistent, broad spectrum control of grass and broadleaf weeds for a full season at just 5.6 fl oz/A. Corvus delivers rapid burndown, long-lasting residual control and reactivation for dependable weed control. It can be used in traditional herbicide programs, as well as in a program that pairs trait technology with a nonselective herbicide, such as Liberty or Roundup® . • Balance Flexx (27) pre-emergence corn herbicide is an excellent set-up product in a sequential program with Liberty herbicide. Using Balance Flexx as the foundation for a two-pass herbicide program gives corn growers an excellent combination of tough weed control and weed resistance management with crop safety and flexibility. Postemergence Herbicides: Bayer CropScience also offers effective postemergence herbicides for a conventional program or as a tankmix partner in a herbicide- tolerant system. Postemergence residual options to consider: • Capreno (2, 27) post-applied corn herbicide. Capreno has the longest-lasting residual available in a postemergence herbicide and combines two active ingredients for complete control of more than 65 grass and broadleaf weeds, including those resistant to glyphosate, with just 3 fl oz/A. Apply Capreno early (V1-V5) with Liberty to get the full benefit of a season-long residual. • Laudis (27) postemergence corn herbicide, with its powerful weed control and unsurpassed crop safety, provides in-season residual control in a tankmix with Liberty. TOP 10 MOST FREQUENTLY SPRAYED WEEDS IN CORN YIELD LOSS DUE TO COMPETITION Research indicates that delaying a postemergence herbicide application until weeds are 6 inches tall results in a significant yield loss. Many factors come into play, such as weed species and the density of the plants present. The bottom line is that not controlling weeds early in the season costs growers at harvest. YIELD LOSS EXAMPLES Early season competition from a heavy waterhemp infestation (more than 30 plants per square foot) reduced corn yields 15 percent by the time the waterhemp was 6 inches tall. With lower waterhemp densities (less than 10 plants per square foot), yields were reduced by only 1 percent when waterhemp was controlled at 6 inches.7 25 26 Product Segment Benefit Vs. Competition Competitive Product Corvus (2, 27) Pre one pass Consistent one pass Superior Lumax/Lexar (5, 15, 27) Balance Flexx (27) Pre setup Reactivation ability Differentiated Harness® Xtra (5, 15), Bicep II Magnum® (5, 15), Verdict™ (14, 15) Capreno (2,27) Post one pass Longest-lasting residual and crop safety Equal Halex® (9, 15, 27), SureStart® (15, 2, 4) Laudis (27) Post tankmix Residual post Liberty and glyphosate tankmix partner Equal Callisto (27), IMPACT (27) L I B E R T Y L I N K C O R NL I B E R T Y L I N K C O R N Max. Weed Height with Liberty at 22 fl oz/A Confirmed Glyphosate- Resistant Weeds Foxtail (giant, green) 6”-12” Lambsquarters 4” Velvetleaf 3” Ragweed (giant, common) 6” ✔ Pigweed, redroot 3” Cocklebur 6” Waterhemp, common 4” ✔ Kochia 4” ✔ Sunflower, common 6” Morningglory 2”-6” $/Bushel $4 $5 $6 Lost $/A from waterhemp* $81 $242 $264 Lost $/1,000 A from waterhemp* $8,100 $24,200 $26,400 *Numbers in parentheses denote herbicide MOA as designated by the WSSA. 7 See page 36 for source information. *Based on above study with average yields of 135 bu/A, controlled at 6 inches tall. Return to Table of Contents
    • THE GLYTOL TRAIT IN COTTON GlyTol trait technology delivers season-long, in-plant tolerance to glyphosate herbicide. The GlyTol trait keeps crops safe from any brand of glyphosate labeled for cotton. Commercialized for U.S. cotton in 2011, it is the first glyphosate-tolerant alternative to Roundup Ready Flex technology. GlyTol gives growers a competitive edge with a wide window for postemergence applications and additional trait combinations. GlyTol is available in high-yielding, high-performing FiberMax and Stoneville varieties across U.S. cotton geographies, offering growers: • Proven crop safety to various glyphosate formulations with no impact on yield, quality or plant height. • Allows over-the-top, season-long use of any glyphosate brand labeled for cotton, which gives growers freedom in their herbicide choice. • Production efficiency and flexibility to allow growers to make the right decisions for their farm. THE LIBERTYLINK TRAIT IN COTTON • The LibertyLink system provides excellent weed control and preserves the yield of high-performing varieties. • Crops with the LibertyLink trait allow growers to spray Liberty in-crop for nonselective postemergence control of the toughest weeds, including Palmer amaranth, giant ragweed, waterhemp and marestail. • With a unique mode of action (MOA), Liberty allows growers to control weeds within days, not weeks, under favorable conditions. THE GLYTOL LIBERTYLINK TRAIT STACK IN COTTON GlyTol LibertyLink (GL) technology in cotton brings an industry first — the ability for growers to make over-the-top applications of either Liberty herbicide or glyphosate with full commercial tolerance to both herbicides. This innovation provides even greater flexibility in weed management and management of glyphosate-resistant weeds. GL-traited cotton also protects against the potential for damage due to off-target movement of Liberty or glyphosate from nearby fields. TWINLINK TRAIT STACK IN COTTON TwinLink cotton technology combines season-long Bt protection against worm pests with powerful weed management technology. It contains two Bayer proprietary Bt genes that provide effective management of major lepidopteran pests such as tobacco budworm, pink bollworm, cotton bollworm, fall armyworm and beet armyworm. TwinLink also confers full tolerance to Liberty herbicide to control a wide range of broadleaf and grass weeds. 27 G L Y T O L • L I B E R T Y L I N K • T W I N L I N K T R A I T S I N C O T T O NG L Y T O L • L I B E R T Y L I N K • T W I N L I N K T R A I T S I N C O T T O N INSEED™ TRAIT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM The InSeed™ trait identification system consists of the following traits, easily identified on bags appropriate for each unique need. HERBICIDE TOLERANCE This icon illustrates herbicide tolerance and indicates which herbicides can be used. LibertyLink indicates that the herbicide Liberty can be applied to cotton. GlyTol indicates that glyphosate herbicides can be sprayed. When LibertyLink and GlyTol are indicated, it means that both Liberty and glyphosate herbicides can be used in a program, conferring a double herbicide-tolerant property to cotton. INSECT RESISTANCE This icon illustrates insect resistance. TwinLink is a new Bayer CropScience insect resistance product providing two-gene insect-resistant protection against Lepidopteran pests (budworm/bollworm complex). In the future, other pests (aphids, Lygus, etc.) will be controlled by new traits. HERBICIDE TOLERANCE/INSECT RESISTANCE The insect resistance icon paired with the herbicide tolerance icon indicates that this cottonseed has both properties. GlyTol and LibertyLink stacked with TwinLink provides two-gene insect-resistant protection and double herbicide tolerance. 28 TwinLink will be available as a GlyTol LibertyLink TwinLink (GLT) trait package, which provides two Bt genes plus full tolerance to Liberty herbicide and glyphosate. This trait package is a powerful tool for high-level caterpillar control and offers two choices for over-the-top, broad-spectrum herbicide applications. GLT gives growers the flexibility to choose the herbicide applications that best fit their cotton-growing conditions and farm management practices. Growers have the ability to rotate herbicide MOAs to control weeds effectively and reduce the potential of weed resistance. TwinLink produces two insecticidal Bt proteins, Cry1Ab and Cry2Ae, with independent actions for highly effective control of key leaf- and fruit-feeding lepidopteran pests. These novel Bt genes protect against a wide range of worm pests to help cotton growers maximize yield potential and fiber quality. It is anticipated that the first varieties with TwinLink will be available in both FiberMax and Stoneville brands in the United States beginning in 2014, pending international import approvals.
    • THE FUTURE IS FILLING UP Keep an eye on our pipeline — this is only the beginning. The InSeed trait identification system will continue to grow, because Bayer CropScience is committed to bringing the latest innovations in cotton to growers each and every day. InSeed is just the latest step in a process that starts in our pipeline and ends with quality products. WHERE TO FIND COTTON VARIETIES WITH GLYTOL AND LIBERTYLINK TRAITS • LibertyLink trait technology is currently available in high-yielding, high-quality FiberMax and Stoneville cotton seed varieties. • GlyTol trait technology is currently available in high-yielding, high-quality FiberMax varieties. • GlyTol LibertyLink stacked technology is available in elite, high-performing FiberMax cotton seed varieties. • GlyTol LibertyLink Bollgard Il® stacked technology is available in high-yielding FiberMax and Stoneville varieties. • For more information about FiberMax and Stoneville cotton seed varieties, go to www.FiberMax.com or www.Stoneville.com • Download the Variety Selector Tool™ from www.FiberMax.com or www.Stoneville.com or get it as an app on your smart phone. • Contact your local seed dealer/distributor or Bayer CropScience representative about where to find the latest varieties available. COMPLIANCE MONITORING PROGRAM The U.S. EPA requires Bayer CropScience to take corrective action in response to a finding of noncompliance by growers to the refuge requirements of GLT cotton. Bayer CropScience or an approved agent of Bayer CropScience is required to monitor compliance with refuge requirements. The Bayer Grower Technology Agreement (BGTA) stipulates that upon request by Bayer CropScience or an approved agent, a grower must provide the location of all fields planted with Bayer CropScience biotechnologies and the locations of all associated required refuge areas so that they may be verified to be in compliance with GLT registration requirements. Bayer CropScience will provide the grower advance notice of any inspections, and such inspections will be performed during regular working hours to accommodate the grower’s schedule so that the grower may be present if desired. 29 30 1. Start Clean:Start with a clean, weed-free field by using an effective burndown application or conventional tillage. 2. Stay Clean:Use an Overlapping Residual Weed Control Program. Be aggressive with early season weed management to avoid yield loss and weed escapes. Residual herbicides applied at burndown, pre-emergence and/ or tankmixed in the first post application help ensure optimal weed management, particularly if environmental conditions delay timely post applications. Consider expected weed species and populations as well as environmental variables in the area when selecting a residual herbicide. 3. Scenario One — Residual Used Pre-emergence, PPI or At Planting: a. Apply Liberty at 29 fl oz/A over the top of LibertyLink cotton from crop emergence to 14 days after crop emergence or when weeds are no more than 3 inches to 4 inches tall. b. Apply Liberty at 29 fl oz/A on an as-needed basis following the first application at 29 fl oz/A. c. A third application of 29 fl oz/A can also be made in cotton on an as-needed basis, only if the previous two applications did not exceed 29 fl oz/A in either application. 4. Scenario Two — Environmental Conditions Prevent Timely Application: a. If environmental conditions prevent timely Liberty application, a single application of up to 43 fl oz/A may be made in the first application. b. If 43 fl oz/A is used for the first application, a second application of 29 fl oz/A should be made 10 days after the first application. Sequential applications should be at least 10 days apart. Increase water and shorten interval between post applications if canopy is heavy. 5. Water Volume:Liberty is a contact herbicide that requires good coverage with medium-size droplets applied at a minimum of 15 GPA water volume. If dense canopy, large weeds or unfavorable growing conditions are present, increase water volume to a minimum of 20 GPA. 6. Maximum Seasonal Use:Up to 87 fl oz/A of Liberty can be applied on cotton per growing season or up to 72 fl oz/A if more than 29 fl oz/A was used in a single application. See Liberty label for guidelines on maximum seasonal use rates. 7. Additional Use Directions: a. Do NOT apply glyphosate within seven days following a Liberty application or reduced herbicide efficacy may occur. b. Full rates of Liberty are recommended regardless of tankmix herbicide. c. Make all applications when wind speeds are less than 10 mph and not during periods of temperature inversions. d. Do not apply within 70 days of harvest. e. Consult product label for full use directions and restrictions. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR WEED MANAGEMENT IN FIBERMAX AND STONEVILLE COTTON WITH LIBERTYLINK TECHNOLOGY Weed Control Program 1st Post Application (Emergence to 14 days) 2nd Post Application Scenario One Residual pre-emergence, Pre-plant incorporated (PPI) or at planting Liberty at 29 fl oz/A plus residual herbicide If needed, Liberty at 29 fl oz/A. Sequential applications should be at least 10 days apart Scenario Two Environmental conditions prevent timely application Liberty at 43 fl oz/A plus residual herbicide Liberty at 29 fl oz/A applied 10 days after the first application APPLICATION INFORMATION & BEST WEED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES Postemergence Over-the-Top Tankmix Partners for Liberty on LibertyLink Cotton Assure II (1*) clethodim (1) Fusilade DX (1) Fusion (1) metolachlor (15) Poast Plus (1) Select Max (1) Staple (2) *Numbers in parentheses denote herbicide MOA as designated by the Weed Science Society of America (WSSA). G L Y T O L • L I B E R T Y L I N K • T W I N L I N K T R A I T S I N C O T T O NG L Y T O L • L I B E R T Y L I N K • T W I N L I N K T R A I T S I N C O T T O N
    • KEY LIBERTY APPLICATION POINTS TO REMEMBER • Uniform, thorough spray coverage is essential to achieve consistent performance. • Use nozzles and pressure that generate a medium-size spray droplet. • Use 15 GPA; in dense canopies or in arid environments, increase water volume to 20 GPA. • Maximum performance is achieved when applications are made to actively growing weeds. • Apply from emergence to early bloom growth stage. • Sequential applications should be applied at least 10 days after the first application. • Liberty is rainfast in four hours. TOP 10 MOST FREQUENTLY SPRAYED WEEDS IN COTTON YIELD LOSS DUE TO COMPETITION Weeds that emerge with the crop, or shortly thereafter, have the greatest potential to adversely impact yields. The yield loss associated with this flush of weeds is strongly influenced by how long weeds are allowed to remain in the field and compete with crops for light, water and nutrients. Weed scientists state that effective weed control during the first nine weeks after emergence is critical to produce optimum cotton yields. Residual herbicides improve weed control, reduce problematic weeds and extend the time period between planting and the first postemergence treatment of Liberty herbicide. Furthermore, the use of residual herbicides increases application flexibility in case of unfavorable weather conditions. Use a residual herbicide in your weed control program to introduce another herbicide MOA in the field and enhance your weed management program. According to a 2010 University of Tennessee study4 , cotton and soybean growers lost nearly $138 million due to glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. Their weed control costs also increased as follows: • $78.5 million in increased herbicide costs -- $35 per acre on 1.6 million soybean acres -- $55 per acre on 0.4 million cotton acres • $10 million in increased application costs -- $5 per acre on 2 million acres • $49.35 million due to glyphosate-resistant weed competition -- 30 percent of soybean acres at 17 percent loss -- 15 percent of cotton acres at 25 percent loss YIELD LOSS EXAMPLES Research in Georgia8 in 2006 and 2007 noted that two glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth spaced every 7 meters of row (91-cm row spacing) reduced cotton yield by 23 percent. 31 32 1 If more than 29 fl oz/A is used in any single application, the season total may not exceed 72 fl oz/A, including all application timings. 2 For best control, do not apply before weeds reach 6 inches tall. 3 Sequential applications may be needed for populations of weeds with mixed heights. 4 Treat prior to tiller. G L Y T O L • L I B E R T Y L I N K • T W I N L I N K T R A I T S I N C O T T O NG L Y T O L • L I B E R T Y L I N K • T W I N L I N K T R A I T S I N C O T T O N Max. Weed Height with Liberty at 29 fl oz/A1 Confirmed Glyphosate- Resistant Weeds Amaranth (Palmer, redroot and tumbleweed) 4” ✔ Morningglory 8” Johnsongrass4 5” ✔ Cocklebur 14” Crabgrass4 5” Marestail2,3 6”-12” ✔ Russian thistle2,3 6”-12” Sicklepod 6” Texas panicum 6” Barnyardgrass 5” ✔ * Based on above study with start yield at 1,000 lb/A. ** Represents CCC Loan Rate. $/Pound $0.52** $0.80 $0.85 Lost $/A from Palmer amaranth* $119.60 $184 $195.50 Lost $/1000 A* $119,600 $184,000 $195,500 4, 8 See page 36 for source information. “Resistance is a real concern. It’s a problem. It’s not going to go away. It’s something we’re going to have to learn to live with and manage.” – Dr. Alan York, North Carolina State University Return to Table of Contents
    • THE LIBERTYLINK TRAIT IN CANOLA • InVigor hybrids carry the LibertyLink trait, which provides built-in tolerance to Liberty herbicide. • InVigor canola hybrids with the LibertyLink trait are top performers, known for outstanding yield and strong early season growth. They consistently deliver superior crop establishment, uniform maturity and greater harvestability over many other hybrids. • InVigor canola hybrids are developed from high-yielding, strong-performing, elite germplasm, which results in stable and consistent performance in the field. • The LibertyLink system provides excellent weed control and preserves the yield of high-performing hybrids. • Crops with the LibertyLink trait allow growers to spray Liberty in-crop for nonselective postemergence control of the toughest weeds, including Palmer amaranth, giant ragweed, waterhemp, kochia and marestail. • With a unique mode of action (MOA), Liberty allows growers to control weeds within days, not weeks, under favorable conditions. WHERE TO FIND INVIGOR CANOLA • InVigor canola hybrids with the LibertyLink trait have out-yielded competitive lines since InVigor canola introduction. • Contact your local seed dealer/distributor or Bayer CropScience representative about where to find the latest varieties available. 1. Start Clean:Start with a clean, weed-free field by using an effective burndown application or conventional tillage. 2. Stay Clean:Be aggressive with early season weed management to avoid yield loss and weed escapes. Residual herbicides help ensure optimal weed management, particularly if environmental conditions delay timely post applications. 3. Scenario – Post Canola Emergence: a. Apply Liberty at 22 fl oz/A over the top of InVigor canola from emergence to 10 days after crop emergence or when weeds are no more than 3 inches to 4 inches tall. b. Apply Liberty at 22 fl oz/acre on an as-needed basis following the first application at 22 fl oz/A. If sequential applications are planned, apply the second application 10 days after the first application. 4. Additives:Ammonium sulfate (AMS) can be used at a rate of 3 lbs/A*. Use 1.5 lb/A when tankmixed with the grass herbicides specified in the tankmix section. 5. Water Volume:Liberty is a contact herbicide that requires good coverage with medium-size droplets applied at a minimum of 15 GPA water volume. If dense canopy, large weeds or unfavorable conditions are present increase water volume to a minimum of 20 GPA. 6. Maximum Seasonal Use:Up to 44 fl oz/A of Liberty can be applied on canola per growing season. 7. Additional Use Directions: a. Liberty herbicide should be applied when winds are less than 10 mph, and not during periods of temperature inversions. b. Maximum season use rate: 44 fl oz/A. c. Do not use in the states of AL, DE, GA, KY, MD, NJ, NC, SC, TN, VA and WV. d. Apply prior to 65 days before harvest. e. Do not graze treated crop or cut for hay. f. Consult product label for full use directions and restrictions. 33 I N V I G O R C A N O L AI N V I G O R C A N O L A 34 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR WEED MANAGEMENT IN INVIGOR CANOLA Weed Control Program 1st Post Application (Emergence to 10 days) 2nd Post Application Scenario Post canola emergence Liberty at 22 fl oz/A plus a registered graminicide If needed, Liberty at 22 fl oz/A or, if sequential applications planned, apply 10 days after first application APPLICATION INFORMATION & BEST WEED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES “We have to have 100 percent weed control — zero tolerance. We have to kill every weed by whatever means is possible that’s economic, environmental and ethical, or we’re going to only run into more problems.” – Jeff Stachler, North Dakota State University and University of Minnesota *Numbers in parentheses denote herbicide MOA as designated by the Weed Science Society of America (WSSA). Tankmix Partners for Liberty on InVigor Canola Tankmix Partner Rate (fl oz/A) Assure II (1*) 4 to 5 fl oz/A Poast (1) 6 to 8 fl oz/A Select® 2EC (1) 2 to 3 fl oz/A Select Max (1) 4 to 6 fl oz/A * Research has consistently shown AMS with Liberty herbicide improves weed control. AMS is especially needed for difficult-to-control weeds, like velvetleaf and lambsquarters, under difficult environmental conditions (low relative humidity) or hard water.
    • KEY LIBERTY APPLICATION POINTS TO REMEMBER • Uniform, thorough spray coverage is essential to achieve consistent performance. • Use nozzles and pressure that generate a medium-size spray droplet. • Use 15 GPA; for dense canopies, increase water volume • Maximum performance is achieved when applied to actively growing weeds. • Apply from emergence to early bolting. • Sequential applications should be made at 10 days after the first application. • Liberty is rainfast in four hours. TOP 10 MOST FREQUENTLY SPRAYED WEEDS IN CANOLA YIELD LOSS DUE TO COMPETITION Early season weed control is critical. Residual herbicides can improve weed control, reduce problematic weeds and extend the time period between planting and the first postemergence treatment of Liberty. This allows for much needed flexibility when weather conditions prevent timely postemergence applications. Additionally, using a residual herbicide in your weed control program introduces another herbicide MOA in the field, improving your weed management program. YIELD LOSS EXAMPLES* Research9 in western Canada has shown that a 5 percent yield loss in canola can result from just two weeds per square meter (see tables below). 35 36 * Based on above study with 1.5 bu/A reduction based on a 30 bu/A yield. 1. “Frequently Asked Questions about Biotechnology.” United States Department of Agriculture. n.d. Sept. 2012. Web. <http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome?contentid=BiotechnologyFAQs.xml> 2. Compiled by Streck, Harry and team, Bayer CropScience, through information provided by weedscience.org and Extension Services Statuses. Aug. 2012. 3. Sosnoskie, Lynn, et al. “The Biology and Ecology of Palmer Amaranth: Implications for Control.” The University of Georgia Cooperative Extension. 1 Jan. 2001. Web. <http://www.gaweed.com/HomepageFiles/PalmerBiologyEcology.pdf.> 4. Steckel, Larry. Respect the Rotation Field Event. Tuscola, IL. 24 July 2012. Speech. 5. Hartzler, Bob. “Managing Weeds to Protect Crop Yields.” Iowa State Extension Agronomy, Iowa State Weed Science. 20 Oct. 2004. Web. <http://www.weeds.iastate.edu/mgmt/2004/protectingyields.shtml> 6. Chandi, Aman, et al. “Interference of Selected Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus Palmeri) Biotypes in Soybean (Glycine Max).” International Journal of Agronomy. 2012 (2012): 1-7. Print. 7. Nordby, Dawn, Bob Hartzler, and Kevin Bradley. “Biology and Management of Waterhemp.” The Glyphosate, Weeds, and Crop Series. Purdue Extension. Nov. 2011. Web. <http://www.extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/BP/gwc-13.pdf.> 8. Culpepper, Stanley A., et al. “Glyphosate-Resistant Palmer Amaranth in the United States.” Glyphosate Resistance in Crops and Weeds: History, Development, and Management. Ed. Vijay K. Nandula. Hoboken, NJ. Wiley. 2010. n.p. Print. 9. “Canola Grower’s Manual.” Canola Council of Canada n.p. n.d. Web. 2003. <http://www.canolacouncil.org/canola_growers_manual.aspx.> Bayer CropScience LP, 2 T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Always read and follow label instructions. Bayer (reg’d), the Bayer Cross (reg’d), Balance® , Capreno® , Corvus® , FiberMax® , GlyTol® , HBK® , InSeed™ , InVigor® , Laudis® , Liberty® , LibertyLink® , Respect the Rotation™ , Stoneville® , Stoneville Design (reg’d) TwinLink™ , Variety Selector Tool™ and the Water Droplet Design (reg’d) are trademarks of Bayer. Atrazine, Balance Flexx, Bicep II Magnum, Corvus, Guardsman Max and Lumax are Restricted Use Pesticides. Not all products are registered in all states. AgCelerate is a trademark of Agdata. AirMix, TurboDrop and TwinFan are trademarks of Agrotop. IMPACT is a trademark of Amvac Chemical Company. Guardsman Max, HX Design, OpTill, Poast Plus, Pursuit, Raptor, Sharpen, Status and Verdict are trademarks of BASF Corporation. 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Agrisure, Bicep II Magnum, Callisto, Camix, Caparol, Flexstar, Fusilade, Fusion, Halex, Lexar, Lumax, NorthStar, Prefix, Reflex, Spirit and Viptera are trademarks of a Syngenta Group Company. Ultra Blazer is a trademark of United Phosphorus, Inc. Cobra, Fierce, Phoenix, Resource, Select, Select Max and Valor are trademarks of Valent U.S.A. For additional product information call toll-free 1-866-99-BAYER (1-866-992-2937) or visit our website at www.BayerCropScience.us I N V I G O R L I B E R T Y L I N K C A N O L AI N V I G O R L I B E R T Y L I N K C A N O L A Max. Weed Height with Liberty at 29 fl oz/A Confirmed Glyphosate- Resistant Weeds Wild oat 3” Kochia 4” ✔ Foxtail, yellow 3” Thistle, spp.1 sequential Quackgrass1 sequential Mustard, wild 4” Buckwheat, wild 6” Pigweed, redroot 3” Wheat, volunteer1 4” Foxtail, green 6” $/Bushel $5.50 $5.75 $6.00 Lost $/A $8.25 $8.63 $9.00 Lost $/1000 A $8,250 $8,630 $9,000 Weed Plants/Square Meter Yield Reduction Wild oat 2 5% Volunteer barley 2 5% Volunteer spring wheat 4 5% Foxtail, green 100 5% 9 See page 36 for source information. S O U R C E I N F O R M A T I O NS O U R C E I N F O R M A T I O N 1 Sequential applications may be needed. Return to Table of Contents
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