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# Chpt8 how to do an experiment

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### Transcript

• 1. L.O: students will review how toconduct controlled experiments. Do now: read your “cheat sheet”
• 2. How to design a controlled experiment:
• 3. Diet pill commercials use “before andafter” shots as a side by side comparison to show that the pills REALLY work! When they ask if you want to “supersize it”, say NO!!!! before After!
• 4. Scientists conduct controlled experiments as side by side comparisons too!!!!!!
• 5. A controlled experiment ALWAYS has atleast TWO groups: an experimental group and a control group.
• 6. BOTH groups are IDENTICAL GROUPS…but• only the ( ).• The .• Sometimes the control group is given a placebo (a fake drug or a sugar pill)
• 7. Control group is identical to Experimental group gets experimental group but DOESthe drug or the treatment. NOT get the drug or treatment!
• 8. The two groups are compared to see IFthe drug or treatment REALLY works!!!!!!
• 9. a good experiment must have a largenumber of test subjects, be repeatable & take place for a long time!!!!!!
• 10. Characteristics of a good experiment:1. Has both an experimental group and a control group.2. Has many many test subjects.3. Is repeated many many times.4. The experiment lasts for long time (weeks, months, years…)
• 11. An old saying says: “A picture is worth a thousand words”….
• 12. Scientists use graphs and tables because they make complicated data, easier to understand.Elapsed Time (s) Speed Ms−1)0 01 32 73 124 205 306 45
• 13. You MUST be able to read a table and a graph!Elapsed Time (s) Speed Ms−1)0 01 32 73 124 205 306 45
• 14. You MUST be able to draw a graph from a data table!Elapsed Time (s) Speed Ms−1)0 01 32 73 124 205 306 45
• 15. In many experiments are looking for cause and effect relationships….Elapsed Time (s) Speed Ms−1)0 01 32 73 124 205 306 45
• 16. IF one thing CAUSES something ELSE.Elapsed Time (s) Speed Ms−1)0 01 32 73 124 205 306 45
• 17. Experiments have independent variables and dependent variables:Elapsed Time (s) Speed Ms−1)0 01 32 73 124 205 306 45
• 18. independent variables are the cause.Elapsed Time (s) Speed Ms−1)0 01 32 73 124 205 306 45
• 19. dependent variables are the effect.Elapsed Time (s) Speed Ms−1)0 01 32 73 124 205 306 45
• 20. experiments are designed to see IF the independent variables causes the dependent variable to happen.Elapsed Time (s) Speed Ms−1)0 01 32 73 124 205 306 45
• 21. in data tables: the independent variable is ALWAYS the first columnElapsed Time (s) Speed Ms−1)0 01 32 73 124 205 306 45
• 22. in graphs: the independent variable is ALWAYS the X-axisElapsed Time (s) Speed Ms−1)0 01 32 73 124 205 306 45
• 23. in graphs: the dependent variable is ALWAYS Y-axis.Elapsed Time (s) Speed Ms−1)0 01 32 73 124 205 306 45
• 24. you must be able to draw conclusions from tables and graphs.Elapsed Time (s) Speed Ms−1)0 01 32 73 124 205 306 45
• 26. The scientific method:
• 27. The scientific method:The scientific method is a method of designing an experiment.
• 28. A well-designed experiment has the following:• A : written as a question. :• A : (a possible answer to the problem): (NOT as a question). ( ), ( ) : what will be done to prove or disprove the hypothesis. : the collected data. : used to display and help interpret the results. was the experiment , did the results support or refute the hypothesis?
• 29. A valid experiment is one where the data and conclusions support the hypothesis. The hypothesis was valid (correct)!
• 30. Now answer 21- 49
• 31. You MUST know how to draw line graphs.There WILLLLLLLLLL definnnnnntellllly be one on the regents!!!!
• 32. How to draw a line graph, using data from a table:Elapsed Time (s) Speed Ms−1)0 01 32 73 124 205 306 45
• 33. 1. Label the X-axis (ALWAYS the independent variable) label the Y-axis (ALWAYS the dependent variable)Elapsed Time (s) Speed Ms−1)0 01 32 73 124 205 306 45
• 34. 2. Make an appropriate scale number line for the X-axis. the units MUST be EVENLY spread out! (0,1,2,3,4 …or 0, 2,4,6,8…or 0,5, 10, 15…. Or 0, 10,20,30…or 0.0,0.5,1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5….)Elapsed Time (s) Speed Ms−1)0 01 32 73 124 205 306 45
• 35. 3. Make an appropriate scale number line for the Y-axis. the unitsMUST be EVENLY spread out! (0,1,2,3,4 …or 0, 2,4,6,8…or 0,5, 10, 15…. Or 0, 10,20,30…or 0.0,0.5,1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5….)Elapsed Time (s) Speed Ms−1)0 01 32 73 124 205 306 45
• 36. 4. Accurately plot the points.Elapsed Time (s) Speed Ms−1)0 01 32 73 124 205 306 45
• 37. 5. connect the points. Surround each point with a small circle, square or triangle.Elapsed Time (s) Speed Ms−1)0 01 32 73 124 205 306 45
• 38. Now answer 50- 82.
• 39. You probably WON’T have to draw abar graph BUT you must know how to read them!!!!
• 40. Example: predict how much thiscountry’s population will grow in 2003.
• 41. Now answer 83- 108
• 42. Now: complete all the unfinished questions! Make me proud!