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Wattsup?: Motivating reductions in domestic energy consumption using social media
 

Wattsup?: Motivating reductions in domestic energy consumption using social media

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Our domestic energy intervention study presentation for the NORDICHI2010 conference. Please see the accompanying video of Wattsup on slideshare.net at http://www.slideshare.net/LiSC_/wattsup

Our domestic energy intervention study presentation for the NORDICHI2010 conference. Please see the accompanying video of Wattsup on slideshare.net at http://www.slideshare.net/LiSC_/wattsup

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    Wattsup?: Motivating reductions in domestic energy consumption using social media Wattsup?: Motivating reductions in domestic energy consumption using social media Presentation Transcript

    • Derek Foster
      Shaun Lawson
      Mark Blythe
      Paul Cairns
      Wattsup?: Motivating reductions in domestic energy consumption using social networks
    • Derek Foster
      PhD Student
      Lincoln Social Computing (LiSC) Research Centre
      University of Lincoln
      http://lisc.lincoln.ac.uk
    • Introduction
      Sustainable HCI
      - Motivating pro-environmental behaviour through technology-enabled feedback
      Social Norms
      - Utilising peer-pressure and social competiveness to bring about reductions in energy usage
      By combining above concepts we target behaviour change for energy consumption using online social applications
    • Structure
      Background - Domestic energy
      Background – Home energy monitors
      Method – Participants
      Method – Design
      Results
      Discussion
      Future Work
    • Domestic Energy Usage
      UK domestic energy accounts for approx 30% of total energy expenditure in 2008
      30% Increase since the 1970’s
      19% Increase since 1990
      Only 1.9% of domestic energy consumed is from renewable resources
      UK goal of 34% carbon reduction by 2020
      Climate change
      Source: UK Government Department for Business Enterprise & Regulatory Reform (BERR)
    • Home Energy Meters
      Meter location – Flats, apartments – difficult to access or inaccessible
      Energy is intangible
      Understanding traditional meter readings
    • Home Energy Monitoring
      • Basic presentation of energy data
      • Limited interaction
      • Closed systems with no social data sharing
      • Limited online applications
      • Bound to proprietary software
    • Home Energy Interventions
      Darby, S., found that technology-enabled feedback can support up to 20% reductions 1
      Yun, T., used a minimalist portable display providing energy feedback in the home resulting in energy reductions2
      Recent work at CHI highlighted the need to recognise social and environmental psychology when designing energy interventions 34
      Build on previous energy feedback work by introducing social media as feedback delivery platform
      1 Darby, S. The effectiveness of feedback on energy consumption: A review for DEFRA of the literature on metering, billing and direct displays, Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, 2006.
      2 Yun, T. Investigating the impact of a minimalist in-home energy consumption display. In Ext. Abstracts CHI 2009. ACM Press (2009), 4417-4422.
      3 Froehlich, J., Findlater, L., and Landay, J. 2010. The design of eco-feedback technology. In Proceedings of the 28th international Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Atlanta, Georgia, USA, April 10 - 15, 2010). CHI '10. ACM, New York, NY, 1999-2008
      4 DiSalvo, C., Sengers, P., and Brynjarsdóttir, H. 2010. Mapping the landscape of sustainable HCI. In Proceedings of the 28th international Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Atlanta, Georgia, USA, April 10 - 15, 2010). CHI '10. ACM, New York, NY, 1975-1984.
    • Pilot Study
      Recruited 8 households
      18 day ‘within subjects’ study to measure energy usage in two conditions
      Social condition: participants could view their own and comment upon others’ energy usage
      Non social condition: participants could view only their own energy usage
      Research question: Can the use of social media motivate further reductions in energy usage?
    • Method - Participants
      Recruited lead participant for each household
      Regular users of Facebook for the past 12 months
      Given a Wattson energy monitor
      Asked to use
    • Method - Design
      Independent Variable - interaction mode, either social or non-social.
      Dependent Variable – amount of energy used by each lead participant, with total energy being recorded in each condition for each participant.
      Repeated measures design
      Each participant experienced both conditions, and order effects were controlled for as carefully as possible.
    • Materials - Wattson Monitor
      PC connectivity
      Bespoke data collection software developed to transmit data online
      Good design aesthetics
      (fits in with environment)
    • Materials - Wattson Monitor
    • Materials - Wattsup Application
      Wattsup – A Facebook application providing energy and social feedback
      Displays live energy data from Wattson monitor
      Transforms limited Wattson display into an online interactive social app
      Utilises Facebook social features
      MSDN Facebook featured application http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/ee384421.aspx
    • Wattsup Participatory Design
      User-centred design approach - focus groups and paper-prototyping to produce final interface designs
    • Wattsup Social Norms
    • Wattsup Technical Implementation
    • Wattsup Technical Implementation
      Recent developments in home energy monitors have simplified development of third party energy applications and raised UX quality
      Easier to access online energy data through devices like AlertMe monitor and Google’s Powermeter
    • Results
      7 out of 8 households reduced their energy consumption when in the social condition
      130KwH of energy saved – equivalent to Co2 emissions of driving a small car for 399 Km
      If sustained for 6 months would result in reductions of 2600KwH
      A Wilcoxon test showed that energy consumption was significantly lower when using in the socially enabled condition (Z= -2.1, N=8, p=0.036)
    • Results
    • Results
      Comments board on rankings interface
      Small Analysis using Grounded Theory
      Three main categories centred around the user experience emerged:
      - Banter
      - Engagement
      - Competition
    • Results
      Banter
      “how come you are at the top, cut down drastically on your cups of tea?”
      “energy vampire...you clearly are!!”.
      Diane: “I’ve turned my washing machine settings down as this uses loads...no pun intended”
      Alice: “I once turned down a washing machine. Wasn't pretty. It went into a cycle of depression and self-loathing before finally giving me my socks back”
    • Results
      Engagement
      Engagement included disclosure of information such as:
      “Left my main PC on the last two nights. Made a massive difference to my scores.”
      “gone down in the rankings? I´m in Spain :S”
      “I NEED TO STOP PLAYING PUTER! (idontwanttoidontwanttoidontwantto)”.
    • Results
      Competition
      Competition between the participants was evident in their comments:
      “Take’s the top spot: D”
      “I've been usurped”.
      “good to see I'm higher in the table then you rob ha ha”
    • Results
      Google Analytics
      - highlighted the differences in user interaction activity between both conditions
      - 263 visits in social condition vs 51 visits in non-social condition
      - Participants spent greatest amount of time interacting with the rankings interface
    • Results
      Semi-Stuctured interviews
      - carried out at the end of the study in participants' home
      - asked which condition they preferred with all preferring the social condition
      - willing to take part in longer studies
      - found the experience fun and enjoyable
      “I preferred the second one (socially) because I am quite competitive, it gave me further incentive. I think putting a bit of fun in it is quite important.”.
      “Well, this morning we unplugged EVERYTHING one by one, room by room. The reading on the wattson went down by around 450 to 970 watts. Ha, we actually enjoyed investigating this though ;)”
    • Discussion
      Household energy usage was significantly lower when participating in the social condition, 780KW vs 640KW
      - This suggests that social interaction over an online social network, such as viewing each others energy usage, comparing own usage to that of peers, and commenting on each other’s progress, can help motivate participants reduce their household energy consumption.
    • Future Work – Domestic Energy
      Longitudinal study
      Better integration in Facebook and Twitter
      Use contemporary energy monitors for transparent implementation
    • Future Work – Workplace Energy
      Looking at organisational and local authority energy usage targeting employees. Electro-Magnates project:
      http://www.electro-magnates.com
      Design a suite of social applications – including games – to support behaviour change in energy reduction in the workplace
    • Thank You!
      Questions?……