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  1. 1. Tired of not getting band 4 on TKT? “I finally found a powerful tool toThe purpose of this book is to serve as a tool to help TKT practice and becandidates to prepare in a better way to sit the TKT testfrom Cambridge ESOL. confident enough toIt is divided into three chapters, each covering amodule from the standard TKT test; it contains tasks get the best at TKT.”specifically designed to help candidates know the George Thompsonstructure and learn important tips to really get band 4on this teaching knowledge qualification. English Teacher Chelsea NY LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  2. 2. INTRODUCTIONThe purpose of this book is to be a helping tool in the process of trainingcandidates to take the Teaching Knowledge Test TKT.The Teaching Knowledge Test (TKT) is a test from Cambridge ESOL aboutteaching English to speakers of other languages. It aims to increase teachersconfidence and enhance job prospects by focusing on the core teachingknowledge needed by teachers of primary, secondary or adult learners,anywhere in the world. This flexible and accessible award will help you tounderstand: differentmethodologiesforteaching the language of teaching the ways in which resources can be used the key aspects of lesson planning classroom management methods for different needsTKT gives teachers a strong foundation in the core areas of teachingknowledge needed in the English language teaching classroom. It is ideal forall teachers, whatever their background and teaching experience, and isalso suitable for people who would like to teach English but do not yet havea teaching position.There are no formal entry requirements. However, anyone wishing to take TKTis strongly advised to have at least an intermediate level of English — Level B1of the Council of Europes Common European Framework of Reference forLanguages (CEFR) — e.g. PET, IELTS band score of 4Each unit consists of plenty of practice exercises and TKT tasks that are verysimilar in format to what is evaluated in the real TKT test. LIBARDO GONZALEZ ALVAREZ SIT-TESOL MASTER IN APPLIED LINGUSTICS CANDIDATE TEACHER TRAINER Leyenda que describe una imagen o un gráfico.LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  3. 3. TKT Module 1: Describing language: Unit 1 Grammar – Participant‟sActivity 1Complete the puzzle with parts of speech.Across3. A word used to show an action, state, event or process, e.g. „I like cheese.‟; „He speaks Italian.‟8. A word used to connect words, phrases, clauses or sentences, e.g. „I like tea but I don‟t like coffee Because it‟s too strong for me.‟9. A word that describes or gives more information about how, when, where or to what degree something is done, e.g. „He worked quickly and well.‟10. A word that replaces or refers to a noun or a noun phrase just mentioned, e.g. „I saw John yesterday. He looked very well.‟Down1. An expression used to show a strong feeling, e.g. Oh! Wow!2. A word which makes clear which noun is referred to or to give information about quantity, e.g. this, that, some, any, my, that car is mine.4. „On‟ „under‟ „over,‟ for example5. A word that describes or gives more information about a noun or pronoun, e.g. a cold day.6. „The‟, „a‟, „an‟, for example7. A person, place or thing, e.g. elephant, girl, grass, schoolLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  4. 4. TKT Module 1: Describing language: Unit 1 Grammar – Participant‟sActivity 2Exercise 1Look at the underlined words in the sentences below and match them with the wordsParticipant‟s worksheet 1, given in the box.from exclamation determiner verb preposition adjective article noun conjunction adverb pronoun A. (1) She(2) alwaysmoves the (3) furniture when she does the (4) housework. B. (5) Robert is (6) taller than James and (7) his hair is longer. C. (8) Can you buy a (9) good (10) book for Jim? D. I‟ll give it to (11) him for his birthday (12) tomorrow? E. (13) Ouch! You‟re (14) standing on (15) my foot. F. John (16) saw Fred last week (17) in town. I (18) didn‟t see him myself but he (19)saidhe was carrying (20) a suitcase.Exercise 2Group A: Look at the underlined words 1ˆ in the sentences again.Group B: Look at the underlined words 11• in the sentences again.Both groups: Match your words with a more specific term from the box below. Someof the words may have more than one term. modal verb possessive pronoun countable noun adjectivepossessive adjective indefinite article collective noun determiner reporting verb auxiliary verb adverb of time compound nounobject pronoun proper noun personal pronoun uncountable noun modal auxiliary transitive verb subject pronoun exclamation uncountable nounpreposition of place comparative adjective intransitive verbLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  5. 5. TKT Module 1: Describing language: Unit 1 Grammar – Participant‟s Activity 3, fill in1: Describing language: Unit 1 Grammar – Sample Task 1 TKT Module the gaps withGrammatical structure match the example sentences with the What it means/how it listed A-F For questions 1- 5 How it is made and example grammatical terms is used Mark the correct letter (A–F) on your answer sheet.Present continuous subject + present tenseof the to talk aboutan action There is one extra option which you do not need to e.g.I happeningat the time of verbtobe+ingformof verb, use. amworking at the moment. speaking. Example sentences Grammatical terms A gerund1) 1 Then I realised what had happened. tense of the subject + past to talk aboutan action verb, e.g.I went to France last completedat a specific year. B time on the past. present perfect simple 2 Many old houses are made of wood. C present perfect continuousPresentWe‟ve never seen a whale before. 3 simple 2) to talk abouta routine orhabit. D reported speech 4 He doesn‟t like playing chess.3) subject + present of the to talk aboutthings youhave 5 verbto have+ past participle, present simple passive She said she was really upset. E experiencedon your life e.g.I‟ve been toFrance many times. F past perfect simpleModal verb - must subject + base form of the 4) verb e.g.You must be home by 10.00.Future withgoing to 5) to expressintention6) If + subject+ present simple to talk aboutsomething that is +subject +will+ bare infinitive, possible in the future and the e.g.If Isee him I‟ll tell him action thatwill be taken . LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  6. 6. TKT Module 1: Describing language: Unit 1 Grammar – Sample Task 2For questions 1-5, match the example language with the grammatical terms listed A-F. Mark the correct letter (A-F) on your answer sheet.There is one extra option which you do not need to use.Example language Grammatical items1. Break in A. Tag Questions2. My brother is a pilot, is he? B. Echo Questions3. If its sunny, well go to the park C. Phrasal verb4. The exam should have been given to everyone. D. Passive voice5. This, that, these, those E. Determiners F. ConditionalTKT Module 1: Describing language: Unit 1 Grammar – SampleTask 3For questions 1-7, choose the correct option (a, b or c) to complete each definitionof grammatical items. Mark the correct letter on your answer sheet. 1. An interjection is a. an exclamation which shows thoughts or feelings b. a meaningless string of sounds c. the same as an adjective 2. A verb that has a subject but no object is. a. Transitive b. Intransitive c. Passive 3. The subject does the action and receives the action is. a. Reflexive b. Possessive c. RelativeLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  7. 7. 4. A group of words that includes a subject and a finite verb is. a. A clause b. A statement c. An idiom 5. A word that describes or gives more information about a noun or pronoun is. a. An adjective b. An adverb c. An article 6. The words someone uses when they are telling someone what somebody else said or asked are, a. The past tense b. Past conditional c. Indirect speech 7. A verb that does not take an auxiliary to negate or ask questions is called. a. Active b. Modal c. IntransitiveLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  8. 8. TKT Module 1: Describing language: Unit 1 Grammar – Answer KeysKey to activity 1 1E X C 2D L 3VE R B 4P A T R M 5A E 6A E A D R R P T J M 7N T O I E I O I S O 8C O N J U N C T I O N T E N L T I R E I V O 9A D V E R B 10P R O N O U NAcross:3: verb; 8: conjunction; 9: adverb; 10: pronounDown:1: exclamation; 2: determiner; 4:preposition; 5: adjective; 6: article; 7: nounKey to activity 2Question Exercise 1 Exercise 21. She pronoun subject pronoun, personal pronoun2. always adverb adverb of frequency3. furniture noun uncountable noun, collective noun4. housework noun uncountable noun, compound noun5. Robert noun proper noun6. taller adjective comparative adjective7. his pronoun; determiner possessive pronoun, determiner8. Can verb modal verb, modal auxiliary9. good adjectiveadjective10. book noun countable noun11. him pronoun; determiner object pronoun12. tomorrow adverb adverb of timeLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  9. 9. 13. Ouch! exclamationexclamation14. standing verb intransitive verb15. my adjective possessive adjective16. saw verb transitive verb17. in prepositionpreposition of place18. didn‟t verb auxiliary verb19. said verb reporting verb20. a article indefinite articleKey to activity 31) Past simple2) subject + present of the verb, e.g. I get up at 7.00 every day.3) Present perfect simple4) To talk about an obligation, something that is necessary5) subject + present tense of the verb to be + going to + base form, e.g. I‟m going to take the train.6) First conditional Key to Sample Task 11 F 2 E 3 B 4 A 5 DKey to Sample Task 21.C 2.A 3.F 4.D 5.EKey to Sample Task 31.A 2.B 3.A 4.A 5.A 6.C 7.BLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  10. 10. TKT UNIT 1 GRAMMAR; GLOSSARY,Taken from www.cambridgeesol.orgActive voiceIn an activesentence, the subject of the verb usually does or causes the action, e.g.The car hit the tree.AdjectiveAn adjective describes or gives more information about a noun or pronoun, e.g. acold day.AdverbAn adverb describes or gives more information about how, when, where, or to whatdegree etc something is done, e.g. he worked quickly and well.ApostropheA punctuation mark (‟).The ‟ is added to a singular noun before an s to show thatsomething belongs to someone, e.g. John‟s house.ArticleAn article can be definite (the), indefinite (a/an) or zero (-), e.g. I was at(-)home inthe sitting room when I heard a noise.AspectA way of looking at verb forms not purely in relation to time. Aspect relates to thetype of event, e.g. whether it is long or short, whether it is complete or not, whether itis repetitive or not, whether it is connected to the time of speaking or not. There aretwo aspects in English, the continuous/progressive and the perfect. The continuousaspect, for example, suggests that something is happening temporarily.‘At’ symbolA punctuation mark (@) used instead of „at‟ in email addresses, e.g.john@yahoo.comAuxiliary verbAn auxiliary verb is a verb used with other verbs to make questions, negatives,tenses, etc e.g. be, do, have.Base form of a verbThebase form of a verbisthe infinitive form of a verb without „to‟, e.g. go.Capital letterA letter of the form and size used at the beginning of a sentence or a name, e.g.They went to Spain last year.ClauseA clause generally consists of a subject and a finite verb relating to the subject andany other elements, e.g. object. A clause can be a full sentence or a part of asentence.Main clauseLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  11. 11. When the teacher arrived, the learners stopped talking.Subordinate clauseWhen the teacher arrived, the learners stopped talking.Relative clauseThe learners who were sitting near the front stood up.Collective nounA collective noun is a noun that refers to a group of people or things, e.g. the police,the government.CommaA punctuation mark (,) used to separate items in a list or to show where there is apause in a sentence, e.g. I bought some apples, oranges, bananas and lemons.When I went to the market, I met my friend.Comparative adjectiveA comparative adjectivecompares two things, e.g. He is taller than she is.Complex sentenceA sentence containing a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.Compound nounA compound noun is a combination of two or more words, which are used as asingle word, e.g. a flower shop,a headache.Conditional (forms)A verb form that refers to a possible or imagined situation. Grammar books oftenmention four kinds of conditionals:First conditional –refers to present or future possible or likely situations, e.g. I willcome if I can.Second conditional – refers to present or future situations which the speaker thinksare impossible or unlikely, e.g. I would go if they asked me.Third conditional – refers to past situations that cannot be changed, e.g. I wouldhave seen her if I hadarrived earlier (but I didn‟t so I couldn‟t).Mixed conditional – is used when the speaker wants to refer to different timeframes in one sentence, e.g. If I‟d arrived on time, I wouldn‟t have to wait now. If I‟darrived refers to the past and I wouldn‟t have towait refers to the present.ConjunctionA conjunction (or connector) is used to connect words, phrases, clauses orsentences, e.g. I like tea but I don‟t like coffee because it‟s too strong for me.Countable nounA countable noun has a singular and plural form, e.g. book, books.Demonstrative adjectiveLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  12. 12. A demonstrative adjective shows whether something is near or far from the speaker,e.g. this (near), that (far).Demonstrative pronounA demonstrative pronoun is a word which refers to a noun (phrase) and showswhether it is near or far from the speaker, e.g. this, that, these, those.Dependent prepositionAdependent preposition is a word that is always used with a particular noun, verb oradjective before another word,e.g. interested in, depend on, bored with.DeterminerA determiner is used to make clear which noun is referred to, or to give informationabout quantity, and includes words such as the, a, this, that, my, some, e.g. That caris mine.Direct speech, questionThe actual words someone says, e.g. He said, „My name is Ron.‟,„What do youmean, Sue?‟, asked Peter.Exclamation markA punctuation mark (!) written after an exclamation, e.g. Be careful!ExponentAn example of a grammar point, function or lexical set.Full stopA punctuation mark (.) used at the end of a sentence, e.g. I like chocolate.Future with going toI‟m going to visit my aunt on Sunday. It‟s going to rain.Future with present continuousHe is meeting John for dinner at eight tomorrow.Future with present simpleThe plane leaves at 9.00 next Saturday.Future with will or shallI‟ll help with the cleaning. It will be lovely and sunny tomorrow.Gerund, -ing formA form of a verb functioning as a noun, which ends in -ing, e.g. I hate shopping.(Grammatical) structure, formA grammatical structure is a grammatical language pattern, e.g. present perfectsimple, and the parts which combine to make it, e.g. have + past participle.ImperativeThe form of a verb that gives an order or instruction, e.g. Turn to page 10.Indirect speech, questionLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  13. 13. The words someone uses when they are telling someone what somebody else saidor asked, e.g. He told me his name was Ron. Peter asked Sue what she meant.An indirect question can also be used when someone wants to ask something in amore polite way, e.g. „I was wondering if you could help me.‟ (indirect question)instead of „Could you help me?‟ (direct question).InfinitiveThe infinitiveform is the base form of a verb with „to‟. It is used after another verb,after an adjective or noun or as the subject or object of a sentence, e.g. I want tostudy.‟, „It‟s difficult to understand. ‟Infinitive of purposeThis is used to express why something is done, e.g. I went to the lesson to learnEnglish.-ing/-ed adjectiveAn-ing/-ed adjective describes things or feelings. An -ing adjective describes thingsor people, e.g. The book is very interesting.An-ed adjective describes feelings, e.g. I am very interested in the book.IntensifierA word used to make the meaning of another word stronger, e.g. He‟s much tallerthan his brother. I‟m very tired.InterrogativeA question form.IntransitiveIs used to describe a verb which does not take a direct object, e.g. She never cried.Irregular verbAnirregular verbdoes not follow the same pattern as regular verbs. Each irregularverb has its own way of forming the past simple and past participle, e.g. go went(past simple) gone (past participle).Modal verbA modal verb is a verb used with other verbs to show ideas such as ability orobligationor possibility. They include can, must, will, should, e.g. I can speakFrench, but I should study even harder.NounA person, place or thing, e.g. elephant, girl, grass, school.ObjectThis is a noun or phrase that describes the thing or person that is affected by theaction of a verb, e.g. I saw Mary in the classroom.A direct object is the main object of a transitive verb.LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  14. 14. An indirect object is an object affected by a verb but not directly acted on, e.g. Hegave the book to me. In this sentence, the book is the direct object and me is anindirect object.Object pronounAn object pronoun is a word which replaces an object noun or an object nounphrase, e.g. him, her.Participle (past and present)–ed and –ing forms of the verb, they are often used to make tenses or adjectives,e.g. an interesting film(present participle); I haven‟t seen him today. (past participle)ParticleA small grammatical word, often an adverb or preposition which does not change itsform when used in a sentence, e.g. look after, after is a particle.Passive voice, progressiveIn a passive sentence, something is done to or happens to the subject of the verb,e.g. The tree was hit by the car.Past continuous, progressiveI was watching TV all evening.Past perfect continuous, progressiveI had been studying for three hours so I felt tired.Past perfect simpleAfter I had phoned Mary, I went out.Past simpleI went on holiday to France last year.PersonFirst person – the person speaking, e.g. I, we.Second person – the person spoken to, e.g. you.Third person – the person spoken about, e.g. he, she, they.Personal pronounPersonal pronounsare words, which are used instead of the name of that person,e.g. I (subject pronoun), me (object pronoun).Phonology noun, phonological adjective The study of sounds in a language orlanguages.PhraseA group of words often without a finite verb that do not form a sentence, e.g. thegreen car, on Friday morning are phrases. Also a group of words that together havea particular meaning.Plural nounLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  15. 15. A plural noun is more than one person, place or thing and can be regular orirregular, e.g. boys, women.Possessive adjectiveApossessive adjectiveshows who something belongs to, e.g. my, our.Possessive pronounA possessive pronoun is used to replace a noun and shows something belongs tosomeone, e.g. the house is mine.Possessive ‘s’ and whoseWays of showing or asking who something belongs to, e.g. „Whose book is it?‟ „It‟sSue‟s‟.PrepositionA word used before a noun, pronoun or gerund to connect it to another word, e.g. Hewas in the garden.Present continuous, progressiveI am working in London now.Present continuous, progressive for futureHe is meeting John for dinner at eight tomorrow.Present perfect continuous, progressiveI have been studying for three years.Present perfect simpleI have known him for a long time.PronounA word that replaces or refers to a noun or noun phrase just mentioned.Proper nounA proper noun is the name of a person or place, e.g. Robert, London.PunctuationThe symbols or marks used to organise writing into clauses, phrasesand sentencesto make the meaning clear, e.g. full stop (.), capital letter (A), apostrophe („),comma (,), question mark (?), exclamation mark (!),‘at’ symbol (@) and speech marks (“ ”).QuantifierA word or phrase such as much, few or a lotof which is used with a noun to show anamount, e.g. I don‟t have much time; I have a lot of books.Question markA punctuation mark (?) used in writing after a question, e.g. How are you?Question tagA phrase such as isn‟t it?ordoesn‟t he?that is added to the end of a sentence tomake it a question, or to check that someone agrees with the statement just made,e.g. It‟s very cold, isn‟t it?LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  16. 16. Reflexive pronounA reflexive pronoun is used when the object of a sentence refers to the same personor thing as the subject of the sentence, e.g. He cut himself.Regular verbAregular verbchanges its forms by adding -edin the past simple and past participle,e.g. walk, walked.Relative pronounA relative pronounintroduces a relative clause, e.g. the book which I‟m reading isinteresting.Reported speech, statement, questionWhen someone‟s words are reported by another person, e.g. She said she wassorry.Reporting verbA verb such as tell, advise, suggest used in indirect, reported speech to report whatsomeone has said, e.g. Jane advised John to study harder.Singular nounA singular noun is one person, place or thing, e.g. boy, park, bicycle.Speech marksPunctuation mark (“ ”) They are written before and after a word or a sentence toshow that it is what someone said, e.g. John said “Hello, Sarah”.SubjectThis is the noun or phrase that goes before the verb to show who is doing the actionin an active sentence, e.g. Johnplays tennis every Saturday, or who the action isdone to in a passive sentence, e.g. the food was cookedyesterday.Subject-verb agreementWhen the form of the verb matches the person doing the action of the verb, e.g. Iwalk, he walks. If a learner writes, I walks, then it is wrong because there is nosubject-verb agreement.Superlative adjectiveA superlative adjectivecompares more than two things, e.g. He is the tallest boy inthe class.TenseA form of the verb that shows whether something happens in the past, present orfuture.Time expressionA word or phrase that indicates time, such as after, last weekend, e.g. I will meet youafter the lesson.TransitiveLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  17. 17. Is used to describe a verb which takes a direct object, e.g. She wrote a letter.Uncountable nounAn uncountable noun does not have a plural form, e.g. information.Used toA structure that shows something happened in the past but does not happen now,e.g. I used to live in London, but now I live in Paris.VerbA word used to show an action, state, event or process, e.g. I like cheese; Hespeaks Italian.Verb patternThe form of the words following the verb, e.g. He advised me to get there early.(advise + object pronoun + to + baseform).LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  18. 18. TKTModule1:Describinglanguage: Unit 2Lexis – Activity 1Completethepuzzlewithpartsofspeech. 1. 5. T M R P A Y E I N NO X F 2. 6. F A C U I X D P F O NM O 3. 7. O L M Y L O N NC O T SYCO A I N 4. 8. M O X F H P F US I H N EO O M. Root word, base word friend G.Homophone J.Phrasal verb Collocation Compound P.Word family F. Homonym I. Lexical set Antonym O. Synonym L. Register B. C. D. Affix A. FalseE. H. Idiom K.Prefix N.SuffixLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  19. 19. TKTModule1:Describinglanguage:Unit 2 Lexis – Activity 2a Matchthedefinitionsbelowwiththetermsforthelexicalitems in activity 2b.1. awordwhichhasthesameornearlythesamemeaningasanotherword2. ameaningfulgroupoflettersaddedtothebeginningofarootorbasewordto makeanewword,whichcanbeadifferentpartofspeechfromtheoriginalword3. awordinthetargetlanguagewhichlooksorsoundsasifit hasthesame meaningasasimilarwordinthelearners‟firstlanguage butdoesnot4. ameaningfulgroupoflettersaddedtothebeginningorendofawordtomakea newword,whichcanbeadifferentpartofspeechfromtheoriginalword5. averbwhichismadeupofmorethanoneword(e.g.averb+adverbparticleor preposition)whichhasadifferentmeaningfromeachindividualword6. awordwiththesamespellingas anotherword,butwhichhasadifferentmeaning7. agroupofwordsthatarerelatedtoeachotherbytheirrootorbaseword8. ameaningfulgroupoflettersaddedtotheendofarootorbasewordtomakea newword,whichcanbeadifferentpartofspeechfromtheoriginalword9. theoppositeofanotherword10. agroupofwordsorphrasesthatareaboutthesamecontenttopicorsubject11. nouns,verbs,adjectivesorprepositionsthataremadeupoftwoormorewords withoneunitofmeaning12. abasicwordorpartofawordfromwhichotherwordscanbemadebyaddinga prefixorsuffixorinsomeotherway13. wordswhichareregularlyusedtogether.Therelationbetweenthewordsmaybe grammaticalorlexical.14. agroupofwordsthatareusedtogether,inwhichthemeaningofthewholeword groupisdifferentfromthemeaningofeachindividualword15. awordwhichsoundsthesameasanotherword,buthasadifferentmeaningor spelling16. theformalityorinformalityofthelanguageusedinaparticularsituation LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  20. 20. TKTModule1:Describinglanguage: Unit 2Lexis – Activity2b, now match these definitions with examples from 2c Affix Antonym Collocation Compound False friend Homonym Homophone Idiom Lexicalset Phrasalverb Prefix Register Rootword, base word Suffix Synonym Word familyLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  21. 21. TKTModule1:Describinglanguage:Unit 2 Lexis – Activity 2cA. interview,interviewer;tidyuntidyB. hotis theopposite ofcoldC. whencertainverbsgowithparticularprepositions,e.g.dependon,goodatorwhen a verblikemakeordogoeswithanoun,e.g.dotheshopping,makeaplanD. assistantofficemanager, long-leggedE. InFrench„librairie‟ isaplacewherepeoplecanbuybooks.Ina libraryinEnglish,you do notbuybooksbutborrowtheminstead.F. bit(pasttenseof„bite‟)anda bit(alittle)G. Iknew hehadwon;I boughtanew bookH. Shefeltunder theweathermeansthatshefeltillI. weather– storm,torain,wind,cloudyJ. look after–Amotherlooks afterherchildrenK. appear–disappearL. Formallanguageusedinajobapplications,informallanguageusedwithfriends.M. photographistherootorbaseofphotographerandphotographicN. care–carefulO. niceissimilarinmeaningtopleasantP. economy,economist, economicTKTModule1:Describinglanguage: Unit 2Lexis–SampleTask 1LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  22. 22. ExamplesofvocabularyCategories A synonyms1 colour,color;realise,realize;theatre,theater B lexicalset2 trafficlights;alarmclock;seatbelt C collocations3 childish;successfully;dependable D word+suffix4 turnup;turnoff; turninto E prefix+word5 catcha cold;catcha bus;catcha thief F compounds6 sad;miserable;unhappy7 ankle;stomach;knee;heart G phrasalverbs H AmericanandBritishEnglishLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  23. 23. TKTModule1:Describinglanguage: Unit 2Lexis–SampleTask 2For questions 1-4, choose the correct Word(s) to complete each definition of lexicalterms, mark the correct letter (A, B or C) on your answer sheet. 1 ……….Any pair or group of words commonly found together or near one another. A. phrasal verbs B. collocations, C. chunks 2 A word with the same spelling and pronunciation as another word, but which has a different meaning, A. Homonym B. Antonym C. homophone 3 A group of words or phrases that are about the same content topic or subject, A. Lexical set B. Synonym C. Word family 4 A meaningful group of letters added to the end of a root or base word to make a new word which can be a different part of speech from the original word, A. Prefix B. Particle C. SuffixLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  24. 24. TKTModule1:Describinglanguage: Unit 2Lexis–AnswerKeys KeytoParticipant’sWorksheet1 1. antonym 2. affix 3. collocation 4. homophone 5. prefix 6. compound 7. synonym 8. suffix KeytoParticipant’sWorksheet2 1. synonym 2. prefix 3. falsefriend/(cognate) 4. affix 5. phrasalverb 6. homonym 7. wordfamily 8. suffix 9. antonym10.lexicalset11.compound12.rootword,baseword13.collocation14.idiom15.homophone16.registerKeytoSampleTask 11.H 2.F 3.D 4.G 5.C 6.A 7.BKeytoSampleTask 11.B 2.A 3.A 4.CLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  25. 25. TKT UNIT 2 LEXIS; GLOSSARY,Taken from www.cambridgeesol.orgAffix verb, affixation nounA meaningful group of letters added to the beginning or end of a word tomake a new word, which can be a different part of speech from theoriginal word, e.g. interview, interviewer. Affixation is the process ofadding a prefix or suffix to a word.AntonymThe opposite of another word, e.g. hot is an antonym of cold.Base word:see root word.ChunkAny pair or group of words commonly found together or near oneanother, e.g. phrasal verbs, idioms, collocations, fixed expressions.CollocationWords which are regularly used together. The relation between thewords may be grammatical, e.g when certain verbs collocate withparticular prepositions, e.g. depend on, good at or when a verb likemake or do collocates with a noun, e.g. do the shopping, make a plan.Collocations may also be lexical when two content words are regularlyused together, e.g. We went the wrong way NOT We went the incorrectwayCompoundNouns, verbs, adjectives or prepositions that are made up of two ormore words and have one unit of meaning, e.g. assistant officemanager, long-legged.False friendA word in the target language which looks or sounds as if it has thesame meaning as a similar word in the learners‟ first language but doesnot, e.g. In French „librairie‟ is a place where people can buy books. In alibrary in English, you do not buy books but borrow them instead.HomonymA word with the same spelling and pronunciation as another word, butwhich has a different meaning, e.g. bit (past tense of „bite‟) and a bit (alittle).HomophoneLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  26. 26. A word which sounds the same as another word, but has a differentmeaning or spelling, e.g. I knew he had won; I bought a new book.Idiom noun, idiomatic adjectiveA group of words that are used together, in which the meaning of thewhole word group is different from the meaning of each individual word,e.g. She felt under the weather means that she felt ill.Lexical setA group of words or phrases that are about the same content topic orsubject, e.g. weather – storm, to rain, wind, cloudy.Lexis, vocabularyIndividual words or sets of words, e.g. homework, study, whiteboard, getdressed, be on time.Part of speechA way of categorising words according to their grammatical function andmeaning, e.g. noun, verb, adjective, pronoun, adverb, preposition,conjunction.Phrasal verb, multi-word verb/unitA verb/any part of speech which is made up of more than one word (e.g.a verb + adverb particle or preposition) which has a different meaningfrom each individual word, e.g. look after – A mother looks after herchildren.PrefixA prefix is a meaningful group of letters added to the beginning of aroot/base word to make a new word which can be a different part ofspeech from the original word, e.g. appear – disappear.Root word, base wordThe basic word or part of a word from which other words can be madeby adding a prefix or suffix, e.g. photograph is the root or base word ofphotographer and photographic.SuffixA suffix is a meaningful group of letters added to the end of a root orbase word to make a new word which can be a different part of speechfrom the original word, e.g. care – careful.SynonymLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  27. 27. A word which has the same or nearly the same meaning as anotherword, e.g. nice is a synonym of pleasant.Word familyA group of words that come from the same root or base word, e.g.economy, economist, economic or by topicLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  28. 28. TKT Module 1: Describing language: Unit 3Phonology – Participant‟sActivity 1Phonemic ChartMatch the symbols you have been given with the underlined letters in the words inthetable.LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  32. 32. For questions 7 - 10 choose the correct Word(s) to complete each definition ofphonology, mark the correct letter (A, B or C) on your answer sheet. 7. Two words which are different from each other by only one meaningful sound are. A. Minimal pairs B. Homophones C. Consonants 8. In the sentence “She gave the ring to John” it can be implied that. A. She only gave the ring to John B. John was the person she gave the ring to. C. She could have given the ring to somebody else. 9. The way the level of a speaker‟s voice changes, to show meaning such as how they feel about something is. A. Linking B. Stress C. Intonation 10. Words that sound similar because they have the same ending. A. Rhyme B. Rhythm C. ContractionFor questions 11-15, match the minimal pairs with the phonemic symbols listed A-F.mark the correct letter (A-F) on your answer sheet.There is one extra option which you do not need to use.11. darling/dialling A. /12. cart/cut B. /13. tile/toil C. /14. pull/bull D. /15. worse/worth E. / F. /LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  34. 34. 7. A 8. B 9.C 10.A 11.E 12. C 13.B 14.D 15.ATKT UNIT 3 PHONOLOGY; GLOSSARY,Taken from www.cambridgeesol.orgLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  37. 37. TKT Module 1: Describing language: Unit 4 Functions 1. Find ten functions in this word puzzleLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  38. 38. TKT Module 1: Describing language: Unit 4 Functions 2. Read this functions list then match them to the exponents on the nextpage Are they formal (F), informal (I), or neutral (N)? write down on in front of the exponent Asking for an opinion Introducing yourself Introducing someone else Clarifying Praising Requesting Advising Agreeing Inviting Thanking Refusing Suggesting Complaining GreetingLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  39. 39. 1. Thanks a lot2. Do you think you could possibly open the window?3. Come round to my house for a bite to eat?4. Can you open the window, please?5. No way! I‟m not doing that.6. I agreewiththat.7. Hello, I‟mJosephine.8. I‟m sorry but I‟m afraid I can‟t.9. Would you like to come to dinner?10. I don‟t believe we‟ve met. Myname‟s James Sanders.11. Open the window, will you?12. Mr and Mrs Smith request the pleasure of your company for dinner.13. Yeah. You‟rerightthere.14. Thank you very much indeed.LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  40. 40. TKT Module 1: Describing language: Functions –Sample TaskExercise 3For questions 1–7 match the example sentences with the functionslisted A–H. Mark the correct letter (A–H) on your answer sheet.There is one extra option which you do not need to use. Examplesentences Functions A describingability1 Let‟s go to that new restaurant. B describingpossibilit2 They might win – you never know in cup y matches! C askingforpermissio3 Watchout! That‟sdangerous. n4 My son can speak three languages fluently. D requesting5 Is it OK if I open the window? E askingforadvice6 Shall I show you how the camera works? F suggesting7 Could you pass me my bag? G offering H warningLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  41. 41. Key to Participant’s exercise 1 1. words from the puzzle. Praising, requesting, advising, agreeing, inviting , thanking, refusing, suggesting, apologizing, greeting.Key toParticipant’sexercise 2 1. thanking neutral 2. requesting formal 3. inviting informal 4. requesting neutral 5. refusing informal 6. agreeing neutral 7. introducingyourself neutral 8. refusing formal 9. inviting neutral 10. introducingyourself formal 11. requesting informal 12. inviting formal 13. agreeing informal 14. thanking formalKey toSampleTask1 F 2 B 3 H 4 A5 C 6 G 7 DLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  42. 42. FUNCTIONS GLOSSARYTaken from www.cambridgeesol.orgCandidates should already be familiar with common functions such as asking, telling, replying, thankingand suggesting.Appropriacynoun, appropriate/inappropriate adjectiveLanguage which is suitable in a particular situation. See register.ColloquialLanguage normally used in informal conversation but not in formal speech or writing, e.g. Give Gran a ring, OK?Decline, refuse an invitationTo say that you will not accept an invitation, e.g. I‟m sorry but I can‟t.EnquireTo ask for information, e.g. What time does the train leave?ExpressTo show or make known a feeling or an opinion in words. Express ability, e.g.Icanswim. Express intention, e.g.I‟m planning tovisit him next year. Express necessity, e.g.Heneedsto get a new passport. Express obligation, e.g.Youmustwear a seatbelt.______________________________________________________________________________________________LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  43. 43. Express permission, e.g.Youcanhave a look at my book. Express preference, e.g.I‟d ratherhave coffee than tea. Express probability, e.g.Heshould bein later. Express prohibition, e.g.Youmustn‟tuse your mobile phone while driving.Formal languageLanguage used in formal conversations or writing, e.g. Yours faithfully. See register.Formality (level of): see register.FunctionThe reason or purpose for communication, e.g. making a suggestion; giving advice.Functional exponentA phrase which is an example of a function and shows the purpose of what the speaker iscommunicating, e.g. Let‟s ... This phrase is one way to make a suggestion. It is an example (orexponent) of the function of suggesting. See function.GreetTo welcome someone, often with words, e.g. Hello, how are you?InappropriateLanguage which is not suitable in a particular situation. See appropriacy.Informal languageLanguage used in informal conversations or writing, e.g. Hi John. See register.Informality (level of): see register.InstructTo order or tell someone to do something, e.g. Please turn to page 12 and do exercise 1.NegotiateTo discuss with someone to reach an agreement, e.g. If you help me now, I‟ll help you next week.NeutralA style of speaking or writing that is neither formal nor informal, but in between. It is appropriate for mostsituations. See formal language, informal language.PredictTo guess or say what you think may happen, e.g. I think the story will end happily.RegisterThe formality or informality of the language used in a particular situation. Formal register or language isused in serious or important situations, e.g. in a job application. Informal register or language is used inrelaxed or friendly situations, e.g. with family or friends.Request, make a (polite) requestTo ask someone politely to do something, e.g. Please could you open the window?SpeculateTo guess something based on information you have, e.g. I think it might be an easy test.LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  44. 44. TKT Module 1: Units 5-8 Describing language skills andsubskills – Exercise 1, express your opinion.Teachers can help students read a text by reading it aloud while they followin their books.There are no major differences between how we read in our mother tongue andhow we read in a foreign language.To understand a reading text, you have to read and understand every word in it.When doing listening comprehension in class, I prefer to read the transcript tostudents rather than use a recording. This way I can speak slowly andpronounce words carefully.I always give the students a copy of the transcript I‟m going to read so they canfollow it while I‟m reading.I never use passages for listening comprehension which have unknown words.Writing is more or less the same as speaking. I don‟t think there are anyparticular things to teach students.I always give my students a model or example text to copy from when weare doing writing in class.Writing lessons are boring – just sitting and watching students write is notinteresting.Doing a speaking lesson is easy. You don‟t even have to prepare!I don‟t think there is much value in doing speaking activities in class. Studentscan talk to each other in breaks or at lunchtime.Students don‟t like talking to other students because their English isn‟t verygood. They prefer talking to the teacher.TKT Module 1: Units 5-8 Describing language skills andLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  45. 45. subskills, match the following definitions to the wordlistLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  46. 46. TKT Module 1: Units 5-8 Describing language skills andsubskills, WORD LISTeditingparaphrasingnote-takingintensive listening/readinglistening/reading for gist/global understandingusing interactive strategiesdeducing meaning from contextskimmingpredictingscanningsummarisinglistening/reading for detailinferring attitude/feeling/moodproofreadingLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  47. 47. TKT Module 1: Units 5-8 Describing language skills andsubskillsWhich of the subskills are connected to each of the main skills (reading, listening,speaking, writing) in the table below? Some of the subskills may be connected tomore than one main skill.Main skill SubskillReadingListeningSpeakingWritingLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  48. 48. TKT Module 1: Unit 5 Describing language skills and subskills –Sample TaskFor questions 1–5, look at the following terms for language skills and threepossible descriptions of the terms.Choose the correct option A, B or CMark the correct term (A, B or C) on your answer sheet.1 Summarising isA explaining a text in detail.B writing the last sentence of a text.C giving the main points of a text.2 Oral fluency isA speaking without making any mistakes.B speaking naturally without hesitating too much.C speaking without considering the listener.3 Paraphrasing isA using phrases to say something instead of using complete sentences.B connecting sentences together in speech or writing by using conjunctions.C finding another way to say something when you cannot think of the rightlanguage.4 Scanning isA reading a text quickly to get the general idea.B reading a text quickly to find specific information.C reading a text quickly to identify the writer‟s attitude.5 Oral fluency isA speaking without making any mistakes.B speaking naturally without hesitating too much.C speaking without considering the listener.LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  49. 49. TKT Module 1: Units 5- 8 Describing language skills – Answers 1. Listening/reading for detail 2. Deducing meaning from context 3. Note-taking 4. Skimming 5. Proofreading 6. Intensivelistening/reading 7. Editing 8. Listening/reading for gist, global understanding 9. Inferringattitude, feeling, mood 10. Predicting 11. Scanning 12. Usinginteractivestrategies 13. Summarising 14. ParaphrasingMain skill Subskill Listening/readingfordetail Listening/reading for gist, global Deducingmeaning from context understanding Note-taking Inferringattitude, feeling, moodReading Skimming Predicting Proofreading Scanning Editing Listening/readingfordetail Deducingmeaning from context Intensivelistening/readingListening Listening/reading for gist, global understanding Inferringattitude, feeling, mood Predicting Inferringattitude, feeling, mood UsinginteractivestrategiesSpeaking Summarising Paraphrasing Proofreading EditingWriting Summarising ParaphrasingKey to sample task1.C 2.A 3.B 4.C 5.BLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  50. 50. Concepts and terminology for describing language skillsGLOSSARYTaken from www.cambridgeesol.orgAbstractRelating to complex thoughts and ideas rather than simple, basic, concrete concepts. A text orlanguage can be abstract, e.g. words to express thoughts or feelings are often abstract words.Seeconcrete.AccuracyThe use of correct forms of grammar, vocabulary, spelling and pronunciation. In an accuracy activity,teachers and learners typically focus on using and producing language, spelling correctly. See oralfluency.Authenticity: see authentic material.Coherence noun, coherent adjectiveWhen ideas in a spoken or written text fit together clearly and smoothly, and so are logical and makesense to the listener or reader.Cohesion noun, cohesive adjectiveThe way spoken or written texts are joined together with logical grammar or lexis, e.g. conjunctions (Firstly,secondly), lexical sets, referring words (it, them, this).Cohesive deviceA feature in a text which provides cohesion, e.g. use of topic-related vocabulary throughout a text, ofsequencing words (then, next, after that etc.), of referencing words (pronouns – he, him, etc.), ofconjunctions (however, although etc.).Coherence noun, coherent adjectiveWhen ideas in a spoken or written text fit together clearly and smoothly, and so are logical and makesense to the listener or reader.ComplexComplicated, not simple.ComprehensionUnderstanding a spoken or written text.ConcreteRelating to real or specific ideas or concepts. Lexis can be concrete, e.g. words for real objects likeclothes, food, animals that can be seen or touched, or abstract, e.g. words to express thoughts, feelings,complex ideas, which cannot be seen or touched.Context1. The situation in which language is used or presented, e.g. a story about a holiday experience could be used as the context to present past tenses.2. The words or phrases before or after a word in discourse which help someone to understand that word. Seededuce meaning from context.DiscourseSpoken or written language in texts or groups of sentences.Deduce meaning from contextTo guess the meaning of an unknown word by using the information in a situation and/or around the word to help,e.g.I drove my van to the town centre and parked it in the central car park. Van must be some kind of vehiclebecauseyou drive it and park it.Develop skillsTo help learners to improve their listening, reading, writing and speaking ability. Teachers do this inclass by providing activities which focus on skills development.LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  51. 51. Draft noun + verbA draft is a piece of writing that is not yet finished, and may be changed. A writer drafts a piece of writing.That is, they write it for the first time but not exactly as it will be when it is finished. See re-draft.EditTo shorten or change or correct the words or content of some parts of a written text to make it clearer oreasier to understand.Extensive listening/readingListening to or reading long pieces of text, such as stories or newspapers. See intensive listening/reading.ExtractPart of a text which is removed from an original text.Fossilisation,fossilised errorsThe process in which incorrect language becomes a habit and cannot easily be corrected.Gist, global listening/reading: see listen/read for gist/global understanding.Infer attitude, feeling,moodTo decide how a writer or speaker feels about something from the way that they speak or write, rather thanfrom what they openly say.Integrated skillsAn integrated skills lesson combines work on reading, writing, listening and speaking.Intensive listening/readingOne meaning of intensive listening/reading is reading or listening to focus on how language is used in atext. This is how intensive listening/reading is used in TKT. See extensive listening/reading.Interaction noun, interact verb, interactive strategiesInteraction is „two-way communication‟ between listener and speaker, or reader and text. Interactivestrategies are the means used, especially in speaking, to keep people involved and interested in what issaid or to keep communication going, e.g. eye contact, use of gestures, functions such as repeating,asking for clarification.Key wordA word in a piece of discourse or text, which is important for understanding the text.LayoutThe way in which a text is organised and presented on a page. Certain texts have special layouts, e.g.letters and newspaper articles.Listen/read for detailTo listen to or read a text in order to understand most of what it says or particular details.Listen/read for gist, global understandingTo understand the general meaning of a text, without paying attention to specific details.Listen/read for moodTo read or listen to a text in order to identify the feelings of the writer or speaker. See infer attitude, feeling,mood.Note-taking noun, take notes verbTo take notes means to listen and write down ideas from the text in short form.Oral fluencyThe use of connected speech at a natural speed with little hesitation, repetition or self-correction. In awritten or spoken fluency activity, learners typically give attention to the communication of meaning,rather than trying to be correct. See accuracy.Paragraph noun + verbA paragraph is a section in a longer piece of writing such as an essay. It starts on a new line and usuallycontains a single new idea. When a writer is paragraphing, he/she is creating paragraphs. See topicsentence.LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  52. 52. Paraphrase noun + verbTo say or write something that has been read or heard using different words. Paraphrase can also be usedto describe what a learner does if he/she is not sure of the exact language they need to use, i.e. explaintheir meaning using different language.Prediction noun, predict verbA technique or learner strategy learners can use to help with listening or reading. Learners think about thetopic before they read or listen. They try to imagine what the topic will be or what they are going to readabout or listen to, using clues like headlines or pictures accompanying the text or their general knowledgeabout the text type or topic. This makes it easier for them to understand what they read or hear.Process noun + verbTo actively think about new information in order to understand it completely and be able to use it in future.ProcesswritingAn approach to writing, which thinks of writing as a process which includes different stages of writingsuch as planning, drafting, re-drafting, editing, proofreading. See product writing, guided writing.Product writingAn approach to writing which involves analysing and then reproducing models of particular text types. Seeprocesswriting.Productive skillsWhen learners produce language. Speaking and writing are productive skills. See receptive skills.ProofreadTo read a text in order to check whether there are any mistakes in spelling, grammar, punctuation etc.Re-draftWhen a piece of writing is changed with the intention of improving it. A writer‟s first draft may bere-drafted. See draft.Receptive skillsWhen learners do not have to produce language; listening and reading are receptive skills. See productiveskills.Relevance noun, relevant adjectiveThe degree to which something is related to or useful in a situation.ScanTo read a text quickly to pick out specific information, e.g. finding a phone number in a phone book.SkillThe four language skills are listening, speaking, reading and writing.SkimTo read a text quickly to get a general idea of what it is about.SubskillEach of the four language skills can be divided into smaller subskills that are all part of the main skill, e.g.identifying text organisation (reading); identifying word stress (listening). See listen/read for gist, globalunderstanding, scan, listen/read for detail.Summary noun,summariseverbTo take out the main points of a long text, and rewrite or retell them in a short, clear way.Text structureThe way a text is organised. For example, an essay typically has an introduction, a main section and aconclusion.Text typeTexts that have specific features, e.g. layout, use of language, that make them part of a recognisabletype of text, e.g. letters, emails, news reports.LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  53. 53. Theme noun, thematic adjectiveThe main subject of a conversation, a text or a lesson.TopicThe subject of a text or lesson.Topic sentenceA sentence that gives the main point or subject of a paragraph. This is usually the opening sentence in aparagraph.Turn, turn-takingWhen someone speaks in a conversation this is called a turn. Speaking and then allowing another person tospeak in reply is called „turn-taking‟.VersionA particular form of something in which some details are different from an earlier or later form of it, e.g. awritten text may have different versions.LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  54. 54. TKT Module 1:Unit 9: Motivation – Participant’s Worksheet 1Put the teacher characteristics in order (1–6) of how important you think thesecharacteristics are to be an effective teacher.The teacher knows English grammar well.The teacher speaks clearly.The teacher is friendly.The teacher is well-organised.The teacher can speak a foreign language.The teacher knows her students wellExercise 1Compare these ideas with your ‘top tips’ for teachers to maintain motivation instudents.1.Give students something to work towards. Have goals for yourself and encouragestudents to have goals of their own.2.Be enthusiastic in lessons and enthusiastic about the material you are using. „Sell it‟to thestudents.3.Make sure your material is well presented and attractive for learners.4.Give clear instructions for tasks so that students can achieve your aims.5.Provide a good variety of activities in your lessons.6.Provide a variety of interaction patterns in lessons.7.Find out about your students‟ interests so that you can provide material on topics that thestudents are interested in.8.Encourage students to relax in lessons and encourage them to talk to each other and tohelp each other.9.Praise all students when they have done something well, especially weaker learners, tobuild self-confidence.10. Encourage students to continue studying outside the classroom.Exercise2Matcheachoftheactivitiesbelowwiththe‘toptip’ abovethatitwouldputin actionLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  55. 55. A. Demonstrate tasks so that students know what to do. Check understanding of instructions.B. If students arrive early for class, encourage them to chat to amongst themselves. C. Try todo different activities in a lesson, e.g. speaking and reading rather than justreading.D. Start your lessons with a warmer to raise energy levels.E. Set up a research project. Get learners to look things up on the internet.F. Provide a questionnaire with topics so that students can choose which ones they like best.G.When monitoring a speaking or writing task, select some examples of good English to put onthe board at the end for everyone to share. .H. Use pictures on handouts and vary the font size, layout, etc.I. Tell students what you intend to achieve by the end of the course and find out what they wantto achieve.J. Do pair work and group work and change students around so they can work with differentpeople.LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  56. 56. TKT Module 1: Unit 9: Motivation – Sample TaskFor Questions 1–6, match the general advice on motivation with the techniques for encouragingmotivation listed A, B, C or D.Mark the correct letter (A, B, C or D) on your answer sheet. You need to use some optionsmore than onceLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  57. 57. Key to Participant‟s Worksheet 21 I 2 D 3 H 4 A 5 C6 J 7 F 8 B 9 G 10 EKey to Sample Task1. B 2. A 3.C 4.D 5. C 6DLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  58. 58. TKT Module 1:Unit 10: Exposure to language and focus on formRead the text quickly and answer these questions:• What theory of language learning is discussed in the text?• Does the theory avoid the teaching of grammar completely?Second language learningIf you look in a dictionary to find the meaning of the word „acquisition‟, you will find it defined assomething like „the process of learning skills or getting knowledge‟. So what then is „languageacquisition‟ and how is language acquisition different to „language learning‟?Some theorists believe that there is a difference between learning and acquisition and that thedifference is this: language learning is a conscious or intentional process which may involvestudying the language, paying attention to grammar rules and possibly following a course ofinstruction. Language acquisition, on the other hand, is considered to be a natural process andinvolves „picking up‟ language in a non-conscious way through exposure to language, not bystudying it.Children „acquire‟ their first language and get to know its rules through exposure and by beingexposed to examples of the language and by using it. This is part of the theory of „firstlanguage acquisition‟.„Second language acquisition‟ is the process, and the study of the process, by which peoplelearn a language that is not their native language. This is a fairly new field of study and thereare still many questions to answer about how languages are learnt. However, teachers andtheorists believe that we do learn a second language by „acquiring‟ or „picking up‟ language, butthere are some important considerations for second language learners.Second language learners acquire language through exposure to many different examplesof the language, by reading it and by hearing it in their environment. We listen and read anddevelop an understanding of language over a period of time before we eventually use itourselves. The period, when learners are taking in language, processing it and perhaps silentlypracticing it, is known as the „silent period‟ and is thought to be an important stage in languageacquisition.Once we use the language, it is important that there is an opportunity for interaction so we canuse the language, to experiment, to make the language work in communication.The final consideration is the need for a focus on form. Second language learners need tofocus on the language, to analyse and identify it and practise it. Teachers and learners will alsowant to look at correcting mistakes so that learners can think about rules, and exceptions torules.LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  59. 59. Exercise 1: Read the text again and answer the following questions. 1.What is „acquisition‟? 2.In some people‟s opinion, how is language acquisition different to language learning? 3.How do children learn their first language? 4.What is second language acquisition? 5.What are the three considerations mentioned regarding second language acquisition? 6.What is „exposure‟? 7.What is the „silent period‟? 8.Why is „interaction‟ important? 9.What is „focus on form‟? Exercise 2: Look at the activities and decide if they are related to (A) acquisition, (I) interaction, or (F) focus on form. Write A, I or F in the column on the right.Activity A/I/F1. Students read a newspaper and choose one article to study in detail.2. Students read a newspaper article and circle all the examples of reported speech3. Students repeat model sentences in an open class drill.4. Students tell each other in groups about different festivals in their countries.5. Students read each others‟ essays and suggest improvements.6. Students listen to a recording of a job interview. LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  60. 60. TKT Module 1:Unit 10: Exposure to language and focus on form – SampleTaskFor Questions 1–5, match the teacher strategies with the aspects of learning listed A, B orC.Mark the correct letter (A, B or C) on your answer sheet. You need to use some options morethan once Techniques A Focus on form B Silent period C ExposureTeacher strategies 1 I know some of the students won‟t want to speak straightaway, so I‟ll leave themto just work things out. 2 I‟m going to set my students a project where they have to use the internet and dosome research into different aspects of the topic beforehand. 3 This exercise will encourage the learners to look at the language in the text and tothink about why and when it is used. 4 I know the texts have a lot of unknown grammar and lexis, but I think I‟ll use a lotmore authentic material in my lessons so that my students don‟t have to rely on the coursebookalone.5 I‟ve built in some time for correction on the board with the whole class at the end of thelesson, so that I can pick up and deal with mistakes that I‟ve heard during the class.TKT Module 1: Unit 11: The role of errorLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  61. 61. Exercise 1, The following are all errors commonly made by students. Look at thesentences/questions and correct them. Then discuss possible reasons that these errorsare frequently made by students.1. I have a good news for you.2. He has not yet gone to the bed.3. He came by the 4:30 oclock train.4. I have a strong headache.5. Tell me why did you go there?6. Does he needs a ticket for the bus?Exercise 2.Look at these examples of student errors. Decide what the error is in eachsentence, and discuss why you think the error is being made. You should use the termsin the box.false friend L1 interference interlanguage overgeneralisation1. She liːvz in London in a small flat.2. He throwed the ball over the fence.3. I have seen that film yesterday.4. She told me a fantastic history about her last holiday.5. Where do you come from? I’m coming from Sweden.6. You should better can to go now.Exercise 31. What‟s an error?2. What‟s a slip?3. Why do people think it is important for students to make mistakes?4. What can teachers learn from students‟ mistakes?5. What is the teachers‟ role in relation to students‟ mistakes?LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  62. 62. Exercise 4Why do students make mistakes? Choose the correct term in the box below for thefollowing descriptions.1. When the learner‟s mother tongue affects their performance in the target language.A learner may make a mistake because they use the same grammatical pattern in thetarget language as they use in their mother tongue. The L1 grammatical pattern is notappropriate in L2.2. The process in which incorrect language becomes a habit and cannot easily becorrected.3. An error made by a second language learner which is natural part of the languagelearning process because they are unconsciously organising and working outlanguage. These types of error are also made by children learning their first languageand often disappear as their language ability improves.4. When a student uses a grammatical rule he/she has learned, but uses it insituations when it is not needed or appropriate, e.g. a student says There were threegirls (correct plural form used for most nouns) and two mans. (incorrect plural form –not appropriate for man).5. The learners own version of the second language which they speak as they learn.They create their own grammatical system as they are learning, which is neither theirfirst language nor the target language but something in between the two. This versionof their language changes as they progress and learn more.6. A word in the target language which looks or sounds as if it has the same meaningas a similar word in the learners‟ first language but does not, e.g. in French „librairie‟ isa place where people can buy books. In a library in English, you do not buy books butborrow them instead.A. false friend B. interlanguage C. L1 interferenceD. overgeneralisation E.fossilisation F. developmental errorLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  63. 63. TKT Module 1: Unit 11: The role of error – Sample TaskFor questions 1–6, match the teachers‟ comments about errors with the type of mistake listedA, B or C.Mark the correct letter (A, B or C) on your answer sheet. You need to use some options morethan once Type of Error A slip B L1 interference C errorTeacher’s comments 1 We haven‟t covered the past simple yet so when I asked about their weekend mystudents said things like „I go to the park‟, „I am very busy with my friends‟. 2 I‟m trying to get my learners to see the difference between the subjunctive inEnglish and in their own language so that they will use it accurately in English. 3 My students were really tired by the end of the afternoon so I didn‟t do very muchcorrection. I knew that they would know how to say the sentences correctly; they were justtired. 4 We‟ve been doing a lot of practice saying /θ/ and /ð/. My learners keep saying/z/, I think it‟s because they don‟t have those sounds in their own language so theyjust use the sound they do have. 5 While doing an individual drill teaching „going to‟, one of the students said „I goingto buy some fruit‟. I repeated „I going‟ with rising intonation and he said I‟m going‟.LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  64. 64. KEY TO EXERCISESEXERCISE 1.Sentence with correction Possible reason for error1. I have a good news for you. Difficult for students to recognize countable and uncountable nouns and to know if they should use the indefinite article.2. He hasn‟t yet gone to bed. Go home, go to bed, go to school don‟t use definite article.3. He came by the 4:30 oclock We only use „o‟clock when the time is on the hourtrain. e.g. 10.00.4. I have a strong bad/terrible Strong does not collocate with headache.headache.5. Tell me why did you go went Indirect questions have sentence formation andthere. sentence grammar, not question formation/grammar, so no auxiliary and no inversion is needed.6. Does he needs a ticket for Present simple question uses auxiliary does, whichthe bus? is followed by the base form, so no s for third person.EXERCISE 2.1. L1 interference and problems with /ɪ / and /iː/.2. Overgeneralisation of ed endings. This is an irregular verb and does fit in to the rule for pasttense endings.3. L1 interference – this tense can be used with a specific past time in other languages.OR Overgeneralisation: learner doesn‟t know the limitations of present perfect which can‟t beused with a specific past time.4. False friend (history = story)5. Overgeneralisation: learner doesn‟t know the limitations of present continuous which is notused to for stating facts about yourself.6. Interlanguage: the learner has made up this grammatical structure, which is neither his ownlanguage nor the target language.LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  65. 65. EXERCISE 31. An error is a mistake a learner makes when trying to say something that is above their levelof language. They would not be able to self correct an error.2. A slip is a mistake a learner makes that they are able to correct themselves.3. Errors are considered to be important because they are an important and necessary part oflanguage learning, learners need to experiment with language in order to work out howlanguage works.4. Teachers can learn what learners know, what they need to be taught and they can find outwhat aspects of language they have processed. This enables teachers to adapt their teachingprogramme.5. The teachers‟ role in relation to students‟ mistakes is deciding if, when and how to correct.EXERCISE 41 C 2 E 3 F 4 D 5 B 6 AKey to Sample Task1 C 2 B 3 A 4 B 5 ALIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  66. 66. TKT Module 1: Unit 12: Differences between L1 and L2 learningDiscuss the following questions with a partner or colleague, try answering themyourself.ːWhere and when did you start learning your second language?ːWhat do you think is the best age to start learning a second language?ːWhy do you think is this the best age to start learning a second language?ːWhat do you think are some differences between learning your first language and learning asecond language?ːWhat do you think are some of the difficulties in learning a second language? Are these thesame as the difficulties children have when learning a first language?Exercise 1 – Text 1Read the text and decide on an appropriate title for it.We learn our first language as a baby and as a young child and continue to build our languageas we grow older and learn different kinds of language and language skills.Babies and children are surrounded by their first language. They hear and see their families,friends and strangers talking and interacting with each other and friends and family interact withthem. Children are constantly provided with opportunities to use the language and toexperiment with the language as they are learning it and they receive constant praise andencouragement for their efforts. Parents encourage and persuade their children to talk bysimplifying their own language and directing simple questions and requesting simpleresponses. When children‟s language is inaccurate, adults very rarely correct them or makethem repeat accurate forms and they will, more often than not, respond to the utterance in anatural way.Babies and children learn language by „acquiring‟ it through exposure and by picking it up. Theyare generally highly motivated to learn their first language because they have a great need anddesire to communicate with others around them. They hear and see friends and familycommunicating with each other and they will listen and take in this language and process itduring a „silent period‟, possibly lasting many months, before using language themselves.When children start using language the language they use will be about things they see aroundthem and they will play and experiment with new language. They learn through thisexperimentation and through interaction with family and friends.Exercise 2 – Text 2LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  67. 67. Read the text and decide on an appropriate title for it.Most people learn their second language at school in a classroom. Some start at primaryschool or secondary school and their learning might continue in later life. Some people beginsecond language learning as adults and attend lessons along with the other things they do intheir lives.Second language learners do not usually hear or read more than three or four hours a week ofthe second language, so they do not have much exposure to the language. The exposure theydo get is generally in the classroom, where they will hear recordings and read texts and willhave the teacher to listen to. Teachers often simplify their language so are not necessarily asource of additional exposure to language and they usually correct studentsfrequently. In class,the opportunities for second language learners to use the language vary, as does the amountof praise and encouragement provided by the teacher and other learners.Second language learners, like L1 learners, do learn language by „acquiring‟ it throughexposure but they are more likely to learn language in a classroom and the language they learnis selected by teachers. They learn by interacting with the teacher and with other learners andby using language in controlled practice activities. In the classroom, learners often want toproduce the language as soon as possible and do not always welcome the opportunity of asilent period. They use language for talking about experiences and things relating to their livesoutside the classroom. Learning is often dependent on motivation and this can vary in secondlanguage learners, from learners having little or no motivation to learners being very highlymotivated.LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  68. 68. 1. Complete the appropriate column in the table with information from texts 1 and 2 Group A Group B First Language (L1) learning Second Language (L2) LearningAgeContextExposurePraiseCorrectionSimplifiedlanguageWay oflearningMotivationSilentperiodLanguageused forLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  69. 69. TKT Module 1: Unit 12: Differences between L1 and L2 learning – SampleTask 1For Questions 1–6, match the aspects of learning with the type of learner listed A, B or C.Mark the correct letter (A, B or C) on your answer sheet. You need to use some options morethan once. Type of learner A L1 learner B L2 adult learner C Both L1 and L2 adult learnerAspect of learning These learners seem to respond to praise and encouragement and it helps them to 1develop their language and skills. These learners don‟t need to be constantly corrected. They need to experiment 2and to play with language. These learners will listen and process language and will not speak at all, 3sometimes for many months, before beginning to use language. 4These learners are able to share experiences and talk about the things they see around them and about experiences in their lives. 5These learners need some controlled practice and a focus on form.Key to Participant’s worksheet 4LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  70. 70. Group A Group B First language (L1) learning Second language (L2) learningAge Baby, young child Primary, secondary, adultsContext At home Mostly at school in a classroom Three or four hours a week, recordings,Exposure Surrounded all the time texts, the teacher and other students Constant praise andPraise encouragement Varied, depending on the teacherCorrection Rarely Frequently by the teacherSimplifiedlanguage Yes, from parents Yes Acquiring some through language exposureWay of Acquiring language through Interacting with the teacher and otherlearning exposure learners Doing controlled practice activities.Motivation Highly motivated Varies – none, a little, a lotSilentperiod Yes, sometimes for many months Often notLanguage Talking about things they see Talking about experiences and thingsused for around them related to lives outside the classroomKey to Sample task1 C 2 C 3 A 4 B 5 BLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  71. 71. TKT Module 1:Unit 13: Learner characteristicsExercise 1,Complete the puzzle with learning styles using the clues below.Across3. A learner who finds it easier to learn when they can see things written down or in a picture.This type of learner may like the teacher to write a new word on the board and not just say italoud.Down1. A learner who remembers things more easily when they hear them spoken. This type oflearner may like the teacher to say a new word aloud and not just write it on the board.2. A learner who learns more easily by doing things physically. This type of learner may like tomove around or move objects while learning.LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  72. 72. VAK Learning Style Questionnaire Exercise 2, What is your preferred Learning Style? What kind of learner are you?LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  73. 73. Check your answers. If your answers are mostly A, you are an Auditory Learner. If youranswers are mostly V, you are a Visual Learner. If your answers are mostly K, you are aKinaesthetic Learner.Exercise 3, for what kind of learner would the following strategies be useful?1. The teacher creates a substitution table with the target language on the board.2. The teacher contextualises target language by telling the students a story.3. The teacher asks learners to come to the board and to write their answer to a task.4. The teacher says the new words she is teaching three times before asking the students torepeat them.5. The teacher does a mingling activity, where learners walk around asking questions to findout information from each other.6. The teacher shows learners a picture of the object she is trying to elicit.Exercise 4What learning strategies could learners use to help them improve in the following areas?1. dealing with words in texts and recordings that you don‟t know2. remembering new vocabulary3. learning new grammar4. improving pronunciation5. developing oral fluency6. developing comprehension skills7. becoming more independentLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  74. 74. Exercise 5,Match the learner strategies below with the areas for improvement onParticipant’s worksheet 4 Exercise 2.A.Reading more authentic material (magazines and newspapers etc.) outside class, listening toEnglish radio/TV programmes outside class, asking people to repeat what they have said whenyou don‟t‟ understand.B.Learning the sounds and symbols in the phonemic chart, asking teachers and other studentsto correct your pronunciation, recording your self and listening for pronunciation errors.C.Using the internet to research language and vocabulary, using English-English dictionaries toresearch vocabulary, choosing an area of language or vocabulary to revise/learn and usingresources to self studyD.Saying new words in your head over and over again, writing new words down in your notebook, writing new words down with a translation in your own language next to them, writingwords down on separate cards and storing them in a box.E.Guessing the meaning from context, looking words up in the dictionary, writing words down toask someone about later.F.Speaking English only in class, speaking English whenever possible outside class, practisespeaking for one minute on a topic without hesitating.G.Practising the language as soon as you‟ve learnt it, repeating different examples of thelanguage, writing down the different grammatical components of the language, cutting up thedifferent components and arranging them in the correct order.LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  75. 75. TKT Module 1:Unit 13: Learner characteristics – Sample TaskFor questions 1–7 match the learners‟ comments to the descriptions of learner preferenceslisted A–H.There is one extra option which you do not need to useComments 1 „Most of the time should be spent doing grammar exercises.‟ 2 „I prefer working with other students to speaking to the teacher in front of the class.‟ 3 „I really like knowing how language works.‟ 4 „Rules just confuse me – it‟s better to work out language from examples.‟ 5 „Why should I listen to other students‟ mistakes? The teacher should talk most of the time.‟ 6 I just want people to understand what I mean. I don‟t worry if I make mistakes.‟ 7 „It‟s important for me to know how well I‟m doing.‟PreferencesA The learner wants explanations of grammar use.B The learner enjoys explaining language to other students.C The learner enjoys practising language in pairs or groups.D The learner enjoys doing language practice that focuses on accuracy.E The learner doesn‟t want to work with other students.F The learner needs to feel a sense of progress.G The learner focuses on communicating.H The learner doesn‟t want the teacher to explain grammar.LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  76. 76. Key to exercise 1 1A 2K U I D N 3V I S U A L T E O S R T Y H E T I CExercise 3 1. Visual 4. Auditory 2. Auditory 5. Kinaesthetic 3. Kinaesthetic 6. VisualExercises 4 and 51. E 2. D 3.G 4.B 5.F 6.A 7.CKey to Sample Task1. D 2. C 3.A 4.H 5.E 6.G 7.FKey to Procedure Step 9Additional exercises.What are some of the different learner characteristics of children, teenagers and adults?Differences inː length of time they can pay attention/ concentrateː ability to stay stillː ability to control behaviourː attitude to making mistakesː attitude to taking risksː levels of self consciousnessː being able to bring life experiences to learning.What effect can learners’ past learning experiences have on learner characteristics?ː previous experience of learning may be very different to the approach taken by thecurrent teacher; this change may or may not be welcomedː learners may have tried to learn a language before and failedː learners may have fixed ideas about the best way of learning.TKT Module 1:Unit 14: Learner needsLIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION
  77. 77. Exercise 1.Exercise 2,What can teachers do to respond to learners’ needs? Match the followinganswer with the concepts in the boxes below the answers.•Do a „needs analysis‟ and/or find out about your learners‟ personal needs, learning needs andfuture or current professional needs.•Select topics and subjects for lessons that fit with their interests and needs.•Select material that meets their needs.•Choose activities that fit with their learning styles, and are suitable for their needs andinterests.•Decide on pace and interaction patterns.•Think about the balance of skills work (reading, listening, speaking, writing) in relation to theirneeds.•Adopt approaches for teaching language that respond to their needs, interests and learningstyles.•Think about how to give learners feedback on their work.LIBARDO IELTS TOEFL TKT TOEIC FACEBOOK VERSION