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Part 2 session 3 literature review
 

Part 2 session 3 literature review

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Undertaking an academic literature review

Undertaking an academic literature review

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    Part 2 session 3 literature review Part 2 session 3 literature review Presentation Transcript

    • International Pre-Masters Diploma in Business Studies.International Pre-Masters Diploma in Legal Studies.Project & Report Part 2 Session 3 Preparing your literature review Liam Greenslade Professional Education: developing your career
    • The Literature Review  Writing a literature review is like creating a map - the main features must be clear and appropriate details should be included. The research question serves as a lighthouse beacon.  Anon
    • What is a literature review? A description of your topic area, supported by references A summary, discussion and critical analysis of academic work related to your research question
    • Goals of a Literature Review• To demonstrate familiarity with a body of knowledge and to establish credibility.• To show the path of prior research and how a current project is linked to it.• To integrate and summarize what is known in an area.• To learn from others and stimulate new ideas.
    • What does a literature review do? A review tells the reader that the researcher knows the research in the area. A good review increases a reader’s confidence in the researcher’s professional competence, ability and background. A good review places a research project in a context and demonstrates its relevance by making connections to a body of knowledge.
    • What does a literature review do? A good review points out areas where prior studies agree, where they disagree and where major questions remain. It collects what is known up to a point in time and indicates the direction for future research. A good review identifies blind alleys and suggests hypotheses for replication. It divulges procedures, techniques and research designs worth copying so that a researcher can better focus hypotheses and gain new insights.
    • Questions the literature reviewanswers
    • Why a literature review? In a literature review we aim to: provide knowledge of the problem area, identify clearly the need for the proposed study, identify gaps and strengths in previous scholarly studies. A good literature review is an argument that is more purposeful than a simple review of relevant literature 8
    • What an Lit Review IS NOT A literature review is NOT a summary or an abstract of articles. It is not an Op-Ed. It is not an annotated bibliography. It is not a rehashing of another author’s work 9
    • What a Literature Review IS  An analysis and synthesis of primary source materials,  Which is written in a specific style which flows from broad to narrow  Which takes into account both the theoretical and empirical issues of the problem  Without over-citing any source or sources. 10
    • What can you gain from literature reviews? Ideas about which approaches are likely to work, and which are the best If you find something similar, you can get  Ideas for how to implement your research  Ideas for how to evaluate your research The best ways to do things Justification for the approach that you are taking
    • What can you gain from literature reviews? Knowledge of what everyone else has done so that you don’t exactly replicate it Without a literature review you risk reinventing the wheel If you find something similar you may have to slightly change what you are doing to make it novel, or build upon what you found
    • Reviewing the Literature vs.‘The Literature Review’OLeary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage 13Chapter Six
    • Working with literature Working with Literature Find it! Manage it! Use it! Review it! Knowing the Reading Understanding the Choosing your research topic literature types efficiently lit review’s purpose Keeping track Ensuring adequate Using available resources Developing your question of references coverage Honing your Arguing your Writing Writing relevant annotations search skills rationale purposefully Working on Informing your work with theory style and tone Designing method
    • Finding literature Finding relevant literature can be made easier if you are able to readily access and draw on a wide variety of resources such as:  reference materials  books  journals  grey literature  official publications  archivesOLeary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide toDoing Research. London: Sage 15Chapter Six
    • Finding literature Don’t go it alone!!When looking for literature be sure to call onthe experts such as: librarians supervisors other researchers practitioners 16
    • Managing the literatureBe organized and diligent when keepingreferences. Keep and file copies of relevant books, articles, etc. Avoid lending out your ‘only copies’ Find out about the recommended referencing style and use it from the start Consider using bibliographic file management software such as Zotero, Procite, Endnote, or Reference Manager 17
    • Annotating SourcesAnnotating your sources provides you with arecord of relevant literature. It should include: the citation articulation of the author and audience a short summary critical commentary notes on relevance that remind you of the significance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited 18
    • Using the Literature Literature is used for disparate purposes throughout the research process. Whether it be:  focusing interests  defining questions  arguing a rationale  theoretically informing your study  developing appropriate design, or writing a formal literature review every stage of the research process demands literary engagementOLeary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide toDoing Research. London: Sage 19Chapter Six
    • Writing your Literature Review Writing a good review requires you to:  read a few good reviews  write critical annotations  develop a structure  write purposefully  use the literature to back up your arguments  review and write throughout the research process  get feedback  and be prepared to redraftOLeary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research.London: Sage Chapter Six 20
    • How to Read a Journal Article Read with a clear purpose or goal in mind. Skim the article – what can you learn from the title, headings, abstract, summary and conclusions? Consider your own view – beware of bias! What do you already know about the topic and the methods used – is the publication source credible? Evaluate as you read – any errors? Do findings follow data? Summarize information as an abstract with the topic – methods used, findings and cite your questions on the article.
    • Importance of Citations Make sure that you reference everything, including full authors’ names, year of publication, publisher, titles, chapter titles and page numbers. Do this every time you read an article, book chapter or book or when you photocopy. This really saves time in your project. Don’t leave the bibliography until the end of the report. Write it up as you go along. Be aware from the onset what style of referencing your college/institution or publisher uses – Chicago, Harvard, APA etc. These can usually be downloaded from the web.
    • How to review a scholarly work : Questions to ask 1 What was done? Was it effective? When did this take place? What was the accepted Where did this study or event take place? How does this relate to your study? 23
    • How to review a scholarly work :Questions to ask 2  Who was involved?  What methodologies were used?  Were they appropriate?  What were the limitations?  How were these limitations addressed?  What type of instruments were used? 24
    • How to review a scholarly work :Questions to ask 3 What was the sample and population studied? What did this add to the knowledge or solution of the problem? What recommendations were made? 25
    • How to review a scholarly work :Questions to ask 4 What are the similarities between this study and your study? Was this an appropriate means of dealing with the problem? How does this study relate to your study? 26
    • Importance of Citations Make sure that you reference everything, including full authors’ names, year of publication, publisher, titles, chapter titles and page numbers. Do this every time you read an article, book chapter or book or when you photocopy. Don’t leave the bibliography until the end of the report. Write it up as you go along.
    • Good Academic Practice Review the literature don’t reproduce it! Look for circular patterns in the material you are accessing and reading. Identify two articles that really impressed you and use these as models.
    • Plan the literature review: Outline what you plan to argue. Structure the evidence around your main argument(s). Emphasise the relatedness of the literature to the problem you are discussing. Interpret, don’t just give summaries.