1. A) less dense, more mafic, and thinnerB) less dense, more felsic, and thickerC) more dense, more mafic, and thinnerD) more dense, more felsic, and thicker1. Compared to continental crust, oceanic crust isA) thinner and more denseB) thinner and less denseC) thicker and more denseD) thicker and less dense2. Compared to Earth’s continental crust, Earth’s oceaniccrust isA) thinner and composed of graniteB) thinner and composed of basaltC) thicker and composed of graniteD) thicker and composed of basalt3. Compared to Earths oceanic crust, Earths continentalcrust isA) thicker B) more denseC) more granitic D) more felsic4. Compared to the continental crust, the oceanic crust is5. Base your answer to the following question onthe cross section below, which shows the boundary between two lithospheric plates. Point X is a location inthe continental lithosphere. The depth below Earths surface is labeled in kilometers.A) less dense and thinner B) less dense and thickerC) more dense and thinner D) more dense and thickerCompared to the continental crust, the oceanic crust is
2. A) low density and is maficB) low density and is felsicC) high density and is maficD) high density and is felsic6. When two tectonic plates collide, oceanic crust usuallysubducts beneath continental crust because oceanic crustis primarily composed of igneous rock that hasA) continental crust B) oceanic crustC) plastic mantle D) rigid mantle7. In which part of the Earth are felsic rocks most likely tobe found?A) nitrogen B) oxygenC) silicon D) iron8. Which element is most abundant by mass in the Earthscrust?A) oxygen, potassium, sodium, and calciumB) hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and potassiumC) aluminum, iron, silicon, and magnesiumD) aluminum, calcium, hydrogen, and iron9. What are the four most abundant elements, by volume, inthe Earths crust?10. The diagram below represents a cross section of aportion of the Earths crust where no overturning of therock layers has occurred. Two rock layers are labeled Aand B.A) Deposition occurred before folding or faulting.B) Faulting occurred before folding of the rock layers.C) Faulting occurred before the formation of rocklayer A.D) Folding occurred before the formation of rocklayer B.Which statement describes the most likely sequence ofevents?11. Base your answer on the geologic cross section below.A) folding at AB) the intrusion at BC) faulting at CD) the unconformity at DWhich geologic event occurred most recently?12. The diagram below shows a cross section of a portion ofEarths crust.A) bedrock folding B) bedrock faultingC) stream erosion D) volcanic activityThe hills of this area were formed primarily by13. The diagram below shows the bedrock structure beneatha series of hills.A) folding B) faultingC) deposition D) vulcanismWhich process was primarily responsible for formingthe hills?
3. 14. The diagram below represents a geologic cross sectionof a portion of Earths crust.A) Gayle shaleB) Freeport sandstoneC) Erie coal, but before formation of FreeportsandstoneD) Dunbar limestone, but before formation of EriecoalFolding and erosion occurred after the formation of the15. Base your answer to the following question on the geologic cross section below in which overturning hasnot occurred. Letters A through H represent rock layers.A) folding ® uplift ® erosion ® depositionB) intrusion ® erosion ® folding ® upliftC) erosion ® folding ® deposition ® intrusionD) deposition ® uplift ® erosion ® foldingWhich sequence of events most likely caused the unconformity shown at the bottom of rock layer B?
4. 16. The block diagram below shows a part of the eastern coastline of North America. Points A, B, and C arereference points along the coast.A) A — folding; B — subduction; C — crosscuttingB) A — weathering; B — erosion; C — depositionC) A — faulting; B — conduction; C — mass movementD) A — precipitation; B — infiltration; C — evaporationWhich list best represents the primary processes occurring along the coastline atpoints A, B, and C?17. The diagram below shows a cross section of the Earths crust. Line XY is a fault.A) B)C) D)Which sequence of events, from oldest to youngest, has occurred in this outcrop?
5. 18. The diagrams below show geologic cross sections of thesame part of the Earths crust at different times in thegeologic past.A) A ® B ® C ® D B) C ® D ® A ® BC) C ® A ® D ® B D) A ® C ® B ® DWhich sequence shows the order in which this part ofthe crust probably formed?19. Base your answer to the following question on thediagrams below which represent two rock outcropsfound several miles apart in New York State. Individualrock layers are lettered, and fossils and rock types areindicated.A) F, B, E, D B) C, A, F, DC) F, E, C, A D) C, E, D, AIn which sequence are the rock layers listed in orderfrom oldest to youngest?A) shale schist phyllite slate gneissB) shale slate phyllite schist gneissC) shale gneiss phyllite slate schistD) shale gneiss phyllite schist slate20. Which sequence of change in rock type occurs as shaleis subjected to increasing heat and pressure?21. Base your answer to the following question on Thediagram below shows a geologic cross section. LettersA through D represent different rock units.A) A ® B ® C ®D B) C ® D ® A ®BC) D ® B ®A ®C D) D ® C ® B ®AWhich sequence correctly shows the age of the letteredrock units, from oldest to youngest?
6. 22. Base your answer to the following question on Thecross section below shows rock layers A, B, C, D, andfault F. The rock layers have not been overturned.A) D C B A FB) A B C D FC) F D C B AD) F A B C DWhich sequence places the rock layers and fault inorder from oldest to youngest?23. Base your answer to the following question on Thecross section below shows a rock sequence that has notbeen overturned.A) Shale was deposited.B) Glacial till was deposited.C) Basaltic lava flows solidified.D) Glossopteris flourished and then became extinct.Which event occurred last at this location?
7. 24. Base your answer to the following question on the example of a seismogram and set of instructions fordetermining the Richter magnitude of an earthquake below. The example shows the Richter magnitude ofan earthquake 210 kilometers from a seismic station.Instructions for determining Richter magnitude:• Determine the distance to the epicenter of the earthquake. (The distance in the example is 210kilometers.)• Measure the maximum wave height of the S-wave recorded on the seismogram. (The height in theexample is 23 millimeters.)• Place a straightedge between the distance to the epicenter (210 kilometers) and the height of the largest S-wave (23 millimeters) on the appropriate scales. Draw a line connecting these two points. The magnitudeof the earthquake is determined by where the line intersects the Richter magnitude scale. (The magnitudeof this example is 5.0.)
8. Using the set of instructions and the seismogram and scales below, determinethe Richter magnitude of an earthquake that was located 500 kilometers from thisseismic station.
9. 25. Base your answer to the following question on Theseismogram below shows P-wave and S-wave arrivaltimes at a seismic station following an earthquake.A) 1,600 km B) 3,200 kmC) 4,400 km D) 5,600 kmThe distance from this seismic station to the epicenterof teh earthquake is approximately26. The seismogram below shows the arrival times of an earthquakes P-wave and S-wave recorded at aseismic station in Portland, Oregon.A) 1800 km B) 2500 km C) 3200 km D) 4100 kmWhat was the distance from Portland to the earthquakes epicenter?
10. 27. An earthquake recorded by seismic stations around theworld created the pattern of seismic wave recordingsshown in the diagram belowA) Some seismic waves cannot travel through oceansto reach every location on Earth.B) S-waves are too weak to travel very far from theearthquake focus.C) Mountain ranges and tectonic plate boundariesabsorb or bend seismic waves.D) Layers with different properties inside Earthabsorb or bend seismic waves.Which statement best explains this pattern of waverecordings?28. The seismogram below shows the time that anearthquake P-wave arrived at a seismic station.A) 1,900 km B) 3,200 kmC) 4,000 km D) 5,200 kmIf the earthquake occurred at exactly 10:00 p.m.,approximately how far from the earthquake epicenterfrom the seismic station?
11. 29. Base your answer to question 43 on the seismogram below. The seismogram was recorded at a seismicstation and shows the arrival times of the first P-wave and S-wave from an earthquake.A) P-wave arrival time, onlyB) S-wave arrival time, onlyC) difference in the arrival time of the P-wave and S-waveD) difference in the height of the P-wave and S-waveWhich part of this seismogram is used to find the distance to the epicenter of the earthquake?30. Base your answer to the following question on The diagram below represents three seismograms showingthe same earthquake as it was recorded at three different seismic stations, A, B, and C.A) A is closest to the epicenter, and C is farthest from the epicenter.B) B is closest to the epicenter, and C is farthest from the epicenter.C) C is closest to the epicenter, and A is farthest from the epicenter.D) A is the closest to the epicenter, and B is the farthest from the epicenter.Which statement correctly describes the distance between the earthquake epicenter and these seismicstations?
12. A) 7 minutes 20 secondsB) 5 minutes 10 secondsC) 3 minutes 20 secondsD) 4 minutes 10 seconds31. A seismic station is 2,000 kilometers from anearthquake epicenter. How long does it take an S-waveto travel from the epicenter to the station?A) 4:24 p.m. B) 4:29 p.m.C) 4:36 p.m. D) 4:56 p.m.32. If a seismograph recording station located 5,700kilometers from an epicenter receives a P-wave at 4:45p.m., at which time did the earthquake actually occur atthe epicenter?33. Base your answer to the following question onthe map below which shows epicenters of some of the earthquakes that occurred in North America during a2-week period. Five epicenters are labeled A through E. Denver and New York City are also indicated.A) 1 min 20 sec B) 5 min 40 sec C) 7 min 30 sec D) 10 min 00 secThe distance from epicenter E to New York City is 3,000 kilometers. What was the approximate traveltime for the P-waves from this epicenter to New York City?
13. A) 11 min 15 sec B) 9 min 35 secC) 5 min 20 sec D) 4 min 20 sec34. The epicenter of an earthquake is located 2,800kilometers from a seismic station. Approximately howlong did the S-wave take to travel from the epicenter tothe station?A) 6 mm 40 sec B) 9 mm 40 secC) 15 mm 00 sec D) 19 mm 00 sec35. A P-wave takes 8 minutes and 20 seconds to travelfrom the epicenter of an earthquake to a seismic station.Approximately how long will an S-wave take to travelfrom the epicenter of the same earthquake to thisseismic station?A) When the P-waves and S-waves are near theepicenter, they both travel at the same speed.B) The velocity of P-waves and S-waves is constant,regardless of the distance traveled.C) P-waves always travel faster than S-waves,regardless of the distance traveled.D) S-waves always travel about twice as fast as P-waves.36. Which generalization about earthquake S-waves and P-waves is correct?37. The seismogram below shows the arrival times ofP- and S-waves at a seismic station in hours, minutes,and seconds.A) 1,650 km B) 1,900 kmC) 2,200 km D) 4,100 kmApproximately how far from the earthquake epicenter isthis seismic station?38. Base your answer to the following question on thediagram of the Earth below showing the observedpattern of waves recorded after an earthquake.A) crust in zone 1 B) mantle in zone 2C) crust in zone 3 D) core of the EarthThe location of the epicenter of the earthquake thatproduced the observed wave pattern most likely is in the
14. 39. Base your answer to the following question on the data table below, which gives information collected atseismic stations W, X, Y, and Z for the same earthquake. Some of the data have been omitted.A) W B) X C) Y D) ZWhich seismic station was farthest from the earthquake epicenter?A) 1,000 km B) 1,500 kmC) 2,000 km D) 2,500 km40. A seismograph indicates the difference between thearrival of S-waves and P-waves to be 4 minutes. Thedistance of the seismograph station from theearthquakes epicenter is aboutA) 5:04:30 a.m. B) 5:05:40 a.m.C) 5:10:12 a.m. D) 6:15:00 a. m.41. An earthquake occurred at 5:00:00 a.m. At what timewould the P-wave reach a seismic station 3,000kilometers from the epicenter?A) an iron-rich solid B) an iron-rich liquidC) a silicate-rich solid D) a silicate-rich liquid42. The rock between 2,900 kilometers and 5,200kilometers below the Earths surface is inferred to beA) 6,500ºC B) 4,200ºCC) 3,500ºC D) 1,800ºC43. At a depth of 2,000 kilometers, the temperature of thestiffer mantle is inferred to beA) analyzing worldwide seismic dataB) measuring crustal temperature rangesC) determining crustal density differencesD) observing rock samples from surface bedrock44. The structure of the Earths interior is best inferred byA) an iron-rich solid B) an iron-rich liquidC) a silicate-rich solid D) a silicate-rich liquid45. The rock between 2,900 kilometers and 5,200kilometers below the Earths surface is inferred to be46. Base your answer to the following question on thediagram below, which shows a cutaway view of Earthin which the interior layers are visible. The paths ofearthquake waves generated at point X are shown. A, B,C, and D are locations of seismic stations on Earthssurface, and point E is located in Earths interior.A) 1,500ºC B) 2,900ºCC) 5,000ºC D) 6,200ºCThe actual rock temperature at point E is inferred to beapproximately
15. A) liquid, with an average density of approximately4 g/cm3B) liquid, with an average density of approximately11 g/cm3C) solid, with an average density of approximately4 g/cm3D) solid, with an average density of approximately11 g/cm347. Earth’s outer core is best inferred to beA) liquidB) solidC) composed of a high percentage of ironD) under the same pressure48. Earth’s outer core and inner core are both inferred to beA) the Moon’s interiorB) the Moon’s compositionC) Earth’s surface featuresD) Earth’s seismic data49. Scientists have inferred the structure of Earth’s interiormainly by analyzingA) seismic wavesB) crustal rocksC) radioactive decay ratesD) magnetic pole reversals50. Earth’s inner core is inferred to be solid based on theanalysis ofA) 1000°C B) 2500°CC) 4500°C D) 5000°C51. The inferred temperature at the interface between thestiffer mantle and the asthenosphere is closest toA) 3500°C and 0.4 million atmospheresB) 3500°C and 2.0 million atmospheresC) 5500°C and 0.4 million atmospheresD) 5500°C and 2.0 million atmospheres52. Which combination of temperature and pressure isinferred to occur within Earth’s stiffer mantle?A) crust B) mantleC) outer core D) inner core53. A part of which zone of the Earths interior is inferredto have a density of 10.0 grams per cubic centimeter?A) 1 million atmospheresB) 2 million atmospheresC) 3 million atmospheresD) 4 million atmospheres54. The pressure at the interface between the inner core andouter core of the Earth is inferred to be approximately55. Base your answer to the following question on thediagram below which represents Earths interior zones.A) crust B) mantleC) outer core D) inner coreIn which layer of Earths interior is the inferredtemperature 6,000°C?A) continents moved due to changes in the Earthsorbital velocityB) continents moved due to the Coriolis effect causedby the Earths rotationC) present-day continents of South America andAfrica are moving toward each otherD) present-day continents of South America andAfrica once fit together like puzzle parts56. The theory of continental drift suggests that theA) Basaltic rock is found to be progressively youngerat increasing distances from a mid-ocean ridge.B) Marine fossils are often found in deep-well drillcores.C) The present continents appear to fit together aspieces of a larger landmass.D) Areas of shallow-water seas tend to accumulatesediment, which gradually sinks.57. Which statement best supports the theory of continentaldrift?
16. A) the seafloor is spreadingB) the ocean basins are older than the continentsC) the mid-ocean ridges are higher than the nearbyplainsD) Earths rate of rotation has changed58. Magnetic readings taken across mid-ocean ridgesprovide evidence thatA) African plate and Antarctic plateB) Nazca plate and South American plateC) China plate and Philippine plateD) Australian plate and Eurasian plate59. Seafloor spreading is occurring at the boundarybetween theA) The bedrock of the ridge and nearby seafloor isigneous rock.B) The ridge is the location of irregular volcaniceruptions.C) Several faults cut across the ridge and nearbyseafloor.D) Seafloor bedrock is younger near the ridge andolder farther away.60. Which observation about the Mid-Atlantic Ridge regionprovides the best evidence that the seafloor has beenspreading for millions of years?A) crust B) asthenosphereC) outer core D) inner core61. In which Earth layer are most convection currents thatcause seafloor spreading thought to be located?Base your answers to questions 62 through 64 on thediagram below which shows the magnetic orientationof igneous rock on the seafloor on the east (right) sideof a mid-ocean ridge. The pattern on the west (left) sideof the ridge has been omitted. The age of the igneousrock and its distance from the ridge center are shown.A) The orientation of the Earths magnetic field hasreversed with time.B) The size of the continents has changed with time.C) The elevation of sea level has changed with time.D) The amount of fossil material preserved in theigneous rock has changed with time.62. Which inference can best be made from the diagram?A) B)C) D)63. Which diagram below best represents the pattern ofmagnetic orientation in the seafloor on the west (left)side of the ocean ridge?A) destruction of oceanic crustB) destruction of continental crustC) existence of ancestral mountainsD) existence of rising mantle convection currents64. The occurrence of high-heat floors at the ridge centerprovides evidence of the
17. 65. Base your answer to the following question on Thediagram below shows the interaction of two tectonicplates.A) Antarctic Plate and the African PlateB) Antarctic Plate and the Indian-Australian PlateC) South American Plate and the Nazca PlateD) South American Plate and the African PlateThe type of plate boundary represented in the diagrammost likely exists between theA) at a convergent plate boundaryB) above a mantle hot spotC) above a mid-ocean ridgeD) near the center of a large plate66. According to tectonic plate maps, New York State ispresently located67. Base your answer to the following question on The block diagram below shows the boundary between twotectonic plates.A) divergent B) convergent C) transform D) complexWhich type of plate boundary is shown?
18. 68. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which shows an incomplete conceptmap identifying the types of plate boundaries. Information in the boxes labeled A, B, C, D,and E has beendeliberately omitted.On the geographic map shown above, write the letters D and E on the plate boundary locations where theindicated movements are occurring. Write the letters approximately the same size as shown on the conceptmap and locate the letters directly on the plate boundary.
19. 69. Base your answer to the following question on the world map shown below. Letters A through H representlocations on Earth’s surface.Explain why location A has a greater probability of experiencing a major earthquake than location D.A) the mid-Atlantic ridgeB) the Aleutian trenchC) the Atlantic-Indian ridgeD) the Pacific/North American plate boundary70. Which of the following locations is the site of aconvergent plate boundary?A) B)C) D)71. Which diagram best shows the type of plate boundaryfound between the China Plate and the Philippine Plate?A) Southwest Indian RidgeB) Iceland HotspotC) Marianas TrenchD) Sandwich Plate72. Which of the following is located at a converging plateboundary?A) convergent B) transformC) divergent D) complex73. What type of plate boundary exists between the AfricanPlate and the Antartic Plate?
20. 74. Base your answer to the following question on The mapbelow shows the northern section of the boundarybetween the Arabian Plate and theAfrican Plate.Arrows show the relative direction of plate motion.A) divergent B) subductionC) convergent D) transformWhich type of plate boundary is located at the JordanFault?A) Nazca Plate and Antarctic PlateB) Pacific Plate and Indian-Australian PlateC) Indian-Australian Plate and Antarctic PlateD) Nazca Plate and Pacific Plate75. At which plate boundary is one lithospheric platesliding under another?
21. 76. Base your answer to the following question on Arrows in the block diagram below show the relativemovement along a tectonic plate boundary.A) Nazca Plate and South American Plate B) Eurasian Plate and Indian-Australian PlateC) North American Plate and Eurasian Plate D) Pacific Plate and North American PlateBetween which two tectonic plates does this type of plate boundary exist?
22. Base your answers to questions 77 and 78 on the world map in your answer booklet and on yourknowledge of Earth science. The map shows major earthquakes and volcanic activity occurring from 1996through 2000. Letter A represents a volcano on a crustal plate boundary.77. Identify the type of plate movement responsible for the presence of the volcano at location A.78. Place an X on the map to show the location of the Nazca Plate.
23. 79. The diagram below shows a tectonic plate boundary.A) Hawaii Hot SpotB) Yellowstone Hot SpotC) Galapagos Hot SpotD) Canary Hot SpotWhich mantle hot spot is at a plate boundary like theone shown in this diagram?
24. 80. Base your answer to the following question on The block diagram below shows a tectonic plate boundary.Points A and B represent locations on Earth’s surface.A) B)C) D)Which graph best shows the depths of most major earthquakes whose epicenters lie between A and B?
25. 81. Base your answer to the following question on the map below, which shows the depths of selectedearthquakes along the crustal plate boundary near the west coast of South America. Letters A, B, C, and Dare epicenter locations along a west-to-east line at the surface. The relative depth of each earthquake isindicated.A) B)C) D)Which graph best shows the depth of earthquakes beneath epicenters A, B, C, and D?
26. 82. Base your answer to the following question on the block diagram below. The diagram shows the tectonicplate boundary between Africa and North America 300 million years ago, as these two continents unitedinto a single landmass. The arrows at letters A, B, C, and D represent relative crustal movements. Letter Xshows the eruption of a volcano at that time.Identify the type of tectonic plate motion represented by the arrow shown at D.A) Mid-Atlantic RidgeB) Yellowstone Hot SpotC) San Andreas FaultD) Peru-Chile Trench83. Alternating parallel bands of normal and reversedmagnetic polarity are found in the basaltic bedrock oneither side of theA) Parallel strips of igneous rocks on each side of theridge show matching reversals of magneticpolarity.B) The fossils found on one side of the ridge areyounger than the fossils found on the other side.C) The age of the rocks decreases as the distancefrom the ridge increases.D) Seafloor temperatures increase as the distancefrom the ridge increases.84. Which statement provides evidence that the seafloor isspreading out from both sides of the Mid-AtlanticRidge?A) younger B) thickerC) less dense D) more felsic85. Compared to the continental crust of central NorthAmerica, the oceanic crust of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is86. Which map best represents the general pattern ofmagnetism in the oceanic bedrock near the mid-AtlanticRidge?A) B)C) D)
27. 87. Base your answer to the following question on The diagram below represents the pattern of normal andreversed magnetic polarity and the relative age of the igneous bedrock composing the ocean floor on theeast side of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The magnetic polarity of the bedrock on the west side of the ridge hasbeen deliberately left blank.A) B)C) D)Which diagram best shows the magnetic pattern and relative age of the igneous bedrock on the west side ofthe ridge?
28. 88. The scale below shows the age of rocks in relation totheir distance from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.A) 1.8 million years agoB) 2.0 million years agoC) 3.0 million years agoD) 45.0 million years agoSome igneous rocks that originally formed at theMid-Atlantic Ridge are now 37 kilometers from theridge. Approximately how long ago did these rocksform?89. Base your answer to the following question on the map of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge shown below. Points Athrough D are locations on the ocean floor. Line XY connects locations in North America and Africa.A) B)C) D)In which cross section do the arrows best show the convection occurring within the asthenosphere beneathline XY?
29. 90. Base your answer to the following question on table below, which lists the location of some earthquakes,their Richter magnitude, and their year of occurrence.Identify the process in Earth’s asthenosphere that is inferred to be the cause of tectonic plate motion.
30. Base your answers to questions 91 through 93 on theEarth Science Reference Tables and the diagram below.The diagram is a model which represents one possibleinterpretation of the movements of the Earths rocksurfaces according to the theory of plate tectonics(continental drift and sea floor spreading). According tothis interpretation, the Earths lithosphere consists ofseveral large "plates" which are moving in relationshipto one another. The arrows in the diagram show some ofthis relative motion of the "plates." The diagram showsthe age of formation of the igneous rocks that make upthe oceanic crust of the northern section of the PacificPlate.A) North America and South America are movingtoward each other.B) The India Plate is moving away from the EurasiaPlate.C) The Africa Plate and Eurasia Plate are movingaway from the America Plate.D) The Antarctica Plate is moving away from theAmerica Plate.91. Which statement is best supported by the relativemovement shown by the arrows in the diagram?A) thick continental crustB) thick layers of sedimentC) mid-ocean ridgeD) granitic igneous rock92. Which geologic structure is represented by the doubleline separating the America Plate from the Africa andEurasia Plates?A) convection currents in the mantleB) faulting of the lithosphereC) the spin of the Earth on its axisD) prevailing wind belts of the troposphere93. Which provides the best explanation of the mechanismthat causes these "plates" to move across the Earthssurface?A) convection currents exist in the asthenosphereB) meteor craters are found beneath the oceansC) climate change has melted huge glaciersD) marine fossils have been uplifted to highelevations94. Hot springs on the ocean floor near the midocean ridgesprovide evidence thatA) differences in densities of earth materialsB) subsidence of the crustC) occurrence of earthquakesD) rotation of the Earth95. The primary cause of convection currents in the Earthsmantle is believed to be the
31. 96. Base your answer to the following question on theinformation below.A camper takes a 100-gram piece of basalt rock from acampfire and places it in a cup holding 250 milliliters ofwater. The temperature of the rock is 300ºC and thetemperature of the water is 20ºC. Air temperature alsois 20ºC.A) B)C) D)Which diagram best represents the convection currentsin the cup of water after the warm piece of basalt wasplaced in it?A) B)C) D)97. Which diagram best represents the convection currentsin a container of water when the bottom of thecontainer is heated at the center?A) B)C) D)98. Which diagram best represents the direction ofconvection currents around the burning wood of acampfire?A) rigid mantle B) asthenosphereC) outer core D) inner core99. Which part of Earth’s interior is inferred to haveconvection currents that cause tectonic plates to move?A) B)C) D)100. Which cross-sectional diagram of Earth’sasthenosphere best shows the convection currents thatwould cause crustal plate X to drift away from crustalplate Y?101. Which cross-sectional diagram of a portion of the crustand mantle best shows the pattern of mantleconvection currents that are believed to cause theformation of a mid-ocean ridge?A)B)C)D)A) 50° N, 120° W B) 25° N, 158° EC) 25° N, 158° W D) 25° S, 158° E102. Approximately what are the coordinates of the HawaiiHot Spot?A) 32° S 18° W B) 32° S 18° EC) 32° N 18° W D) 32° N 18° E103. What is the approximate location of the CanaryIslands hot spot?A) South American B) AntarcticC) Nazca D) Pacific104. On which plate is the Hawaii Hot Spot located?
32. 105. The cross section below shows the direction ofmovement of an oceanic plate over a mantle hot spot,resulting in the formation of a chain of volcanoeslabeled A, B, C, and D. The geologic age of volcano Cis shown.A) B is 5 million years old and D is 12 million yearsold.B) B is 2 million years old and D is 6 million yearsold.C) B is 9 million years old and D is 9 million yearsold.D) B is 10 million years old and D is 4 million yearsold.What are the most likely geologic ages of volcanoes Band D?
33. 106. Base your answer to the following question on The block diagram below shows the bedrock age asmeasured by radioactive dating and the present location of part of the Hawaiian Island chain. Thesevolcanic islands may have formed as the Pacific Plate moved over a mantle hot spot.A) south B) east C) southwest D) northwestThis diagram provides evidence that the Pacific Crustal Plate was moving toward the