A) perfect sphereB) perfect ellipseC) slightly oblate sphereD) highly eccentric ellipse1. The true shape of the Earth is best described as a2. The table below shows the distance that an observer musttravel on a north-south line along the surface of the Earthin order to change the observed altitude of Polaris by 5º.A) is a perfect sphereB) is flattened at the EquatorC) has a curved surfaceD) has a very smooth surfaceThe best inference about the Earths shape that can bemade from these observations is that the EarthA) photographs of the Earth taken from space satellitesB) the amount of daylight received at the North Poleon June 21C) the changing orbital speed of the Earth in its orbitaround the SunD) the cyclic change of seasons3. The best evidence that the Earth has a spherical shape isprovided byA) greatest in diameter at the EquatorB) greatest in diameter at the polesC) a perfect sphereD) pear shaped4. Measurements taken from space show the Earth to beA) Polaris is located directly over the Tropic of CancerB) Polaris is the brightest and most easily located starC) the altitude of Polaris is equal to the observerslatitudeD) the position of Polaris changes with the seasons5. The North Star (Polaris) can be used for navigation inEarths Northern Hemisphere becauseA) apparent diameter of PolarisB) altitude of PolarisC) distance to the SunD) apparent diameter of the Sun6. The latitude of a point in the Northern Hemisphere maybe determined by measuring theA) 43º B) 47º C) 75º D) 90º7. From Utica, New York, Polaris is observed at analtitude of approximately8. Base your answer to the following question onThe group of stars known as the Big Dipper can be usedto locate the North Star (Polaris) in the night sky. On thediagram of the Big Dipper provided draw a straightarrow passing through two stars to indicate the directionto Polaris.A) The angle of Polaris above the northern horizondecreases.B) The angle of Polaris above the northern horizonincreases.C) Polaris appears to move westward.D) Polaris appears to move eastward.9. How does the position of Polaris appear to change as anobserver travels due north from the Equator?A) 0º B) 23 ½ºN.C) 90º S. D) 90º N.10. At which latitude will Polaris be overhead?
A) B)C) D)11. Which graph best represents the relationship betweenthe latitude of an observer and the observed altitude ofPolaris above the northern horizon?A)B)C)D)12. Which graph best represents the altitude of Polarisobserved at northern latitude positions on the Earthssurface?A)B)C)D)13. Which diagram best represents the location of Polarisfor an observer located at the Equator?
A)B)C)D)14. Which diagram best shows the altitude of Polarisobserved near Buffalo, New York?A) EquatorB) Tropic of CancerC) Arctic CircleD) central New York State15. At which location will the highest altitude of the starPolaris be observed?A) B)C) D)16. Which diagram represents the approximate altitude ofPolaris as seen by an observer located Syracuse, NewYork?A) Jamestown B) PlattsburghC) Oswego D) New York City17. At which New York State location will an observermost likely measure the altitude of Polaris asapproximately 42°?A) 37º South B) 53º NorthC) 37º North D) 90º North18. At what latitude would an observer on the Earth findthe altitude of Polaris to be 37º?A) Watertown B) ElmiraC) Buffalo D) Kingston19. An observer in New York State measures the altitude ofPolaris to be 44º. The location of the observer isnearest toA) 23° B) 35° C) 44° D) 90°20. Which altitude of Polaris could be observed in NewYork State?A) nearly spherical shapeB) nearly circular orbit around the SunC) variable length of dayD) fairly constant period of revolution21. The latitude of an observer on Earths surface can bedetermined by measuring the altitude of Polarisbecause Earth has aA) Niagara Falls B) ElmiraC) Watertown D) Massena22. At which location is the altitude of Polarisapproximately 42°?A) Watertown B) MassenaC) Buffalo D) New York City23. What could be the approximate location of an observerif he measured the altitude of Polaris to be 41 degreesabove the horizon?A) latitude B) longitudeC) solar time D) local time24. The angle of the star Polaris above the northernhorizon can be used to determine an observersA) 0° latitude B) 0° longitudeC) Tropic of Cancer D) Tropic of Capricorn25. Which reference line passes through both thegeographic North Pole and the geographic South Pole?A) 0º longitude, 65º South latitudeB) 0º longitude, 65º North latitudeC) 0º latitude, 65º West longitudeD) 0º latitude, 65º East longitude26. As a ship crosses the Prime Meridian, the altitude ofPolaris is 65º. What is the ships location?
27. The diagrams below show apparent changes in the positions of the stars in the Big Dipper that haveoccurred in the past 200,000 years. The directions of individual star movements as seen from Earth areshown by the arrows.A) B)C) D)Which diagram best represents how the Big Dipper will appear when viewed from Earth in 20,000 years?28. Base your answer to the following question on Thediagram below shows an observer on Earth viewing thestar Polaris.A) 38° N B) 38° S C) 52° N D) 52° SWhat is the observers latitude?
29. Which statement about Polaris is best illustrated by thediagrams shown below?A) Polaris is located in a winter constellationB) Polaris is located at the zenith at each location.C) Polaris apparent movement through the skyfollows a south-to-north orientation.D) Polaris altitude is equal to a locations latitude.