L.O: CELESTIALOBSERVATIONS, EARTH’S ROTATION& REVOLUTION, ELLIPTICAL ORBITSOF THE PLANETS, THE MOON, THESTARS & THE UNIVER...
Celestial means “of the sky”Celestial objects areall the objects in thesky.(the planets, stars,moon, sun etc)
All celestial objects appearto move across the sky ata rate of 150 per hour.
Viewed from the north polar, allconstellations appear to rotate aroundPolaris.Polaris, herein the center
EARTH HAS NIGHT ANDDAY BECAUSE IT ROTATESON ITS AXIS.
THE SIDE FACING THE SUNIS “DAY”. THE SIDE AWAYFROM THE SUN IS “NIGHT”
EARTHTAKES 24HOURSTOROTATE!
EARTHMOVE 15 0DEGREESEVERYHOUR.150 X 24=3600DEGREES
EVIDENCE THATEARTH ROTATES:
THE TWO MAIN EVIDENCE OFEARTH’S ROTATION ON ITS AXIS:•FOUCAULT’SPENDULUM•THE CORIOLISEFFECT.
For every hour, the Sun appears tomove 15 0 degrees per hour!
Night and day are caused byEarth rotating around the sun!!!!!
The seasons:
There are four important days thatyou must know. What are they?
There are four important days thatyou must know. What are they?
The parts that are “leaning” towards theSUN get the vertical (direct) rays haveSUMMER
The parts that are “leaning” away fromthe SUN get the vertical (direct) rayshave WINTER
What exact day is this? How do youknow?
JUNE 21st, the first day of summer in theNorthern hemisphere. Because the North isleaning towards SUN!
What day is this? How do youknow?
DECEMBER 21st, first day of winter innorth. Because north leans away fromsun.
THIS DIAGRAM SHOWS THESUN’S PATH IN NEW YORK STATE
The Heliocentricmodel
The Heliocentric model• The sun is thestationarycenter. All theplanets includingEarth revolvearound the sun.
The heliocentric model explainedretrograde motion: why planetsappear to wander backwards acrossthe sky.
The solar system(planets part 1)
The “solar system”: is theSun, the 8 planets, the “dwarf”planets, all the moons & every othercelestial object that revolve...
Planets (pt 2):Our star systemhas 8 planets.
There are two classesof planets in our solarsystem: terrestrial andjovian.
Terrestrial planets:• The “earth-like” planets. “Terra” is anothername for Earth.• Mercury, Venus, Earth & Mars.• Terrestr...
Mercury today
Venus earth’s “twin”
Earth: the“goldilocks” planet• Not too hot, nottoo cold.• The only planetthat can haveliquid water onits surface.• The onl...
Earth moves in two ways:Rotation:The Earth spinning onits north-south axis.The earth rotates at 150per hour. After 24hours...
Earth moves in two ways:Revolution:The Earth’s slightly ellipticalorbit around the Sun.The Earth revolves about10 per day....
The 2 main evidence of earth’srotation:1.Foucaultspendulum2.The Coriolis effect
a Foucaults pendulum seems tochange directions is one proof ofEarth’s rotation.
The coriolis effect: the winds seem tocurve proof that earth rotates.
Jovian planets• The “Jupiter-like” planets. Jove was anothername for Jupiter.• Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune.• They are...
Jupiter: a failed sun?
Saturn: very low density. Would float inwater!
Uranus
Neptune
Open to ESRT page 15
The sun• The sun is middle aged mainsequence star. 4.6 billion yearsold.• The sun is powered by nuclearfusion: Hydrogen at...
stars•All stars use nuclear fusionto “power” themselves.•Stars come in many colors:red, yellow (our sun), white,blue, (& p...
stars•Stars have differentluminosity (brightness)•Stars have differenttemperatures
You are responsible for this page
Circles &****ellipses
***The orbits of the planetsare not perfect circles!
a circle is a perfectly round shape withone central point called a focusThefocus
This is an ellipse: **an ellipse is a ovalshape with two foci (two “centers”)
ellipses are described as“eccentric”.Round but not a perfect circle.
** ellipses have two axes, a **major axisand a minor axis.
the planets do NOT orbit the sun in perfect circles. Theplanets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits(oval orbits), ...
This is a perfect circle!This is an ovalThis is an ovalWhich is more “oval”?
You are now responsible for thisformula.
On the performance part of the regents, youwill calculate the eccentricity of the orbit ofan asteroid….
Celestial objects orbital speed isfastest when close to the sun.
Gravity: the force ofattraction between bodies.
Larger mass objects have strongergravity than smaller mass objects.
Evidence of Earth’s revolvingaround the SUN:•Change in the Sun’sangular diameter.•The cyclical seasonalchange in the Zodia...
1.Angular diameter:proof Earth revolvesaround the Sun
the sun is very large but looks “tiny”because it is far away.
Proof #2: that Earthrevolves around thesun. The yearly changein the zodiac.
The constellations of the zodiacappear to move because Earth ismoving around the Sun!!!
Questions: name the two “R”ways Earth moves.Earth rotates and Earthrevolves.
Earth rotates(spins) on itsaxis.The earth rotatesat 150 per hour.After 24 hours, ithas turned 3600 .Rotation givesEarth ni...
Revolution:*Earth revolves around the Sun inslightly elliptical orbit.* Earth revolvesabout 10 perday. After 3651/4 days, ...
The moon:
The moon is Earth’sonly natural satellite.
The moon is a “satellite” of Earth because itrevolves around Earth.Similarly, Earth is satellite of the Sun, becauseEarth ...
The moon takes 27 1/3 days tocomplete one revolution aroundEarth (sidereal month)
These are the Lunar phases:
the Sun’s light rays are always illuminatingone half of the Moon. That is why someparts look lit & some parts look dark.
As the Moon revolves around Earth,an Earth observer sees varyingamounts of the illuminated portion ofthe Moon.
The Moon takes 29 1/3 days tocomplete a phase cycle from one newmoon to the next new moon.(called asynodic or lunar month)
This is the Earth-Moon system viewedfrom space. what phase is A?
what phase is B?
what phase is C?
what phase is D?
what phase is E?
A tide is a rise in the Earth’s waterlevels caused by the Moon and Sun’sgravity.
We have tides because the Moon’sgravity and the Sun’s gravity are pullingon Earth’s oceans.
Both the Moon’ and the Sun’s gravityare pulling on Earth’s oceans ALL thetime…..
Spring tides andNeap tides:
Spring tides: the Sun and Moon’sgravity are pulling TOGETHER.
Spring tides happen at the FULL moonor the NEW moon, when the Sun andMoon pull together
What do you notice?
The tides are cyclical: a high tide tolow tide is ~ six hours.
*** a high tide to another high tide is~ 12.5 hours.
*** a high tide to another high tide is~ 12.5 hours.
A solar eclipse!
An “eclipse” is when theSun is blocked by theMoon or the Earth,causing a shadow to becasted.
solar eclipse: the moon blocksthe sun and casts a shadow onEarth.
solar eclipse: the moon blocksthe sun and casts a shadow onEarth.
Lunar eclipse:
Lunar eclipse: the Earth blocks thesunlight and casts a shadow on themoon.
Eclipses can only be seen overcertain parts of the earth
Eclipses can only be seen overcertain parts of the earth
Eclipses are rare because theMoon, Earth & Sun must be aligned.
The stars
Astronomers have learned that thereare many kinds of stars!.
stars with different colors, differentsizes, different luminosities (brightness)
This is the H-R diagram.
The H-R diagram is a graph that plotthe stars’ temperature against theirluminosity.
Open to ESRT page 15.
You are responsible for this page. Youmust know how to read it
Luminosity is “brightness”
Surface temperature of stars
As luminosity increases, temperatureincreases
color of stars
Mass (size) of stars
Earths place inthe universe:
During the scienctific revolution (therenaissance), Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo& Newton developed the heliocentricmodel: w...
By the early 20th century, peoplerealized that our sun is only one ofbillions of other stars in the milky waygalaxy!
definition:Galaxy: A mass ofbillions of stars. Ourhome galaxy is called“the milky way”
A typical spiral galaxyThese arecalledspiralarms
The universe has countlessbillions of galaxies!
definition:The universe is :All ofexistence, all ofcreation, everything.
3) The Milky Way Galaxy is in theUniverse
How space distances aremeasured:Space distances are sovast, new units of measurehad to be created to measurespace distance...
The big bang!
The universe is 13.7 billion years old. Itformed in an “explosion” called “the BigBang”. How do we know this?
The big bangtheory
Big bang theory• Developed by astronomers, who builtupon Hubble’s discoveries.• the Universe formed from a singleinfinitel...
Two evidence of the bigbang:1.***The “red shift” of light.2.The cosmic microwavebackground radiation.
***The red shift oflight:
** a celestial object moving away fromus, shows light waves that arestretched toward the red end of thevisible light spect...
red shifting is the may evidence thatthe universe is expanding. The furtheran object is from us, the redder it is.
Astronomers know that the universe isexpanding because the galaxies arered shifting.
beforeafter
The object is moving away from us
This celestial object has red shifted soit is moving away from us.
Which is the oldest? Which is theyoungest?
Review#14 astronomy
Review#14 astronomy
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Review#14 astronomy

  1. 1. L.O: CELESTIALOBSERVATIONS, EARTH’S ROTATION& REVOLUTION, ELLIPTICAL ORBITSOF THE PLANETS, THE MOON, THESTARS & THE UNIVERSE.
  2. 2. Celestial means “of the sky”Celestial objects areall the objects in thesky.(the planets, stars,moon, sun etc)
  3. 3. All celestial objects appearto move across the sky ata rate of 150 per hour.
  4. 4. Viewed from the north polar, allconstellations appear to rotate aroundPolaris.Polaris, herein the center
  5. 5. EARTH HAS NIGHT ANDDAY BECAUSE IT ROTATESON ITS AXIS.
  6. 6. THE SIDE FACING THE SUNIS “DAY”. THE SIDE AWAYFROM THE SUN IS “NIGHT”
  7. 7. EARTHTAKES 24HOURSTOROTATE!
  8. 8. EARTHMOVE 15 0DEGREESEVERYHOUR.150 X 24=3600DEGREES
  9. 9. EVIDENCE THATEARTH ROTATES:
  10. 10. THE TWO MAIN EVIDENCE OFEARTH’S ROTATION ON ITS AXIS:•FOUCAULT’SPENDULUM•THE CORIOLISEFFECT.
  11. 11. For every hour, the Sun appears tomove 15 0 degrees per hour!
  12. 12. Night and day are caused byEarth rotating around the sun!!!!!
  13. 13. The seasons:
  14. 14. There are four important days thatyou must know. What are they?
  15. 15. There are four important days thatyou must know. What are they?
  16. 16. The parts that are “leaning” towards theSUN get the vertical (direct) rays haveSUMMER
  17. 17. The parts that are “leaning” away fromthe SUN get the vertical (direct) rayshave WINTER
  18. 18. What exact day is this? How do youknow?
  19. 19. JUNE 21st, the first day of summer in theNorthern hemisphere. Because the North isleaning towards SUN!
  20. 20. What day is this? How do youknow?
  21. 21. DECEMBER 21st, first day of winter innorth. Because north leans away fromsun.
  22. 22. THIS DIAGRAM SHOWS THESUN’S PATH IN NEW YORK STATE
  23. 23. The Heliocentricmodel
  24. 24. The Heliocentric model• The sun is thestationarycenter. All theplanets includingEarth revolvearound the sun.
  25. 25. The heliocentric model explainedretrograde motion: why planetsappear to wander backwards acrossthe sky.
  26. 26. The solar system(planets part 1)
  27. 27. The “solar system”: is theSun, the 8 planets, the “dwarf”planets, all the moons & every othercelestial object that revolves aroundSol.
  28. 28. Planets (pt 2):Our star systemhas 8 planets.
  29. 29. There are two classesof planets in our solarsystem: terrestrial andjovian.
  30. 30. Terrestrial planets:• The “earth-like” planets. “Terra” is anothername for Earth.• Mercury, Venus, Earth & Mars.• Terrestrial planets are small, “rocky”, highdensity & orbit close to the sun.• Someday, humanity may colonize the otherterrestrial planets for the benefit ofHumankind!
  31. 31. Mercury today
  32. 32. Venus earth’s “twin”
  33. 33. Earth: the“goldilocks” planet• Not too hot, nottoo cold.• The only planetthat can haveliquid water onits surface.• The only planetwe know thathas life.
  34. 34. Earth moves in two ways:Rotation:The Earth spinning onits north-south axis.The earth rotates at 150per hour. After 24hours, it has turned3600 (one full turn)
  35. 35. Earth moves in two ways:Revolution:The Earth’s slightly ellipticalorbit around the Sun.The Earth revolves about10 per day. After 365 1/4days, it has made a fullorbit around Sol.Rotation: earth rotates onits axis.
  36. 36. The 2 main evidence of earth’srotation:1.Foucaultspendulum2.The Coriolis effect
  37. 37. a Foucaults pendulum seems tochange directions is one proof ofEarth’s rotation.
  38. 38. The coriolis effect: the winds seem tocurve proof that earth rotates.
  39. 39. Jovian planets• The “Jupiter-like” planets. Jove was anothername for Jupiter.• Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune.• They are very large, low density, madecompletely of gases such as Hydrogen, helium,methane & ammonia.• They used to all be called: “the gas giants”• Jupiter and Saturn are called the “gas giants”• Uranus and Neptune are the “ice giants”
  40. 40. Jupiter: a failed sun?
  41. 41. Saturn: very low density. Would float inwater!
  42. 42. Uranus
  43. 43. Neptune
  44. 44. Open to ESRT page 15
  45. 45. The sun• The sun is middle aged mainsequence star. 4.6 billion yearsold.• The sun is powered by nuclearfusion: Hydrogen atoms fusingtogether.
  46. 46. stars•All stars use nuclear fusionto “power” themselves.•Stars come in many colors:red, yellow (our sun), white,blue, (& probably brown)
  47. 47. stars•Stars have differentluminosity (brightness)•Stars have differenttemperatures
  48. 48. You are responsible for this page
  49. 49. Circles &****ellipses
  50. 50. ***The orbits of the planetsare not perfect circles!
  51. 51. a circle is a perfectly round shape withone central point called a focusThefocus
  52. 52. This is an ellipse: **an ellipse is a ovalshape with two foci (two “centers”)
  53. 53. ellipses are described as“eccentric”.Round but not a perfect circle.
  54. 54. ** ellipses have two axes, a **major axisand a minor axis.
  55. 55. the planets do NOT orbit the sun in perfect circles. Theplanets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits(oval orbits), with sun being one of the foci.
  56. 56. This is a perfect circle!This is an ovalThis is an ovalWhich is more “oval”?
  57. 57. You are now responsible for thisformula.
  58. 58. On the performance part of the regents, youwill calculate the eccentricity of the orbit ofan asteroid….
  59. 59. Celestial objects orbital speed isfastest when close to the sun.
  60. 60. Gravity: the force ofattraction between bodies.
  61. 61. Larger mass objects have strongergravity than smaller mass objects.
  62. 62. Evidence of Earth’s revolvingaround the SUN:•Change in the Sun’sangular diameter.•The cyclical seasonalchange in the Zodiacconstellations.
  63. 63. 1.Angular diameter:proof Earth revolvesaround the Sun
  64. 64. the sun is very large but looks “tiny”because it is far away.
  65. 65. Proof #2: that Earthrevolves around thesun. The yearly changein the zodiac.
  66. 66. The constellations of the zodiacappear to move because Earth ismoving around the Sun!!!
  67. 67. Questions: name the two “R”ways Earth moves.Earth rotates and Earthrevolves.
  68. 68. Earth rotates(spins) on itsaxis.The earth rotatesat 150 per hour.After 24 hours, ithas turned 3600 .Rotation givesEarth night andday(one full turn)
  69. 69. Revolution:*Earth revolves around the Sun inslightly elliptical orbit.* Earth revolvesabout 10 perday. After 3651/4 days, it hasmade a full orbitaround Sol.
  70. 70. The moon:
  71. 71. The moon is Earth’sonly natural satellite.
  72. 72. The moon is a “satellite” of Earth because itrevolves around Earth.Similarly, Earth is satellite of the Sun, becauseEarth revolves around the SUN!
  73. 73. The moon takes 27 1/3 days tocomplete one revolution aroundEarth (sidereal month)
  74. 74. These are the Lunar phases:
  75. 75. the Sun’s light rays are always illuminatingone half of the Moon. That is why someparts look lit & some parts look dark.
  76. 76. As the Moon revolves around Earth,an Earth observer sees varyingamounts of the illuminated portion ofthe Moon.
  77. 77. The Moon takes 29 1/3 days tocomplete a phase cycle from one newmoon to the next new moon.(called asynodic or lunar month)
  78. 78. This is the Earth-Moon system viewedfrom space. what phase is A?
  79. 79. what phase is B?
  80. 80. what phase is C?
  81. 81. what phase is D?
  82. 82. what phase is E?
  83. 83. A tide is a rise in the Earth’s waterlevels caused by the Moon and Sun’sgravity.
  84. 84. We have tides because the Moon’sgravity and the Sun’s gravity are pullingon Earth’s oceans.
  85. 85. Both the Moon’ and the Sun’s gravityare pulling on Earth’s oceans ALL thetime…..
  86. 86. Spring tides andNeap tides:
  87. 87. Spring tides: the Sun and Moon’sgravity are pulling TOGETHER.
  88. 88. Spring tides happen at the FULL moonor the NEW moon, when the Sun andMoon pull together
  89. 89. What do you notice?
  90. 90. The tides are cyclical: a high tide tolow tide is ~ six hours.
  91. 91. *** a high tide to another high tide is~ 12.5 hours.
  92. 92. *** a high tide to another high tide is~ 12.5 hours.
  93. 93. A solar eclipse!
  94. 94. An “eclipse” is when theSun is blocked by theMoon or the Earth,causing a shadow to becasted.
  95. 95. solar eclipse: the moon blocksthe sun and casts a shadow onEarth.
  96. 96. solar eclipse: the moon blocksthe sun and casts a shadow onEarth.
  97. 97. Lunar eclipse:
  98. 98. Lunar eclipse: the Earth blocks thesunlight and casts a shadow on themoon.
  99. 99. Eclipses can only be seen overcertain parts of the earth
  100. 100. Eclipses can only be seen overcertain parts of the earth
  101. 101. Eclipses are rare because theMoon, Earth & Sun must be aligned.
  102. 102. The stars
  103. 103. Astronomers have learned that thereare many kinds of stars!.
  104. 104. stars with different colors, differentsizes, different luminosities (brightness)
  105. 105. This is the H-R diagram.
  106. 106. The H-R diagram is a graph that plotthe stars’ temperature against theirluminosity.
  107. 107. Open to ESRT page 15.
  108. 108. You are responsible for this page. Youmust know how to read it
  109. 109. Luminosity is “brightness”
  110. 110. Surface temperature of stars
  111. 111. As luminosity increases, temperatureincreases
  112. 112. color of stars
  113. 113. Mass (size) of stars
  114. 114. Earths place inthe universe:
  115. 115. During the scienctific revolution (therenaissance), Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo& Newton developed the heliocentricmodel: which showed that Earth is not thecenter of the universe; Earth revolvesaround the sun.
  116. 116. By the early 20th century, peoplerealized that our sun is only one ofbillions of other stars in the milky waygalaxy!
  117. 117. definition:Galaxy: A mass ofbillions of stars. Ourhome galaxy is called“the milky way”
  118. 118. A typical spiral galaxyThese arecalledspiralarms
  119. 119. The universe has countlessbillions of galaxies!
  120. 120. definition:The universe is :All ofexistence, all ofcreation, everything.
  121. 121. 3) The Milky Way Galaxy is in theUniverse
  122. 122. How space distances aremeasured:Space distances are sovast, new units of measurehad to be created to measurespace distances:1.The light-year2.Astronomical units (AU)
  123. 123. The big bang!
  124. 124. The universe is 13.7 billion years old. Itformed in an “explosion” called “the BigBang”. How do we know this?
  125. 125. The big bangtheory
  126. 126. Big bang theory• Developed by astronomers, who builtupon Hubble’s discoveries.• the Universe formed from a singleinfinitely dense particle called a“singularity” that “exploded” 13.7billion years ago.• This explosion is why the universe isexpanding.
  127. 127. Two evidence of the bigbang:1.***The “red shift” of light.2.The cosmic microwavebackground radiation.
  128. 128. ***The red shift oflight:
  129. 129. ** a celestial object moving away fromus, shows light waves that arestretched toward the red end of thevisible light spectrum: “red shifted”
  130. 130. red shifting is the may evidence thatthe universe is expanding. The furtheran object is from us, the redder it is.
  131. 131. Astronomers know that the universe isexpanding because the galaxies arered shifting.
  132. 132. beforeafter
  133. 133. The object is moving away from us
  134. 134. This celestial object has red shifted soit is moving away from us.
  135. 135. Which is the oldest? Which is theyoungest?

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