1. L.O: students willreview the 117 ways topass the Earth Scienceregents exam.
2. Go to:www.slideshare.net/Lexume1This site has ALL my reviewpowerpoints (including this one) andlots and lots of questions!
3. 1. The same substancealways has the samedensity
4. 2.As pressureincreases,density increases
5. 3.As temperatureincreases, densitydecreases
6. 4.Water expandswhen it freezes
7. 5.Most changes in nature are cyclic.cyclic changes are predictable (theyhappen over and over.)ex: tides, the movement of celestial(space) objects, the seasons, earth’smovements are cyclic
8. examples of cyclic changes: the tides,the movement of celestial (space)objects, the seasons earth’smovements thru space are cyLIC
9. 6.Water is mostdense at 4oC, when itis a liquidLiquid water more dense than ice(solid water)
10. 7.The Universe beganwith the Big Bangexplosion 13.7 Billionyears ago..
11. The red shifting.Even today all the galaxies continue tomove outward from original explosion
12. The cosmic backgroundradiation is other proof ofbig bang.
13. 8.The true shape of theEarth is an OblateSpheroid, but fromspace it looks like asphere.8.The best model of the Earth is a sphere
14. 9.The altitude of Polarisequals your latitude
15. 9.The altitude of Polarisequals your latitudeWhat is the latitudeof this observer?a. 43° Nb. 43° Sc. 47° Nd. 47° S
16. 9.The altitude of Polarisequals your latitudeWhat is the latitudeof this observer?a. 90º Nb. 66.5º Nc. 43º Nd. 23.5º N
17. 10. Our solar system is located inone spiral arm of the milky waygalaxy.
18. Base your answer on The diagram below represents aside view of the milky way Galaxy.
At approximately whichposition is Earth’s solar system located?a. Ab. Bc. Cd. D
19. 10. Our solar system is located in one spiralarm of the milky way galaxy. And ourgalaxy is part of the universe.
20. ESRT page: has information on stars
21. ESRT page: has information on theplanets
22. 11.Latitude lines go east-west, just like the equator,but measure distancesnorth or south.
23. 12.Longitude lines gonorth-south, butmeasure distanceseast or west.
24. 13.Longitude isbased onobservations of thesun
25. 14.Use the reference tables:
26. Page: has latitude & longitude of NewYork state cities
27. 15.The closer the isolines (contour-isobar-isotherms-) are the steeper the slope orgradientClose lines =Steep slopeFar apart lines =Gentle slope
28. 15.The closer the isolines (contour-isobar-isotherms-) are the steeper the slope orgradient
29. 15.The closer the isolines (contour-isobar-isotherms-) are the steeper the slope orgradientWhat evidenceindicates that theocean floor has asteep slope at pointC?
30. 15.The closer the isolines (contour-isobar-isotherms-) are the steeper the slope orgradientWhat evidenceindicates that theocean floor has asteep slope at pointC?CorrectAnswer: Isolines areclose together
31. At the time that the weatherdata were collected, Albanywas most probablyexperiencinga. a high wind velocityb. a high temperaturec. the passage of a dry airmassd. the passage of a warm airmassBase your answer on The weather mapbelow shows closely spaced isobars in theregion of Albany, New York.
32. At the time that the weatherdata were collected, Albanywas most probablyexperiencinga. a high wind velocityb. a high temperaturec. the passage of a dry airmassd. the passage of a warm airmassBase your answer on The weather mapbelow shows closely spaced isobars in theregion of Albany, New York.
33. 16.The earth rotates from west toeast (24 hours). 15 degrees perhour.
34. The two evidence of Earth rotation: Foucault’spendulum and the coriolis effect
35. The apparent change of direction of Foucault’spendulum evidence that Earth rotates
36. The Coriolis effect (the curving of Earth’s planetarywinds) evidence that Earth rotates
37. 17.The earth revolves counterclockwisearound the Sun( 1 degree per day. 365 1/4 days)
38. The seasonal (yearly) change in theconstellations is evidence that Earthrevolves around the Sun.
39. 18.All celestial objects appear tomove west at a rate of 15 degrees perhour
40. 19.The moon has phases because of itrevolves around The Earth and we viewthe lit part at different angles (rememberthat half is always lit by the Sun)
41. and we view the lit part at differentangles (remember that half is alwayslit by the Sun)
42. Beginning with the Moon at position X (thenew-Moon phase), which sequence ofMoon phases would be seen by anobserver on Earth during 1 month
43. Beginning with the Moon at position X (thenew-Moon phase), which sequence ofMoon phases would be seen by anobserver on Earth during 1 month
44. 20.Planets appear to go backwards(retrograde) as the earth passesthem in space
45. 21. June 21st: 1st day of summer (summersolstice)Tropic of Cancer gets highest angle ofinsolation . The Northern Hemisphere“leans” towards Sun
46. The day is longest on June 21st becauseSun’s path across sky is longest.
47. 22.Winter solstice is December 21st.Northern hemisphere leans away fromSun. (but Earth is actually physically closerto Sun)
48. 22.Winter solstice is December 21st.Tropic of Capricorn gets the most directrays of insolation
49. The day is shortest on December 21stbecause Sun’s path across sky isshortest.
50. 23.Equinoxes: March 21st andSeptember 23rd. 12 hours of day & 12hours of night.
51. 24.Equator always has 12 hoursof day-light
52. The sun rises EXACTLY east and setsEXACTLY west on SEPT 23 and MARCH21.
53. On JUNE 21 the sun rises NORTH ofeast and sets NORTH of west.
54. On DECEMBER 21 the sun rises SOUTHof east and sets SOUTH of west.
55. 25.The lower the altitude of the sun,the longer the shadow it casts
56. 25.The lower the altitude of the sun,the longer the shadow it casts
57. 25.The lower the altitude of the sun,the longer the shadow it casts
58. 26.Foucaults pendulum and theCoriolis effect prove the earth rotates
59. 27.Earth is closer to the sun in winter.Evidence its angular diameter(apparent size) is larger in winter.
60. 28.Planets orbit in ellipses. The closerthe planet is to the sun the higher itsvelocityFaster orbital velocityclose to sunSlowerfarfromsun
132. 92.When in doubt, see if thereference tables will help
133. 93.Uranium235 dates oldrocksWe know earth is 4.6 billion years oldfrom the oldest rocks containinguranium.
134. 94.Carbon 14dates recentliving objectsFossils less than 50,000 years old.
135. 95.Convection currents in the mantlemove plates
136. 96.Always try to eliminate twoanswers
137. 97.When a rock is broken intosmaller pieces, surface areaincreases and weathering rateincreases
138. 98.Use complete sentences for thefree responses. In BLOCK LETTERS!
139. 99.understand this chart:DATE(APPROXIMATELATITUDE OFSUNS DIRECTRAYSDIRECTION OFSUNRISE ANDSUNSETALTITUDE OFNOON SUNLENGTH OFDAYLIGHTSept. 23(AutumnalEquinoxEquator (0o) Rises due EastSets due West48o 12 hoursDecember 21(Winter SolsticeTropic ofCapricorn(23 1/2oS)Rises in SESets in SW24.5o (lowest) 8 hours(shortest day)March 21 (VernalEquinox)Equator (0o) Rises due EastSets due West48o 12 hoursJune21 (SummerSolstice)Tropic of Cancer(23 1/2oN)Rises in NESets in NW71.5o (highest) 16 hours (longestday)
140. 100. USE THE REFERENCETABLES
141. 101. Relax--Youve alreadycompleted 1/4 of the exam.
142. 102. In part II, choose groups A andB (rocks & minerals, and platetectonics)
143. 103.Take your time.You have three hours to do theexam
144. 104.Read introductory paragraphsand study diagrams before lookingat questions.Underline key words.
145. 105.Draw diagrams to help youvisualize the questions asked -where possible
146. 106.Use a straight-edge to readgraphics, to mark points on a graphand to measure distances
147. 107.If certain words cause confusion,cross them out and substitute a differentword, then read the questionagain.(example: substitute the word"false" for "not true")
148. 108.Dont leave any questionsblank
149. 109.Read all choices before deciding on ananswer, sometimes a question has a goodand a better answer.Always choose the best answer.
150. 110.If you are not sure of an answer, try toeliminate choices that you think areclearly wrong and narrow down yourchoices.Then make your most careful guess.
151. 111.Ask yourself:Is it in the reference tables, or can thereference tables help me?
152. 112.Check your test a second time, butonly change an answer if you find anobvious mistake. Your first choice isusually correct.
153. 113.Look up formulas, even if you thinkyou know them.Substitute information from the questioninto the formula. They are on the frontpage of the reference tables.
154. 114.Skip over hard questions that arestumping you. Go back to them later.Something else in the test may give you aclue to the harder problems.I don’t care if you don’t get EVERY answer right.Just get MOST of them right!
155. 115.Have a healthy meal for dinnerthe night before. Eat veggies ifpossible.
156. 116.A good night sleep is asimportant as the above 112 items.