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  • 1. L.O: students will review laboratorytechniques and the four required labs.
  • 2. First lab safety:You should know what to do in a lab…and……
  • 3. You should know what NOT to do!
  • 4. You will have ONE question on lab techniques and lab safety! Are you being safe?
  • 5. Be able toexplain why any one of these kids is not being safe”! Are you being safe?
  • 6. Measurements: when one makes an observationusing numbers & a measuring instrument. There will be one measurement question on the regents!
  • 7. Example: what is the exactmeasurement of this worm?
  • 8. 9.0 centimeters
  • 9. Example 2: how much water is in the graduated cylinder?
  • 10. 13.0 mL.
  • 11. Example 3: how much water is in the graduated cylinder?
  • 12. 24.0 mL
  • 13. Now answer 1-6.
  • 14. Microscopes: • You should know the basic parts of a microscope. • There may be one question.
  • 15. Microscopes are use to make small objects look bigger.
  • 16. Objects under a microscope are always upside down and backwards.
  • 17. Because objects are upside down and backwards, one has to move a slide the OPPOSITE of where one wants to move an object. I must move the slide this wayIf i want to move theorganism this way
  • 18. When wet-mounting a specimen on aslide, the cover-slip must be lowered at an angle to prevent air bubbles.
  • 19. To stain a specimen, place a paper towel atone side of the slip cover. Add the dye stain at the opposite end. Capillary action will “pull” the dye through, staining the specimen.
  • 20. A microscope’s field of view is the diameter of the microscope’s circle. Knowing thefield of view can be used to determine the size of microorganisms.
  • 21. If this microscope’s field of view under low power is 1000um, what is the size of the organism? 1000um
  • 22. If this microscope’s field of view under low power is 1000um, what is the size of the organism? ~200um 1000um
  • 23. Now answer 7-14.
  • 24. And now the four required labs.
  • 25. We did a diffusion through a membrane lab
  • 26. We did a making connections lab
  • 27. We did a relationships & biodiversity lab
  • 28. We did a beaks of finches lab
  • 29. First the diffusion through a membrane lab>>>
  • 30. The goal of the lab is to model how a cell uses diffusion to maintain homeostasis.
  • 31. 1. We put starch andWhat we did: glucose inside a piece of plastic called dialysis tubing. 2. We tied both ends tight with string. 3. We place several drops of iodine starch indicato into a cup of water.
  • 32. We placed the dialysis tube in cup to see what happens:
  • 33. • The willOur predictions: of the dialysis tube because the . • The will the tube because the . • The will stay inside the tube because the . .
  • 34. Results:
  • 35. The starch molecules were too large to diffuse out. Insidedialysis tube turned blue-black (purple-black) because the starch indicator (iodine) diffused into tube & change the starches’ color.
  • 36. A sample of the liquid from outside thetubing turned glucose indicator orange because the small glucose diffuse out.
  • 37. Indicators:
  • 38. Indicators are used to determine if asubstance (ex. Starch or glucose) is present (is there).
  • 39. Starch indicator (iodine) turns purple-black if Starch is present (is there).
  • 40. Glucose indicator turns orange if glucose is present (is there).
  • 41. Diffusion: the movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration without using energy.
  • 42. Diffusion: the movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to areasof low concentration without using energy. More Less sugar sugar More sugar Less sugar 97% Cell has Surrounding has 97% 92% water water Cell has inside surrounding 94% Area has water 96% water inside
  • 43. Diffusion: molecules move from high concentration to low concentration without using energy. More Less sugar sugar More sugar Less sugar 97% Cell has Surrounding has 97% 92% water water Cell has inside surrounding 94% Area has water 96% water inside
  • 44. Diffusion: molecules move from high concentration to low concentration without using energy. Cell has Surrounding has 100% 6% water water surrounding Cell has inside Area has 6% salt 100% water inside
  • 45. Diffusion molecules move from areasof high concentration to areas of low concentration.
  • 46. Diffusion molecules move from areasof high concentration to areas of low concentration.
  • 47. Why will easy for molecule B diffuseinto the cell but hard for molecule A?
  • 48. Another part of the diffusion through a membrane dealt with red onion cells.
  • 49. What you did:we looked at slices of red onions, then….Salt water was added to the onion slices. Salt water
  • 50. First we saw view A: normal red onion cells.After the salt solution: the onion cells shriveled.
  • 51. Then we put distilled (zero salt) water on the shriveled cells… they swelled
  • 52. Remember: salt solutions cause cells to shrivel. Distilled water causes cells to swell.
  • 53. Now the beaks of finches lab: Darwin’s finches
  • 54. Know how to read and use this chart:
  • 55. The outer circle has the names and drawings of the bills.
  • 56. The next two circles describe the type of the bills each species has.
  • 57. The inner circle shows the type of the food each species eats.
  • 58. This is another finch chart that hasappeared on previous regents exams.
  • 59. Now answer 15-23.
  • 60. Gelelectrophoresis:
  • 61. Gel electrophoresis is a method ofanalyzing DNA (also RNA & proteins)
  • 62. The DNA (or RNA & proteins) are cut using enzymes…
  • 63. The DNA (or RNA & proteins) samples are put into wells on the gel and an electric current is run. The electricity makes the DNA bands more
  • 64. Uses of gel electrophoresis:
  • 65. 1. Evolutionary relationships: if organisms are related.Bands ofDNA
  • 66. 2. Gel electrophoresis can beused to determine paternity Who the parent or who the relative is.
  • 67. 3. Gel electrophoresis can be used forgenetic testing. For genetic disorders
  • 68. 4. To solve crimes using DNA
  • 69. Gel electrophoresis separates the DNA bands by size. The smallest move fastest through the gel.Bands ofDNA
  • 70. The DNA results from gelelectrophoresis is often used to make claudogram trees!
  • 71. Gel electrophoresis is 99% or moreaccurate…. It is how we know humans are related to the other great apes.
  • 72. Gel electrophoresis is 99% or moreaccurate…. It is how we know humans are related to the other great apes
  • 73. It is how we know if someone is guilty or innocent of a crime….
  • 74. It is how we know who the “baby daddy” is on Maury or Jerry Springer!You ARE the father!
  • 75. In the Relationships and Biodiversity lab wewere looking for which plant was related to BotanaCurus, a hypothetical cancer treatment.
  • 76. The plants has similar appearance, seeds & microscope slides…
  • 77. We used gel electrophoresis (DNA &Amino acids) to determine which plant was related to BotanaCurus.
  • 78. We used gel electrophoresis (DNA &Amino acids) to determine which plant was related to BotanaCurus.
  • 79. Remember: DNA (gel electrophoresis) &amino acids are the most accurate way to identify or determine relationships.
  • 80. Which the most closely related to A, according the the DNA bands?
  • 81. Which the most closely related to A, according the the DNA bands?
  • 82. Which organisms are the most closelyrelated according to their amino acids?
  • 83. Now answer: 24- 46.
  • 84. Paper chromatography:
  • 85. Chromatography: a method ofseparating different molecules in a mixture.
  • 86. The final mandatory lab is the making connections lab
  • 87. The human body is like a machine with many complicated systems. All the systems must work together to maintain homeostasis.
  • 88. All of our organ systems work together to maintain our homeostasis. Examples:• Our muscular system moves our body. It gets Oxygen from our respiratory system in order to produce ATP. The circulatory system brings the oxygen to the muscles. Our excretory system sweats to keep the muscles cool (from over heating).
  • 89. When we’re very active. All of oursystems speed-up to keep up with the increased activity.
  • 90. Why does running cause more exhaled air than sitting?
  • 91. Sample regents question
  • 92. Sample regents question
  • 93. Sample regents question
  • 94. Sample regents question
  • 95. Sample regents question
  • 96. Now complete all the remaining questions.