Absorption 2nThe diffusion of small molecules Diploid; the normal number of into cell. chromosomes for the species. In humans the 2n number is 46. acid rain amino acidThe result of atmospheric moisture The basic building block of proteins. in the air mixing with emissions They contain an amine group containing oxides of sulfur and and a carboxyl group. nitrogen
Amniocentesis AntibioticA procedure that removes amniotic A substance that kills bacteria. fluid containing fetal cells for analysis to determine the presence of genetic defects. Autotroph BacteriaAn organism that can use the A group of monerans, mostly heterotrophs, that can have either a energy from the sun or chemical round, rod or spiral shape. Some reactions to make organic are disease-producing; many are nutrients from inorganic decomposers. materials.
Benedicts solution biological controlA reagent used to test for simple The use of biological methods of sugars. If the test is positive, the pest control such as species solution turns brick red or green. specific sex lures or natural parasites. carbohydrate catalystAn organic nutrient made of carbon, A chemical that speeds up the rate hydrogen and oxygen and a of a chemical reaction but is not primary fuel in cellular used up. respiration
cell membrane cell wallThe semi-permeable outer The rigid porous structure that boundary of the cell. It is made surrounds the cells of plants and of lipids and protein. some microorganisms. chromosome circulationA structure found in the nucleus The transport of materials within a that is made of DNA and cell or between parts of a protein. It contains the multicellular organism. hereditary information.
cleavage cloningThe first mitotic divisions of the The production of genetically zygote. There is an increase in identically organisms. the number of cells but a decrease in size of theindividual cells. codon competitionA sequence of three nitrogenous The struggle that results when bases in the messenger RNA more than one species has the sequence that are specific for same requirements for survival. one amino acid.
consumer crossing-overA heterotroph; an organism that The equal exchange of genetic cannot make its own food and material by homologous must ingest (eat) organic chromosomes during the nutrients. synapsis of meiosis. Cystic fibrosis (CF) cytoplasmAn inherited disease in which a The fluid found between the defective gene causes the body to nucleus and the cell membrane. produce an abnormally thick mucus that clogs the lungs and leads to life-threatening lung infections.
Darwin deforestationThe scientist who developed the The removal or destruction of a evolutionary theory of natural forest by cutting down or selection. burning the trees without replacing them. denaturation Deoxygenated DeoxygenatedA change in the structure of a protein State of blood when it is returning molecule due to high temperatures to the heart via veins, except or other factors. The change in the pulmonary veins. shape causes the protein to lose the ability to function.
digestion disaccharideThe enzyme controlled process that A molecule made of two changes large insoluble monosaccharides. molecules into small soluble molecules. double helix ecologyThe shape of the DNA molecule, The study of the interactions of the spiral shape formed by the living things and their parallel strands. environment.
endocrine system estrogenThe specialized ductless glands A hormone secreted by the ovaries which secrete hormones that which aids in the control of the are responsible for regulating menstrual cycle and promotes the bodily activities. development of the female secondary sexual characteristics. extinction fallopian tubes / OviductThe destruction of all members of a The oviducts of placental particular species. mammals. The tubes that carry the egg from the ovary to the uterus.
fatty acid feedbackAn organic molecule that contains A mechanism that responds to the carboxyl (-COOH) group change by causing a response. attached to a carbon chain. It is one of the building blocks of lipids. food chain FungiA series of organisms, starting with A kingdom which contains a producer, through which food multicellular plantlike organisms energy is passed in an that lack chlorophyl and so are ecosystem. not photosynthetic.
gametes gastrulationMonoploid sex cells produced in The process by which one side of gonads by meiotic cell division. the blastula pushes in to form a Sperm and egg. two-layered gastrula. genetic engineering global warmingThe process which transfers genes A condition that occurs when to another organisms DNA carbon dioxide in the resulting in recombinant DNA. atmosphere absorbs heat radiated from the earths surface.
glucose growthA monosaccharide that is the primary An increase the size or the number source of cellular energy in most organisms. It is one of the basic of cells in an organism. building blocks of polysaccharide carbohydrates. habitat heredityThe portion of the environment in The sum total of genetically which an organism exists. inherited characteristics which are passed from parents to offspring.
heterotroph homeostasisAn organism that cannot make its The maintenance of a stable own food and therefore must internal environment. ingest (eat) organic nutrients. hybrid hydrolysisHeterozygous. The pair of genes An enzyme-controlled reaction in for a trait are not alike, for which large insoluble molecules example Tt. are broken down into small soluble molecules when water is added; digestion.
indicator internal fertilizationA substance that changes color to The fertilization of the egg inside show that a particular chemical the body of the female. is present or that a reaction has occurred. intestine iodineA specialized section of the An element that is needed for the alimentary canal where proper functioning of the thyroid. digestion and absorption takes place.
large intestine leukemiaA section of the digestive tube A type of cancer which produced where water is reabsorbed from large numbers of non-functional the undigestable material. white blood cells. limiting factor lymphA nonliving, physical factor that The intercellular fluid (ICF) found in limits the type of organisms that the lymphatic vessels. can exist in a particular ecosystem.
menstrual cycle mesodermThe hormone-controlled cycle The germ layer located between during which the egg matures the endoderm and the and is released, and the uterine ectoderm. lining prepares to receive it. metabolic wastes microorganismThe wastes produced as a result of Any organism that is so small that it metabolism, including carbon can only be seen by using a dioxide, water, nitrogenous microscope. wastes and salts.
mitosis, mitotic cell division MoneraCell division which results in two A kingdom which contains simple cells each containing the diploid organisms that lack an (2n) number of chromosomes. organized nucleus (prokaryotic), such as blue green algae and bacteria. multicellular mutationComposed of many cells. A change in the genetic material.
natural selection nephronDarwins evolutionary theory that states that there are variations in organisms that will The functional unit of the human make some organisms better fitted for kidney. These microscopic survival than others. Those organisms structures filter wastes from the survive, reproduce and pass those variations on to their offspring. blood. nervous system neurotramsmitterA system which allows an organism A chemical released into the to respond to stimuli; the neuron synapse by the terminal is the basic unit. branches of neurons. It stimulates impulses in the next neuron.
optimum organelleThe best range that an organism A structure found in the cell that can function in. performs a specific function. passive transport phagocytosisDiffusion. The movement of The process by which the a cell molecules from an area of high flows around matter and engulf concentration to low it in a vacuole. concentration without the use of energy.
pioneer organisms / species pituitary glandThe first organisms to live in an The "Master Gland" located in the area. brain. It secretes numerous hormones that affect other endocrine glands. plasma membrane polar bodiesThe cell membrane. The semi- The small daughter cells produced permeable outer boundary of as the egg is formed by meiotic the cell. cell divisions.
polypeptide proteinA large protein composed of many An organic compound made of amino acids joined by peptide amino acids. bonds. punctuated equilibrium receptor moleculeA theory of evolution which suggests A molecule that is very specific in that species have long periods of its action because of its shape. stability interrupted by brief periods Its shape allows it to recognize of significant change during which new species are formed. a specific stimulus and initiate a response to it.
RNA (ribonucleic acid) root hairsA nucleic acid composed of a Hairlike extensions of epidermal phosphate, ribose and one of root cells which increase the four nitrogenous bases; surface area for absorption. adenine, uracil, cytosine orguanine. semen sex cellsA mixture of sperm and fluids that The gametes, sperm and egg is ejaculated through the urethra in males.
simple sugars small intestineMonosaccharides such as glucose, A long coiled tube that is the site of galactose and fructose. most of the chemical digestion and absorption that takes place in the digestive tract. sperm synapseThe male monoploid (n) gamete, The gap between communicating sex cell. neurons. Neurotransmitters cross this gap and trigger the next impulse in the neuron.
theory transpirationA hypothesis that has been tested Loss of water vapor through the many times to verify its stomates of the leaf. accuracy. ulcers uracilOpen sores in the interior walls of A nitrogenous base found in RNA. the digestive tract.
urinary system variationThe system involved in the A trait found in an individual that is production and excretion of different from the typical trait urine. It includes the kidneys, found in members of that ureters, bladder and urethra. species. virus zygoteA disease-causing organism The fertilized egg. First cell after consisting of a protein coat fertilization to be diploid (2n) surrounding DNA or RNA.
active transport alveoliA process that uses energy to The respiratory surface of the transport materials from an area human lung. Gas exchange of low concentration to high takes place between its thin concentration. That is against moist membranes and the the concentration gradient. capillaries of the bloodstream. antibody bileA protein produced by lymphocytes, A secretion of the liver that which reacts with a specific emulsifies fats. It is stored in the foreign substance, or antigen, gall bladder. and deactivates it.
biodiversity cancerDifferences and variety in the A disease characterized by the organisms and their roles in an rapid mitotic division of ecosystem. abnormal or non-functional cells. carrying capacity cellular respirationThe maximum number of The enzyme controlled process in organisms that an ecosystem which energy is released from can support without food and converted into a form deteriorating. that the cell can use.
chromotography circulatory systemA technique which is used to The system used to distribute separate and analyze materials in an organism. chemicals. TRANSPORT climax community dehydration synthesisThe mature, stable, community that The process by which two small is the final stage of ecological molecules are joined to form a succession. larger molecule as water is removed.
dendrite differentiationBranches of a nerve cell that carry The processes that causes the impulses from receptors to the cells of an organism to develop nerve cell body. into speccialized tissues and organs. The cells get their different jobs. Downs Syndrome embryoA genetic disorder caused by non- An organism in the early stages of disjunction of chromosome 21 in development. gamete formation, resulting in an individual having three 21st chromosomes.
endoderm enzymeThe innermost layer of cells in a A proteins that speeds up the rate simple animal. The innermost of biochemical reactions. An primary germ layer in an organic catalyst. embryo. excretory system extracellularThe system of organs used to get Outside the cell. rid of metabolic wastes.
fertilization enzymeThe fusion of two monoploid A proteins that speeds up the rate gametes (sperm and egg) to of biochemical reactions. An produce a diploid zygote. organic catalyst. excretory system fluid mosaic modelThe system of organs used to get A model of the cell membrane rid of metabolic wastes. which suggests that the membrane is primarily composed of proteins and lipids.
gametogenesis gel electrophoresisMeiotic cell division in a gonad A method used to separate DNA which produces monoploid fragments on the basis of their gametes. size. Golgi body hormoneA cytoplasmic organelle composed A secretion that is released directly of flattened membranes. It into the bloodstream by an synthesizes, packages and endocrine gland. secretes cellular products.
kidney life functionsThe principle excretory organ of the The activities that a living thing urinary system. must carry out to remain alive. Lugols iodine lysosomeA stain that indicates the presence A small, saclike organelle that of starch by turning from rust contains hydrolytic enzymes. color to blue-black. The center of cellular digestion.
meiosis, meiotic cell division menstruationCell division in gonads which separates The periodic shedding of the the pairs of homologous chromosomes and results in 4 uterine lining. gametes each having the monoploid (n) number of chromosomes. messenger RNA negative feedback systemAn RNA molecule with a specific An endocrine control mechanism code for a polypeptide. This that responds to increased code is determined by the levels of one hormone by sequence of bases of the DNA decreasing the level of another. molecule in the nucleus.
nucleotide nucleotide nutritionThe basic unit of nucleic acids. It The taking in and processing of consists of a 5-carbon sugar food to make it usable. bonded to a phosphate and a nitrogenous base. organ ozoneA group of tissues that carry out the Another form of oxygen having the same function. formula O3.
pancreas peptide bondAn organ which produces both The bond forms between two amino digestive enzymes and acids as a result of dehydration hormones. It is both an synthesis. endocrine and an exocrine gland. pH photosynthesisA scale that measures the acidity or The process by which green plants basicity of a solution. (autotrophs) convert light energy to chemical bond energy stored in organic nutrients.
protein synthesis sexual reproductionThe making of a protein from amino A form of reproduction in which two acids by matching the anticodon gametes fuse to form a new of the transfer RNA to the codon individual. of the messenger RNA. starch stomachA carbohydrate composed of many A thick-walled, muscular, glucose molecules; a expandable sac in the digestive polysaccharide. system where food is temporarily stored and protein digestion begins.
succession synthesisThe replacement of one type of A chemical process in which small community by another until the molecules are joined make large stable climax community, which molecules. remains until it is destroyed by some catastrophe. undifferentiated tissue vaccineCells that are unspecialized. They A serum that is injected into the can develop into specialized bloodstream or taken orally, providing immunity from a specific tissues or organs. disease. It contains weakened or dead disease causing-organisms. This stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies that will result in developing immunity to the specific disease.
aerobic respiration ancestorRespiration that uses molecular One from whom an organism is oxygen. It produces 36 ATP as descended. For example, one glucose molecule is parents, grandparents and oxidized to carbon dioxide and great-grandparents. water. antigen blastulaA foreign substance that causes The hollow-ball stage in the the immune system to respond development of the embryo. by producing antibodies.
budding carbon dioxideAsexual reproduction by mitotic cell CO2 An inorganic clear colorless division which results in two gas released a 2 s an end identical organisms of unequal product of respiration. size. cell theory central nervous systemThe theory that states: The brain and the spinal cord.Cells are the structural units in living things.Cells are the functional units in living things.New cells arise from preexisting cells.
cilia, cillium communityShort hair-like organelles on the All the plant and animal populations surface of some cells. They are in a given area. capable of movement and are used by some protists for locomotion. decomposers dependent variableOrganisms of decay which convert The experimental variable that changes as a result of the manipulation of the organic compounds into independent variable. For example, the inorganic compounds. change in height due to differences in sunlight. The dependent variable is always plotted on the y-axis.
diabetes diffusionA disorder caused by insufficient The movement of molecules from production of insulin resulting in an area of high concentration to high blood sugar levels. low concentration without the use of energy. . digestive system DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)The specialized organs that act on The nucleic acid that stores the nutrients as they are digested hereditary information, that is, and absorbed by an organism. the genetic material.
ectoderm endocrine glandsThe outermost layer of cells in a Ductless glands which produce simple animal. The outermost hormones that are secreted primary germ layer in an directly into the bloodstream. embryo. digestive system endoplasmic reticulumThe specialized organs that act on A system of membrane enclosed, nutrients as they are digested fluid filled canals that form a and absorbed by an organism. network within the cytoplasm of the cell. Sometimes ribosomes are attached to it.
external fertilization fertilized eggFertilization that takes place outside An egg that has fused with a sperm of the mothers body. cell to form a 2n zygote. food webs guard cellsA series of interconnecting food Specialized cells that are found on chains in an ecosystem. the lower epidermis of leaves. They contain chloroplasts and control the openingof the stomates.
immune system independent variableAll the bodily structures involved in The experimental variable that a producing antibodies. scientist manipulates in order to cause a change in the dependent variable. For insulin liverA hormone produced by the Islands A large multi-purpose organ that of Langerhans in the pancreas. produces bile, removes toxins It lowers blood sugar levels. from the blood, deaminates excess amino acids and produces urea.
lung nAn organ found in vertebrate Letter to represent Monoploid; animals that is used for having only one chromosome breathing and exchanging from each of the homologous gases between the blood and pairs. the atmosphere. niche nucleic acidAn organisms particular role in the An organic compound composed of community. a phosphate, a 5-carbon sugar and a nitrogenous base. DNA or RNA.
nucleus organ systemIn the cell, a large membrane A group of organs that work enclosed organelle that contains together to carry out the major the chromosomes. functions of organisms. Ex. the digestive system. oviduct receptorA tube in which carries the egg A sense organ. A specialized away from the ovary. structure of the nervous system that is sensitive to a certain kind of stimulus.
ribosome sickle cell anemiaThe organelle that is the site of A recessive genetic disease in which protein synthesis in the cell. the hemoglobin is abnormal and the red blood cells have an abnormal shape. It is found most frequently in individuals of African descent system tissueA group of organs that work A group of cells that carry out the together to carry out a specific same function. life function.
transport ureterThe movement of materials from The tube which carries urine from place to place. the kidney to the urinary bladder. urinary bladder villiThe organ which temporarily stores Finger-like projections in the lining urine from the kidneys. of the small intestine that increase the surface area for absorption.