L.O: students will review laboratorytechniques and the four required labs.
First lab safety:You should know what to do in a          lab…and……
You should know what NOT to do!
You will have ONE question on lab   techniques and lab safety!                      Are you being safe?
Be able toexplain why any one of these        kids is not being safe”!             Are you being safe?
Measurements: when one makes an observationusing numbers & a measuring        instrument.    There will be one measurement...
Example: what is the exactmeasurement of this worm?
9.0 centimeters
Example 2: how much water is in the       graduated cylinder?
13.0 mL.
Example 3: how much water is in the       graduated cylinder?
24.0 mL
Now answer 1-6.
Microscopes:      • You should know the        basic parts of a        microscope.      • There may be one        question.
Microscopes are use to make small       objects look bigger.
Objects under a microscope are always    upside down and backwards.
Because objects are upside down and  backwards, one has to move a slide the OPPOSITE of where one wants to          move a...
When wet-mounting a specimen on aslide, the cover-slip must be lowered at an angle to prevent air bubbles.
To stain a specimen, place a paper towel atone side of the slip cover. Add the dye stain at the opposite end. Capillary ac...
A microscope’s field of view is the diameter  of the microscope’s circle. Knowing thefield of view can be used to determin...
If this microscope’s field of view under low  power is 1000um, what is the size of the                 organism?  1000um
If this microscope’s field of view under low  power is 1000um, what is the size of the       organism?   ~200um  1000um
Now answer 7-14.
And now the four required labs.
We did a diffusion through a membrane                   lab
We did a making connections lab
We did a relationships & biodiversity lab
We did a beaks of finches lab
First the diffusion through a membrane                  lab>>>
The goal of the lab is to model how a cell uses diffusion to maintain homeostasis.
1. We put starch andWhat we did:      glucose inside a piece of                  plastic called dialysis                  ...
We placed the dialysis tube in cup to        see what happens:
• The           willOur predictions:                    of the                     dialysis tube because                  ...
Results:
The starch molecules were too large to diffuse out. Insidedialysis tube turned blue-black (purple-black) because the starc...
A sample of the liquid from outside thetubing turned glucose indicator orange because the small glucose diffuse out.
Indicators:
Indicators are used to determine if asubstance (ex. Starch or glucose) is present                 (is there).
Starch indicator (iodine) turns purple-black       if Starch is present (is there).
Glucose indicator turns orange if glucose is            present (is there).
Diffusion: the movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration without             us...
Diffusion: the movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to areasof low concentration without using energy.  ...
Diffusion: molecules move from high concentration to low concentration        without using energy.                       ...
Diffusion: molecules move from high concentration to low concentration        without using energy.                       ...
Diffusion molecules move from areasof high concentration to areas of low           concentration.
Diffusion molecules move from areasof high concentration to areas of low           concentration.
Why will easy for molecule B diffuseinto the cell but hard for molecule A?
Another part of the diffusion through a membrane dealt with red onion                cells.
What you did:we looked at slices of red onions, then….Salt water was added to the onion slices.                Salt       ...
First we saw view A: normal red onion                  cells.After the salt solution: the onion cells               shrive...
Then we put distilled (zero salt) water on the shriveled cells… they swelled
Remember: salt solutions cause cells to shrivel. Distilled water causes cells to                   swell.
Now the beaks of finches lab:                           Darwin’s                           finches
Know how to read and use this chart:
The outer circle has the names and      drawings of the bills.
The next two circles describe the type     of the bills each species has.
The inner circle shows the type of the       food each species eats.
This is another finch chart that hasappeared on previous regents exams.
Now answer 15-23.
Gelelectrophoresis:
Gel electrophoresis is a method ofanalyzing DNA (also RNA & proteins)
The DNA (or RNA & proteins) are cut         using enzymes…
The DNA (or RNA & proteins) samples are put into wells on the gel and an electric current is run. The electricity makes th...
Uses of gel electrophoresis:
1. Evolutionary relationships: if organisms               are related.Bands ofDNA
2. Gel electrophoresis can beused to determine paternity Who the parent or who the relative                is.
3. Gel electrophoresis can be used forgenetic testing. For genetic disorders
4. To solve crimes using DNA
Gel electrophoresis separates the DNA bands by size. The smallest move fastest             through the gel.Bands ofDNA
The DNA results from gelelectrophoresis is often used to make         claudogram trees!
Gel electrophoresis is 99% or moreaccurate…. It is how we know humans are related to the other great apes.
Gel electrophoresis is 99% or moreaccurate…. It is how we know humans  are related to the other great apes
It is how we know if someone is guilty        or innocent of a crime….
It is how we know who the “baby    daddy” is on Maury or Jerry Springer!You ARE   the father!
In the Relationships and Biodiversity lab wewere looking for which plant was related to     BotanaCurus, a hypothetical ca...
The plants has similar appearance, seeds & microscope slides…
We used gel electrophoresis (DNA &Amino acids) to determine which plant was         related to BotanaCurus.
We used gel electrophoresis (DNA &Amino acids) to determine which plant was         related to BotanaCurus.
Remember: DNA (gel electrophoresis) &amino acids are the most accurate way to   identify or determine relationships.
Which the most closely related to A,  according the the DNA bands?
Which the most closely related to A,  according the the DNA bands?
Which organisms are the most closelyrelated according to their amino acids?
Now answer: 24- 46.
Paper chromatography:
Chromatography: a method ofseparating different molecules in a             mixture.
The final mandatory lab is the  making connections lab
The human body is like a machine with many complicated systems.  All the systems must work together        to maintain hom...
All of our organ systems work together      to maintain our homeostasis.               Examples:• Our muscular system move...
When we’re very active. All of oursystems speed-up to keep up with the         increased activity.
Why does running cause more exhaled          air than sitting?
Sample regents question
Sample regents question
Sample regents question
Sample regents question
Sample regents question
Now complete all the remaining        questions.
Chpter9 requiredlabs
Chpter9 requiredlabs
Chpter9 requiredlabs
Chpter9 requiredlabs
Chpter9 requiredlabs
Chpter9 requiredlabs
Chpter9 requiredlabs
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Chpter9 requiredlabs

  1. 1. L.O: students will review laboratorytechniques and the four required labs.
  2. 2. First lab safety:You should know what to do in a lab…and……
  3. 3. You should know what NOT to do!
  4. 4. You will have ONE question on lab techniques and lab safety! Are you being safe?
  5. 5. Be able toexplain why any one of these kids is not being safe”! Are you being safe?
  6. 6. Measurements: when one makes an observationusing numbers & a measuring instrument. There will be one measurement question on the regents!
  7. 7. Example: what is the exactmeasurement of this worm?
  8. 8. 9.0 centimeters
  9. 9. Example 2: how much water is in the graduated cylinder?
  10. 10. 13.0 mL.
  11. 11. Example 3: how much water is in the graduated cylinder?
  12. 12. 24.0 mL
  13. 13. Now answer 1-6.
  14. 14. Microscopes: • You should know the basic parts of a microscope. • There may be one question.
  15. 15. Microscopes are use to make small objects look bigger.
  16. 16. Objects under a microscope are always upside down and backwards.
  17. 17. Because objects are upside down and backwards, one has to move a slide the OPPOSITE of where one wants to move an object. I must move the slide this wayIf i want to move theorganism this way
  18. 18. When wet-mounting a specimen on aslide, the cover-slip must be lowered at an angle to prevent air bubbles.
  19. 19. To stain a specimen, place a paper towel atone side of the slip cover. Add the dye stain at the opposite end. Capillary action will “pull” the dye through, staining the specimen.
  20. 20. A microscope’s field of view is the diameter of the microscope’s circle. Knowing thefield of view can be used to determine the size of microorganisms.
  21. 21. If this microscope’s field of view under low power is 1000um, what is the size of the organism? 1000um
  22. 22. If this microscope’s field of view under low power is 1000um, what is the size of the organism? ~200um 1000um
  23. 23. Now answer 7-14.
  24. 24. And now the four required labs.
  25. 25. We did a diffusion through a membrane lab
  26. 26. We did a making connections lab
  27. 27. We did a relationships & biodiversity lab
  28. 28. We did a beaks of finches lab
  29. 29. First the diffusion through a membrane lab>>>
  30. 30. The goal of the lab is to model how a cell uses diffusion to maintain homeostasis.
  31. 31. 1. We put starch andWhat we did: glucose inside a piece of plastic called dialysis tubing. 2. We tied both ends tight with string. 3. We place several drops of iodine starch indicato into a cup of water.
  32. 32. We placed the dialysis tube in cup to see what happens:
  33. 33. • The willOur predictions: of the dialysis tube because the . • The will the tube because the . • The will stay inside the tube because the . .
  34. 34. Results:
  35. 35. The starch molecules were too large to diffuse out. Insidedialysis tube turned blue-black (purple-black) because the starch indicator (iodine) diffused into tube & change the starches’ color.
  36. 36. A sample of the liquid from outside thetubing turned glucose indicator orange because the small glucose diffuse out.
  37. 37. Indicators:
  38. 38. Indicators are used to determine if asubstance (ex. Starch or glucose) is present (is there).
  39. 39. Starch indicator (iodine) turns purple-black if Starch is present (is there).
  40. 40. Glucose indicator turns orange if glucose is present (is there).
  41. 41. Diffusion: the movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration without using energy.
  42. 42. Diffusion: the movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to areasof low concentration without using energy. More Less sugar sugar More sugar Less sugar 97% Cell has Surrounding has 97% 92% water water Cell has inside surrounding 94% Area has water 96% water inside
  43. 43. Diffusion: molecules move from high concentration to low concentration without using energy. More Less sugar sugar More sugar Less sugar 97% Cell has Surrounding has 97% 92% water water Cell has inside surrounding 94% Area has water 96% water inside
  44. 44. Diffusion: molecules move from high concentration to low concentration without using energy. Cell has Surrounding has 100% 6% water water surrounding Cell has inside Area has 6% salt 100% water inside
  45. 45. Diffusion molecules move from areasof high concentration to areas of low concentration.
  46. 46. Diffusion molecules move from areasof high concentration to areas of low concentration.
  47. 47. Why will easy for molecule B diffuseinto the cell but hard for molecule A?
  48. 48. Another part of the diffusion through a membrane dealt with red onion cells.
  49. 49. What you did:we looked at slices of red onions, then….Salt water was added to the onion slices. Salt water
  50. 50. First we saw view A: normal red onion cells.After the salt solution: the onion cells shriveled.
  51. 51. Then we put distilled (zero salt) water on the shriveled cells… they swelled
  52. 52. Remember: salt solutions cause cells to shrivel. Distilled water causes cells to swell.
  53. 53. Now the beaks of finches lab: Darwin’s finches
  54. 54. Know how to read and use this chart:
  55. 55. The outer circle has the names and drawings of the bills.
  56. 56. The next two circles describe the type of the bills each species has.
  57. 57. The inner circle shows the type of the food each species eats.
  58. 58. This is another finch chart that hasappeared on previous regents exams.
  59. 59. Now answer 15-23.
  60. 60. Gelelectrophoresis:
  61. 61. Gel electrophoresis is a method ofanalyzing DNA (also RNA & proteins)
  62. 62. The DNA (or RNA & proteins) are cut using enzymes…
  63. 63. The DNA (or RNA & proteins) samples are put into wells on the gel and an electric current is run. The electricity makes the DNA bands more
  64. 64. Uses of gel electrophoresis:
  65. 65. 1. Evolutionary relationships: if organisms are related.Bands ofDNA
  66. 66. 2. Gel electrophoresis can beused to determine paternity Who the parent or who the relative is.
  67. 67. 3. Gel electrophoresis can be used forgenetic testing. For genetic disorders
  68. 68. 4. To solve crimes using DNA
  69. 69. Gel electrophoresis separates the DNA bands by size. The smallest move fastest through the gel.Bands ofDNA
  70. 70. The DNA results from gelelectrophoresis is often used to make claudogram trees!
  71. 71. Gel electrophoresis is 99% or moreaccurate…. It is how we know humans are related to the other great apes.
  72. 72. Gel electrophoresis is 99% or moreaccurate…. It is how we know humans are related to the other great apes
  73. 73. It is how we know if someone is guilty or innocent of a crime….
  74. 74. It is how we know who the “baby daddy” is on Maury or Jerry Springer!You ARE the father!
  75. 75. In the Relationships and Biodiversity lab wewere looking for which plant was related to BotanaCurus, a hypothetical cancer treatment.
  76. 76. The plants has similar appearance, seeds & microscope slides…
  77. 77. We used gel electrophoresis (DNA &Amino acids) to determine which plant was related to BotanaCurus.
  78. 78. We used gel electrophoresis (DNA &Amino acids) to determine which plant was related to BotanaCurus.
  79. 79. Remember: DNA (gel electrophoresis) &amino acids are the most accurate way to identify or determine relationships.
  80. 80. Which the most closely related to A, according the the DNA bands?
  81. 81. Which the most closely related to A, according the the DNA bands?
  82. 82. Which organisms are the most closelyrelated according to their amino acids?
  83. 83. Now answer: 24- 46.
  84. 84. Paper chromatography:
  85. 85. Chromatography: a method ofseparating different molecules in a mixture.
  86. 86. The final mandatory lab is the making connections lab
  87. 87. The human body is like a machine with many complicated systems. All the systems must work together to maintain homeostasis.
  88. 88. All of our organ systems work together to maintain our homeostasis. Examples:• Our muscular system moves our body. It gets Oxygen from our respiratory system in order to produce ATP. The circulatory system brings the oxygen to the muscles. Our excretory system sweats to keep the muscles cool (from over heating).
  89. 89. When we’re very active. All of oursystems speed-up to keep up with the increased activity.
  90. 90. Why does running cause more exhaled air than sitting?
  91. 91. Sample regents question
  92. 92. Sample regents question
  93. 93. Sample regents question
  94. 94. Sample regents question
  95. 95. Sample regents question
  96. 96. Now complete all the remaining questions.
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