1. 1. Base your answer to the following question on Thediagram below shows a process called frost wedging.A) weathering B) cementingC) metamorphism D) depositionFrost wedging is an example ofA) weathering of seafloor rocksB) weathering and erosion of continental rocksC) deep-ocean organic-matter sedimentsD) gases from underwater volcanic eruptions2. What is the source of most dissolved minerals inseawater?3. Base your answer to the following question on Two landscape regions are shown below.A) weathering and erosion B) lithospheric plate movementC) folding and faulting D) metamorphismThe evidence shown indicates that currently each landscape region is being modified primarily by
2. 4. Base your answer to the following question on The diagram below shows the stump of a tree whose rootgrew into a small crack in bedrock and split the rock apart.A) chemical weathering B) depositionC) erosion D) physical weatheringThe action of the root splitting the bedrock is an example ofA) moist and warm B) moist and coldC) dry and cold D) dry and warm5. Chemical weathering occurs most rapidly in climateswhich areA) the cracking of rock caused by the freezing andthawing of waterB) the transportation of sediment in a streamC) the reaction of limestone with acid rainwaterD) the formation of a sandbar along the side of astream6. Which is the best example of physical weathering?A) hydrosphere and lithosphereB) mesosphere and thermosphereC) hydrosphere and atmosphereD) lithosphere and atmosphere7. Chemical weathering will occur most rapidly when rocksare exposed to theA) cold and humid B) cold and aridC) hot and humid D) hot and arid8. Chemical weathering of rocks occurs most rapidly in aclimate that isA) a warm, dry climateB) a cold, dry climateC) a warm, moist climateD) a cold, moist climate9. Chemical weathering would be most effective in10. Base your answer to the following question on thediagram below, which shows a surface andcross-sectional view of a portion of the Earth 15kilometers from a mountain range.A) metamorphismB) cementation of sedimentsC) biological activityD) melting of rock materialThe processes that change the boulder and cobbles intosoil are weathering andA) cool and dry B) cool and wetC) warm and dry D) warm and wet11. Landscapes will undergo the most chemical weatheringif the climate isA) less B) greaterC) the same12. A large rock is broken into several smaller pieces.Compared to the rate of weathering of the large rock,the rate of weathering of the smaller pieces is
3. 13. Base your answer to the following question on The twophotographs below show dates on tombstones found ina cemetery in St. Remy, New York. The tombstoneswere 5 meters apart and both faced north. Tombstone Ahad dates cut into the rock in 1922. Tombstone B haddates cut into the rock in 1892.A) Tombstone A is composed of minerals lessresistant to weathering than tombstone B.B) Tombstone A has undergone a longer period ofweathering than tombstone B.C) Tombstone A experienced cooler temperaturesthan tombstone B.D) Tombstone A was exposed to less acid rain thantombstone B.Which statement best explains why the dates are moredifficult to read on tombstone A than on tombstone B?14. Base your answer to the following question on Thediagram below shows an outcrop of different layers ofsandstone in a region receiving heavy rainfall.A) A B) B C) C D) DWhich sandstone layer appears to be the least resistantto weathering?15. Base your answer to the following question on theEarth Science Reference Tables and the diagram below.The diagram represents two branches of a valleyglacier. Points A, B, G, and H are located on the surfaceof the glacier. Point X is located at the interfacebetween the ice and the bedrock. The arrows indicatethe general direction of ice movement.A) biologic activity B) frost actionC) acid reactions D) chemical reactionsWhich type of weathering most likely is dominant in thearea represented by the diagram?16. Base your answer to the following question on theEarth Science Reference Tables and the diagram below.The diagram represents a geologic cross section of aportion of the Earths crust. The rock layers have notbeen overturned.A) sandstone B) shaleC) conglomerate D) limestoneWhich type of rock appears to be most resistant toweathering?A) nitrogen B) hydrogenC) water D) argon17. Which substance has the greatest effect on the rate ofweathering of rock?
4. A) cold and dry B) warm and dryC) cold and moist D) warm and moist18. In which type of climate does the greatest amount ofchemical weathering of rock occur?A) B)C) D)19. Which graph best represents the chemical weatheringrate of a limestone boulder as the boulder is broken intopebble-sized particles?20. Base your answer to the following question on theEarth Science Reference Tables, the geologic crosssection of bedrock shown below, and your knowledgeof Earth science. The cross section shows bedrockexposed along part of the Genesee River in New YorkState. The rock has not been overturned.A) shales B) gypsumC) dolostones D) saltWhich rock layers in this formation appear to be themost resistant to weathering?
5. 21. Base your answer to the following question on Thediagram below represents a sedimentary rock outcrop.A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4Which rock layer is the most resistant to weathering?
6. 22. Base your answer to the following question on the map and cross sections below. The map shows measuredchanges in the position of Niagara Falls since 1678. The cross sections show the two parts of Niagara Falls:Horseshoe Falls and American Falls. Letters A through D represent the same rock layers at both locations.A) A B) B C) C D) DWhich rock layer shows the most resistance to weathering and erosion at Horseshoe Falls?
7. 23. Base your answer to the following question on Thecross section below shows sedimentary bedrock layersA, B, C, and D exposed at Earth’s surface.A) A B) B C) C D) DWhich layer appears to be the least resistant toweathering?24. Base your answer to the following question on Thegeneralized cross section below shows the sedimentaryrock layers at Niagara Falls in western New York State.A) Lockport dolostone B) Rochester shaleC) Grimsby sandstone D) Queenston shaleWhich rock layer appears to be most resistant toweathering and erosion?
8. 25. Base your answer to the following question on The block diagram below shows a cross section of alandscape. Letters A, B, C, D, and E represent different rock layers.A) A and B B) B and D C) C, D, and E D) A, C, and EWhich rock layers appear to be most resistant to weathering?A) Rocks A and C are made of larger particles thanrock B.B) The particles in rocks A and C are more firmlycemented than those in rock B.C) The minerals in rocks A and C erode faster thanthose in rock B.D) Rocks A and C have not been exposed toweathering as long as rock B.26. What is the best explanation for the shape of the cliff inthe diagram?A) I and II B) II and IIIC) I and III D) II and IV27. In the cross section of the hill shown below, which rockunits are probably most resistant to weathering?
9. 28. Base your answer to the following question on the cross section below, which shows the bedrock of aportion of the Helderberg Escarpment, located in Thacher State Park near Albany, New York. The rockformations are identified by name.A) Esopus and OriskanyB) Onondaga and CoeymansC) Schoharie, and Marcellus and HamiltonD) New Scotland, and Schenectady and Indian Ladder bedsWhich formations appear to be the most resistant to weathering?
10. 29. The diagram below represents a cross section of a seriesof tilted sedimentary rock layers that have recently beenuplifted from sea level. The entire flat surface isexposed to weathering and erosion by the same climate.The graph shows the relative rate of rock weathering inthis particular climate.A)B)C)D)Which cross-sectional diagram best represents theprobable landscape development after a period of50,000 years?30. The diagram below represents a cross section of aportion of the Earths crust.A) erosion of the surface of rock layer AB) folding of rock layer BC) deposition of rock layer CD) faulting along line XYWhich geologic event is the most recent?A) erosion of continental rocksB) submarine landslides from the mid-ocean ridgesC) icebergs that have broken off of continentalglaciersD) submarine volcanic eruptions31. The major source of sediments found on the deep oceanbottom is32. The diagram below represents a landscape area.A) wind erosion B) wave erosionC) stream erosion D) glacial erosionThe labeled surface features of this landscape arearesulted mainly from33. The diagram below shows a hand-sized rock samplewith parallel sets of grooves. This rock sample wasfound in a gravel bank in central Vermont.A) stream erosion B) wind erosionC) a landslide D) glacial erosionThe grooves were most likely caused by
11. 34. The diagrams below show the stages, A through D, inthe formation of an oxbow lake over a period of time.[The arrows indicate the direction of streamflow.]A) erosion, resulting in a sudden increase in thestreams gradientB) deposition, resulting in a sudden increase in thestreams gradientC) erosion along the outside banks of the curve in ameandering streamD) deposition along the outside banks of the curve ina meandering streamOxbow lakes are generally formed by
12. 35. The photograph below shows an eroded plateau found in the southwestern United States.A) crustal uplift and stream erosion B) crustal uplift and glacial erosionC) crustal folding and stream erosion D) crustal folding and glacial erosionThe landscape was developed by the processes of36. The diagram below shows a portion of a stream.A) erosion due to a decrease in stream velocityB) erosion due to an increase in stream velocityC) deposition due to a decrease in stream velocityD) deposition due to an increase in stream velocityThe sand bars formed as a direct result of37. The picture below shows a geological feature in theKalahari Desert of southwestern Africa.A) wind erosionB) volcanic eruptionC) earthquake vibrationsD) plate tectonicsWhich process most likely produced the presentappearance of this feature?
13. 38. Base your answer to the following question on Thecross section below shows a soil profile.A) erosion by glaciersB) erosion by running waterC) capillarity and human activityD) weathering and biological activityThis soil was formed primarily byA) human beings B) running waterC) wind D) glaciers39. The chief agent of erosion on Earth is40. The map below shows a stream flowing into a lake.Locations A, B, and C are at the waters edge, andlocation D is on the lake bottom.A) Erosion is dominant at A and C; deposition isdominant at B and D.B) Erosion is dominant at B and C; deposition isdominant at A and D.C) Erosion is dominant at A and D; deposition isdominant at B and C.D) Erosion is dominant at B and D; deposition isdominant at A and C.Which statement best describes erosion and depositionin this stream area41. Base your answer to the following question on thediagram below, which represents the landscape featuresassociated with a meandering stream. Points W, X, Y,and Z are locations along the stream bank.A) W B) X C) Y D) ZAt which location is erosion greatest?
14. 42. Base your answer to the following question onthe diagram below, which represents the landscape features associated with a meandering river. Letters W,X, Y, and Z represent locations on the floodplain.A) W B) X C) Y D) ZAt which location is erosion greatest?43. The map below shows the area surrounding ameandering stream.A) A B) B C) C D) DAt which point is erosion greatest?44. The map below shows the top view of a meanderingstream as it enters a lake.A) Erosion is dominant at A and D, and deposition isdominant at B and C.B) Erosion is dominant at B and C, and deposition isdominant at A and D.C) Erosion is dominant at A and C, and deposition isdominant at B and D.D) Erosion is dominant at B and D, and deposition isdominant at A and C.At which points along the stream are erosion anddeposition dominant?
15. 45. Base your answer to the following question on Thephotograph below shows an arch of rock located in thewestern United States.A) The bedrock in the arch was more resistant toweathering and erosion than the surroundingbedrock that was removed.B) An earthquake forced bedrock upward into theshape of an arch.C) Sand and gravel were deposited and compacted inthe shape of an arch.D) An underground glacier tunneled through thebedrock.How did the arch most likely form?46. The diagram below represents a geologic cross sectionof a portion of the Earths surface. The letters identifydifferent layers of sedimentary rock.A) A B) B C) C D) DWhich rock layer is probably the most resistant toerosion?A) It flows slowly, producing a V-shaped valley.B) It flows slowly, producing a U-shaped valley.C) It flows rapidly, producing a V-shaped valley.D) It flows rapidly, producing a U-shaped valley.47. Which statement best describes a stream with a steepgradient?48. Base your answer to the following question on thediagram which represents a profile of a mountainglacier in the northern United States.A) U-shaped valley with polished bedrockB) V-shaped valley with jagged bedrockC) flat plain with bedrock that has beenmetamorphosedD) deep ocean trench with bedrock that has beenmelted and cooledIf the climate warms, causing the glacier to melt away,the region that the glacier formerly occupied will be a49. The diagram below shows a glacial landscape.A) U-shaped valleysB) many stream valleysC) sorted sediment on the valley floorD) the landslide near the valleyWhich evidence suggests that ice created thislandscape?
16. 50. Base your answer to the following question on the photograph below, which shows a mountainous regioncut by a large valley in its center.What characteristic of this large valley supports the inference that glacial ice formed the valley?A) mass movement B) wave actionC) running water D) glacial ice51. U-shaped valleys and parallel grooves in bedrock arecharacteristics of erosion byA) glaciers B) windC) wave action D) running water52. A landscape region that has broad, U-shaped valleyswith polished and grooved bedrock was most likelyformed byA) running water B) ocean currentsC) wind D) glacial ice53. Which agent of erosion formed the long U-shapedvalleys now occupied by the Finger Lakes in centralNew YorkState?A) a glacier B) a streamC) waves D) wind54. The occurrence of parallel scratches on bedrock in aU-shaped valley indicates that the area has most likelybeen eroded by55. The cross section below shows a V-shaped valley andthe bedrock beneath the valley.A) surface winds B) running waterC) glacial ice D) ocean wavesWhich agent of erosion is responsible for cutting mostV-shaped valleys into bedrock?
17. 56. Base your answer to the following question on the cross section below, which represents part of theAtlantic Ocean seafloor. An earthquake occurred on November 18, 1929, triggering an underwatersediment flow. The location of the epicenter is labeled. Letters A through D indicate locations on theseafloor. Time, in hours, at each lettered location represents the arrival of the sediment flow after theearthquake.Calculate the gradient of the ocean floor between locations A and D and label your answer with the correctunits.Gradient = __________________A) decreases B) increasesC) remains the same57. As the gradient of a stream increases, the streamsability to carry sediment
18. 58. Base your answer to the following question on theEarth Science Reference Tables and the diagramsbelow. Diagram I represents a streams profile before anearthquake. Diagram II represents the same streamsprofile after an earthquake elevated a portion of the landand produced a waterfall.A) less B) greaterC) the sameCompared to the streams average gradient before theearthquake, the streams average gradient after theearthquake is
19. 59. Base your answer to the following question on the topographic map below. Points X and Y are locations onSquab Hollow Creek.Determine the gradient of Squab Hollow Creek between point X and point Y by following the directionsbelow.a Write the equation used to determine the gradient.b Substitute values into the equation.c Solve the equation and label the answer with the correct units.A) decreases B) increasesC) remains the same60. If the gradient of a stream increases at a certainlocation, the probability that sediment will be depositedat that location
20. 61. Base your answer to the following question on the contour map below. Points A, B, Y, and Z are referencepoints on the map. Note that portions of the map are incomplete.A) 26 m/km B) 70 m/km C) 130 m/km D) 350 m/kmThe gradient of Blue Stream between point A and point B is approximately
21. 62. Base your answer to the following question on the topographic map shown below. Points A, B, C, and Dare reference points on the map. Elevations are measured in meters.Calculate the gradient of Long Creek between points C and D and label the answer with the correct units.Base your answers to questions 63 and 64 on the profileshown below, which shows the pattern of horizontalsorting produced at a particular time when asediment-laden stream enters the ocean.A) a decrease in the streams gradientB) a decrease in the amount of sediment in thestreamC) an increase in the streams dischargeD) an increase in the density of the sediment63. Which change in the stream would cause pebbles to bedeposited farther offshore?A) decreases in widthB) decreases in kinetic energyC) increases in potential energyD) increases in velocity64. Deposition of these sediments occurs when a streamenters the ocean because the stream currentA) glaciers B) streamsC) winds D) ocean waves65. Which erosional agent typically deposits hills ofunsorted sediments?A) wind B) glacial iceC) running water D) ocean waves66. A deposit of rock particles that are scratched andunsorted has most likely been transported and depositedbyA) wind B) glaciersC) ocean waves D) running water67. How would unsorted piles of angular sediments mostlikely be transported and deposited?