Chpt6 ecology

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Chpt6 ecology

  1. 1. No Annie,you lost of themthis week alone! That was rude, Annie I’m calling your house again!
  2. 2. is (living things) thethat surround them .
  3. 3. the fish (living) are interacting with the water plants (living) by eating them.
  4. 4. the fish (living) get oxygen(nonliving) from the water (nonliving).
  5. 5. the plants (living) does the process ofphotosynthesis using: sunlight, CO2& H2O (nonliving things) from the environment.
  6. 6. the air & water temperatures(nonliving) are comfortable forbird, fish and plants (all living).
  7. 7. the bird (living) is interactingwith the fish (living) by eating them.
  8. 8. the bird (living) breathes theoxygen (nonliving) it gets from the environment.
  9. 9. .
  10. 10. EVERY THING around the deer is its “environment”:(plants, soil, rocks, air, water, clouds, decomposers, snakes, rabbits etc) .
  11. 11. ECOSYSTEM:
  12. 12. The whole Earth can be divided intodifferent !
  13. 13. EXAMPLES OF ECOSYSTEMS:
  14. 14. A forest ecosystem
  15. 15. Identify 7 organisms in the forestecosystem (some might be “invisible”)
  16. 16. deer, fox, squirrel, trees, grass, worms, insects fungi, bacteria, mushrooms decomposers
  17. 17. A lake ecosystem
  18. 18. Identify some non-living factors in thislake ecosystem (some might be invisible!)
  19. 19. Water, sunlight, temperature, heat, air, the wind, soil, rocks, sand.
  20. 20. An ocean ecosystem:
  21. 21. Which ocean organism does ALL the others rely on to stay alive?
  22. 22. Plants form the base of All ecosystems. all the organisms rely on the plants to stay alive!
  23. 23. Climate: veeeeerrrry long-term weather (years, decades, centuries…..)
  24. 24. Climate has the biggest effect on the type of ecosystem an area has:
  25. 25. A hot and wet climate can result in a rainforest ecosystem….
  26. 26. A hot and dry climate can result in a desert ecosystem….
  27. 27. Would you expect organisms from a desertecosystem to exist in a tropical ecosystem or vice versa? Support your answer.
  28. 28. versus
  29. 29. both .
  30. 30. :( ..)
  31. 31. :(ex )
  32. 32. Are the abiotic& biotic factors in a desert the same or different from those in atropical rainforest? Support your answer.
  33. 33. : is .
  34. 34. Examples: this lake has a rabbit population, agrass population, a dragonfly population….etc
  35. 35. .
  36. 36. Example: this lake community has fish,insects, rabbits, pine tree populations etc...
  37. 37. An :
  38. 38. WHAT IS MISSING FROM THIS PICTURE?
  39. 39. !
  40. 40. For ANY ecosystem to remain stable, itmust has a constant source of energy !...
  41. 41. Yaaay ! Yaaay! ME! Sun! Yaaay! Sun! Yaaay! Sun! Yaaay! Sun! Yaaay! Yaaay! Sun! Sun!
  42. 42. Yaaay ! Yaaay! ME! Sun! Yaaay! Sun! Yaaay! Sun! Yaaay! Sun! Yaaay! Yaaay! Sun! Sun!
  43. 43. If the sun stopped shining, Earth’s ecosystems would die from lack of new Yaaay!Yaaay Sun! Yaaay! energy! ME! Sun! Yaaay! Sun! Yaaay! Sun! Yaaay! Yaaay! Sun! Sun!
  44. 44. ( ) Yaaay!Yaaay us! ( Yaaay! )! ME! plants! Yaaay! us! Yaaay! plants! Yaaay! plants! Yaaay! Yaaay! plants! plants!
  45. 45. TheYaaay . Yaaay! ME! us! Yaaay! plants! Yaaay! us! Yaaay! plants! Yaaay! plants! Yaaay! Yaaay! plants! plants!
  46. 46. Yaaay!Yaaay plants! us! Yaaay! plants! Yaaay! us! Yaaay! plants! Yaaay! plants! Yaaay! Yaaay! plants! plants!
  47. 47. Some animals ( ) …
  48. 48. Example: deer, rabbits, mouse & cricket eat the plants for energy…
  49. 49. other animals ( ) ….
  50. 50. Ex: the mountain lion, snake, hawk, owl, frog(secondary consumers) eat the deer, rabbit, mouse, cricket for energy….
  51. 51. . Yaaay! decomposers!Yaaay! us!
  52. 52. are very important, they .
  53. 53. A
  54. 54. Remember: the decomposers are ALWAYS in a healthy ecosystem, EVEN THOUGH YOU CAN’T SEE THEM!.
  55. 55. this has all the requirements of astable ecosystem. What are they?
  56. 56. Now answer 1-11
  57. 57. There is a limited (finite) amount of resources in any ecosystem… Limited amounts of food, limited amounts of water, limited amounts of minerals…..
  58. 58. Every ecosystem has a limited amount of food…
  59. 59. Every ecosystem has a limited amount of water…..
  60. 60. Limiting factors LIMIT the size of a population.
  61. 61. Moisture is often a limiting factor forplants. Ex: here, each tree thrives in a different amount of moisture.
  62. 62. Examples: on the size of each other’s populations.
  63. 63. An increase in the zebra population = an increase in the lion population
  64. 64. Conversely, a decrease in the zebrapopulation = a decrease in the lion population
  65. 65. Also an increase in the lions= a decrease inzebras which would cause a decrease in the lions too!
  66. 66. very effective Diseases have always been an effective limiting factor on human populations
  67. 67. The Bubonic plague killed over half of Europe’s population. The fictional “Crippen Virus” in “I amLegend” was over 90% fatal to the human population. Diseases have always been an effective limiting factor on human populations
  68. 68. Look at the next sevenslides…what are the organisms doing?
  69. 69. Mine! No! Ours!
  70. 70. Ours! TRY to take it!
  71. 71. Mine! Mine!Mine! mine! No! no! No! No! No!
  72. 72. hey Frank, Hey Frank,save me a Don’t you piece! mean “ours”? MINE! MINE!
  73. 73. The cheese is minebecause Mr. “left hook” says so!
  74. 74. THAT can beYou want MY arranged!bread? Over my dead body!
  75. 75. LET GO, before I start throwing NEVER! them LEFT HOOKS!
  76. 76. The resources, that organisms need to live, are finite (limited)…
  77. 77. Finite resources lead to competition
  78. 78. .
  79. 79. Why WON’T these insects compete, even though they are on the SAME plant?
  80. 80. Why DON’T the Cape May Warblerscompete with the other two kinds of warblers for food & shelter?
  81. 81. Do you agree that the number ofpassengers has exceeded this bus’ carrying capacity?
  82. 82. An area can only support a limited numberof organisms. The maximum number is the area’s carrying capacity
  83. 83. Example: if an area has more food and more water, few predators, there will be more zebras (larger carrying capacity)
  84. 84. The predators and diseases also determine an area’s carrying capacity. More predators and more diseases = lower carrying capacity.
  85. 85. Less food or water, more predators (ordiseases) in an area = less zebras (low carrying capacity) Didn’t work! This’ll fool them stupid lions!
  86. 86. This is a typical carrying capacity graph:
  87. 87. If there is enough resources, a population will grow and grow and grow exponentially!
  88. 88. Eventually, if too many individuals areborn, the population will overshoot the carrying capacity….
  89. 89. Individuals will die from competition, disease, stress, predators until thepopulation in below carrying capacity.
  90. 90. All population fluctuate up and downaround their territories carrying capacity. (this called equilibrium)
  91. 91. What is the carrying capacity for this population?
  92. 92. 1.5 million
  93. 93. Remember the following typical carrying capacity graphs.
  94. 94. EQUILIBRIUM
  95. 95. What is the carrying capacity for the deer population?
  96. 96. Now answer 12- 32
  97. 97. :
  98. 98. All organisms have a habitat (a home) and a niche( a role/job) What is Santa’s habitat? What is Santa’s niche?
  99. 99. A
  100. 100. /its job/ .
  101. 101. These birds share a tree but havedifferent habitats and different niches
  102. 102. Why DON’T the Cape May Warblerscompete with the other two for food & shelter?
  103. 103. Now answer 33-40
  104. 104. How organismsget their food:
  105. 105. organisms get their food in one of three ways:producers consumers decomposers
  106. 106. s (also called )
  107. 107. ( )
  108. 108. are animals that I think I put on weight, is grass fattening?
  109. 109. are animals that Gee! That carcass looks good enough to eat!
  110. 110. decompose ( )
  111. 111. perform a vital role byrecycling ( ing)
  112. 112. Certain Bacteria, fungi & mushrooms are decomposers.
  113. 113. Now answer 41-61
  114. 114. :
  115. 115. Food chain or food web?
  116. 116. Food chain or food web?
  117. 117. Food chain or food web?
  118. 118. Food chain or food web?
  119. 119. Food chain or food web?
  120. 120. What is a food chain? What is a food web
  121. 121. Question: there are 4 organism in this ecosystem. who eats whom?
  122. 122. : simple diagrams that . Snake eats mouse Owl eats snakeMouse eats corn
  123. 123. Food chain: simple diagrams that show which organisms are eaten by other organisms. Shark Small fish eat eat large seaweed fish Large fish eat Small fish
  124. 124. YOU MUST KNOW HOW TO READ A FOOD CHAIN!
  125. 125. The arrows means “eaten by”
  126. 126. Remember: in a food chain (or a food web)energy always flows from the producers to the consumers.
  127. 127. In the 2 food chains below: Name the autotrophs. Namethe primary consumers. Name the secondary consumers. Name the tertiary consumers.
  128. 128. FOOD WEBS:
  129. 129. .
  130. 130. .
  131. 131. Who eats the water plants?
  132. 132. Name three animals that eat the small invertebrates.
  133. 133. Name two animals the bass eats.
  134. 134. .
  135. 135. What would happen if the water plants went extinct?
  136. 136. What would happen if the crab population increased? decreased?
  137. 137. Remember: the decomposers areALWAYS in an ecosystem! Even though we CAN’T ALWAYS see them!
  138. 138. What organisms are missing that breakdown ( “eat”) all the others and return minerals to the soil?
  139. 139. Remember this diagram, it has been on many regents exams!
  140. 140. Which heterotrophs compete for the same prey?
  141. 141. What would happen to the frog if the crickets died out?
  142. 142. What would happen to the crickets if the frogs died out?
  143. 143. What would happen to the ecosystem if the autotrophs died out?
  144. 144. Remember this diagram, it has been on many regents exams!
  145. 145. Remember this diagram, it has been on many regents exams!
  146. 146. Remember this diagram, it has been on many regents exams!
  147. 147. Remember this diagram, it has been on many regents exams!
  148. 148. Which level has the autotrophs?
  149. 149. Remember this diagram, it has been on many regents exams!
  150. 150. Remember this diagram, it has been on many regents exams!
  151. 151. Now answer 62-87
  152. 152. :
  153. 153. Explain this picture.
  154. 154. this is a picture of an energy pyramid
  155. 155. an is .
  156. 156. .
  157. 157. Peanut eaten by squirrel. squirrel eaten by snake, snake eaten by eagle
  158. 158. The producers are ALWAYS on the bottom of the energy pyramid.
  159. 159. .
  160. 160. Remember: most of the availableenergy is found in the producers.
  161. 161. The amount of energy decreases as the energy moves up the pyramid.
  162. 162. .
  163. 163. .
  164. 164. Only 10% of the energy makes up to thenext trophic energy level because the other 90% is used in the organisms’ metabolism or lost as heat.
  165. 165. .
  166. 166. Most of the biomass is on the bottom of the pyramid in the plants.
  167. 167. .
  168. 168. Which organisms use ATP for energy? Support your answer.
  169. 169. Why does this energy pyramid show an unstable ecosystem?
  170. 170. A stable ecosystem must have more producers than consumers.
  171. 171. You must be able to interpret the following diagrams.
  172. 172. Where would one find the producers (autotrophs)
  173. 173. Why would this a energy pyramid represent a stable ecosystem?
  174. 174. Where would one find the herbivores (primary consumers)? SUPPORT your answer. D C B A
  175. 175. Now do 88- 106.
  176. 176. :predator/prey, parasitism, commensalism, mutualism.
  177. 177. Ex: lions and zebras!
  178. 178. I’m warning you, I’ve been taking NOW Kung Fu! whose the prey? So what!
  179. 179. Commensalism: one organismbenefits, the other isn’t harmed.
  180. 180. Mutualism: both benefit. Ex: lichen is algae & a fungus.
  181. 181. Now answer 116- 119.
  182. 182. Which environment has MORE biodiversity (more different kinds of species)?
  183. 183. Which environment is more stable(healthier)? Support your answer.
  184. 184. Remember: greater biodiversity = more stable ecosystem.
  185. 185. Which ecosystem is the most stable?
  186. 186. Is a cornfield a healthy ecosystem?
  187. 187. A Farm is not a stable ecosystem; because only ONE organism exists on it.
  188. 188. . CornCorn weevilrust
  189. 189. 1.
  190. 190. 2.
  191. 191. 3. .
  192. 192. :
  193. 193. 1
  194. 194. 2. .
  195. 195. .
  196. 196. Now answer 120-126
  197. 197. Cities change over time…
  198. 198. Fashion changes over time…
  199. 199. An ecosystem can change over time too!
  200. 200. !
  201. 201. In ecological succession:
  202. 202. The mosses prepare to soil for to ….
  203. 203. The ….
  204. 204.
  205. 205. .
  206. 206. Remember this picture: it shows ecological succession!
  207. 207. Remember this picture: it shows ecological succession!
  208. 208. Remember this picture: it shows ecological succession!
  209. 209. this picture shows ecological succession of a lake!
  210. 210. First there is a lake, over time the lake dries up and becomes a forest.
  211. 211. Remember this picture: it shows ecological succession!
  212. 212. Remember this picture: it shows ecological succession!
  213. 213. Remember this picture: it shows ecological succession!
  214. 214. Remember this picture: it shows ecological succession!
  215. 215. Now answer 139- 142.
  216. 216. Independent work: finish all the questions/

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