1. A) luster of the mineralB) age of the mineralC) internal arrangement of the minerals atomsD) force with which the mineral is broken1. Certain minerals usually break along flat surfaces, whileother minerals break unevenly. This characteristic is dueto theA) Most rocks have a number of minerals in common.B) Most rocks are composed of a single mineral.C) All rocks contain fossils.D) All rocks contain minerals formed by compressionand cementation.2. Which statement best describes a general property ofrocks?A) oxygen B) nitrogenC) hydrogen D) iron3. Which element in the Earths crust makes up the largestvolume of most minerals?A) oxygen B) nitrogenC) potassium D) hydrogen4. Which element combines with silicon to form thetetrahedral unit of structure of the silicate minerals?A) oxygen B) nitrogenC) hydrogen D) iron5. Which element in the Earths crust makes up the largestvolume of most minerals?A) internal arrangement of atomsB) external arrangement of flat surfacesC) number of pointed edgesD) member of cleavage planes6. Differences in hardness between minerals are most likelycaused by the7. Base your answer to the following question on Mohsmineral hardness scale and on the chart below showingthe approximate hardness of some common objects.A) minerals colorB) minerals abundance in natureC) amount of iron the mineral containsD) internal arrangement of the minerals atomsThe hardness of these minerals is most closely related totheA) internal arrangement of atomsB) external arrangement of flat surfacesC) number of pointed edgesD) number of cleavage planes8. Differences in hardness between minerals are most likelycaused by theA) These minerals have the same chemical andphysical properties.B) These minerals have different chemical properties,but they have similar physical properties.C) These minerals have different physical andchemical properties, but they have identical uses.D) The physical and chemical properties of theseminerals determine how humans use them.9. Which statement about the minerals plagioclase feldspar,gypsum, biotite mica, and talc can best be inferred fromthe chart?A) graphite, talc, and selenite gypsumB) potassium feldspar, quartz, and amphiboleC) calcite, dolomite, and pyroxeneD) biotite mica, fluorite, and garnet10. Silicate minerals contain the elements silicon andoxygen. Which list contains only silicate materials?
2. A) The atoms are lighter in graphite than in diamond.B) The atoms are heavier in graphite than in diamond.C) The atoms are bonded together more strongly indiamond than in graphite.D) The atoms are smaller in graphite than in diamond.11. Two minerals made of pure carbon are diamond andgraphite. Which statement best explains why diamondis so much more resistant to scratching than graphite?12. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram and table below. The diagram represents afelsic igneous rock. Letters A, B, and C represent three different minerals in the rock sample. The tabledescribes the physical properties of minerals A, B, and C found in the igneous rock sample.State the names of minerals A, B, and C.
3. 13. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which shows three minerals with threedifferent physical tests, A, B, and C, being performed on them.A) rate of weathering of the minerals B) identity of the mineralsC) environment where the minerals formed D) geologic period when the minerals formedThe results of all three physical tests shown are most useful for determining the
4. 14. Base your answer to the following question on The datatable below shows the composition of six commonrock-forming minerals.A) the same elements are found in all mineralsB) a few elements are found in many mineralsC) all elements are found in only a few mineralsD) all elements are found in all mineralsThe data table provides evidence that15. Base your answer to the following question on Astudent created the table below by classify six mineralsinto two groups, A and B , based on a single property.A) colorB) lusterC) chemical compositionD) hardnessWhich property was used to classify’ these minerals?16. Base your answer to the following question on The table below shows some properties of four differentminerals.A) garnet B) magnetite C) quartz D) olivineThe minerals listed in the table are varieties of which mineral?
5. A) hardness B) textureC) color D) luster17. One of the most abundant minerals in beach sand isquartz. Which property of quartz could account for itsabundance?A) calcite and haliteB) sulfur and fluoriteC) graphite and talcD) pyrite and magnetite18. A human fingernail has a hardness of approximately2.5. Which two minerals are softer than a humanfingernail?A) Rocks A and C are made of larger particles thanrock B.B) The particles in rocks A and C are more firmlycemented than those in rock B.C) The minerals in rocks A and C erode faster thanthose in rock B.D) Rocks A and C have not been exposed toweathering as long as rock B.19. What is the best explanation for the shape of the cliff inthe diagram?20. The diagrams below illustrate a specific property ofcertain minerals.A) arrangement of atoms in the mineralB) impurities found in the mineralC) softness of the mineralD) density of the mineralThis property is most closely related to the21. The diagrams below represent fractured samples of fourminerals.A) hardness B) streakC) cleavage D) densityWhich mineral property is best illustrated by thesamples?
6. Base your answers to questions 22 through 24 on the two tables below and on your knowledge of Earthscience. Table 1 shows the composition, hardness, and average density of four minerals often used asgemstones. Table 2 lists the minerals in Moh’s Scale of Hardness from 1 (softest) to 10 (hardest).A) emerald and spinel B) emerald and zirconC) sapphire and spinel D) sapphire and zircon22. Which gemstone minerals contain the two most abundant elements by mass in Earth’s crust?A) internal arrangement of atoms B) geologic time of formationC) oxygen content D) natural abundance23. The hardness and density of each gemstone is based primarily on the gemstone’sA) fracture B) hardness C) luster D) streak24. Part of a gemstone’s value is based on the way the gemstone shines in reflected light. The way a mineralreflects light is described as the mineral’s
7. 25. Base your answer to the following question on map below, which shows areas where certain minerals weremined in significant amounts during 1989.A) making talcum powder B) vulcanizing rubberC) polishing jewelry D) melting iceWhat is a common use for the mineral that is mined at the southern end of the two largest Finger Lakes?