1. Do Now:read andhighlight theevolution review packet!
2. Things are always changing.
3. People are always changing
4. Cities are always changing
5. fashion changes
6. Even our footwear changes
7. Man! My dogs are barking! GROWL!Whoof!
9. Human beings have trouble believing that individuals, cities and fashions change overtime….. for most of human history, people didn’t think that . , some still believe this!
12. we can cities in our lifetimes….
13. we can fashions in ourI used to lifetimes…. Now I’m only into likeclassical things. !
14. we can people in our lifetimes….
15. Because of the time intervals needed for evolutionary change, (thousands of years, millions of years, billions of years) for most ofhuman history, people had no idea that species couldevolve.
16. For most of human history, people thought that living things were ALWAYS the same way they appear NOW! They were wrong!
17. The pioneering work of science over a long period of time…..
18. AFTER Darwin and proven that living things evolve.
19. Earth is 4.5 billions of years old- plenty of time for evolution to happen
20. Evolutionary trees:
21. . . . which species are more which are closely .• They show the species the species.
22. How to read an evolutionary tree diagram: • Species A is the of all the other species.( ) • Species D, E and F are all ( ). • Species B and C are (still alive in the present)( ) • Species E and F are more closely related to each other than to species D. ( )
23. Some typical evolution tree diagram questions:
24. Which species the common ancestor of all the other species?
25. A is the common ancestor of all the other species. All the branches lead back to it.
26. Name the 6 species that are now extinct. SUPPORT your answer.
27. C, D, H, L, O and P are all extinct. we know they are extinct because the tree diagrams show their branches ending in the past.
28. When did species L go extinct?
29. ~30 million years ago.
30. Which species are still alive? SUPPORT your answer.
31. J, K & M, are still alive, because the diagram shows them in the present time.
32. Which species is the common ancestor of J and K?
33. I is the common ancestor J & K branch from it.
34. Which species are the most closely related O & P or O AND H? SUPPORT your answer.
35. O & P are more related to each other because they’re on the same branch.
36. Which species has the most similar DNA to species J? support your answer.
37. Species J & K have the most similar DNA. They’re on the same branch.
38. The following are some evolutionary tree diagrams from past regents.
39. What is a “fossil”?
40. What is a “fossil”?
41. Now answer 1-27.
42. Charles Darwin devised (the theory of evolution): The theory of natural selection says four things: 1. many many variations in populations. 2. always . 3. for the 4. tend to competitions
43. 1. many, many, many of organisms
44. 2. always . They have the ’s limited resources
45. 3. Because resources are limited, Mine! . NOMINE! MINE! OURS! No mine! NO OURS! NOMINE! MINE!
46. 4.competitions I took this away You’re a good from another bird “breadwinner”. just for you! Yes I’ll marry Will you marry me? you! I hope our offspring come out just like you! THE WINNER!
47. , the of naturalselection the big changes of
49. Species walk a tightrope through life… by !
50. Species try to find food… Hey Paul, Finally do you some hear “grub” something? Yeah! I’m so hungry, I can eat a horse! You’re ALWAYS hearing “something”. Eat some of this delicious grass and stop worrying so much!
51. I’m out of here!And species try food! Who “wasted” their money on a bike now? Paul! Wait for me!
52. Living things are in a fight; for , , hierarchical position and they don’t ! The habitat, the niche, the cheese 1..2..3.. Minnie Mouse are !!! Why do I see stars?
53. Every individual born through sexualreproduction is a unique and born with a unique mixture traits.
54. ( meiosis) ( fertilization);different & .
55. My momma said: Sexual reproduction islike a box of chocolates, you don’t know what you’re gonna get.
56. Sexual reproduction could produce anorganism that is sweeter than others….
57. Sexual reproduction could produce an organism with a harder shell….
58. Sexual reproduction could even produce an organism with a stronger immune system against new diseases!
59. “ ”!
61. Example: in “I am Legend”, thesecharacters were “fit” because they were immune to the Crippen Virus! They survived while all the “unfit’ died out.
62. Now answer 28- 57.
63. • Geographic isolation is different (separated) by oceans or mountains etc.• They are in different environments, having different foods, facing different dangers. they .
64. Example: geographic isolation has turned the African and Asian elephants into different species. WHY?
65. These are the Galapagos Islands.Darwin spent a few weeks studying the isolated organisms there.
66. especially the(evolution).
67. These are Darwin’s finches.
68. each ofthat were similar but
69. and the geographic isolation .
70. the .
71. you WILL see this chart on the regents exam. You MUST know how to interpret it!
72. the outer circle shows the finch’s bill and its name.
73. the next two inner circles describe the type of bill.
74. the innermost circle shows the type of food the finch eats.
75. what kind of bill does the large ground finch have and what type of food does it eat?
76. why is the small ground finch able to share an island with the woodpecker finch?
77. What would happen to the warbler finch if all the animals died on its island?
78. Now answer 58-81.
79. :1. Mutations2. Crossing over during meiosis3. Gene recombination
80. : are . If themutation happens .
81. If superheroes existed, their powers could ONLY be passed to offspring though their gametes!
82. Environmental stresses like increasedexposure to radiation can lead to moremutations and increased rates evolution Increased rate of evolution
83. 2. producing unique gametes.
84. :random random random !
85. Note: (and evolution canbe slower to happen) .
86. Note: , evolution can be slower to happen because .
87. Evolutionary change: .
88. Evolution can be a change instructure, function or behavior.
89. Structural change:(similar bones) ing
90. similar bones showing evolution from a common ancestry
91. similar bones showing evolution from a common ancestry
92. similar bones showing evolution from a common ancestry
93. similar bones showing evolution from a common ancestry
94. similar body partsshowing evolution from a common ancestry
95. Now answer 82- 94.
96. Evidence of evolutionantibiotic-resistant bacteria, pesticide-resistant insects.
97. Some bacteria are pathogens (cause diseases)
98. Antibiotics are cures that kill bacteria
99. Most bacteria are killed by antibiotics, but some bacteria are evolving resistance.
100. Darwinian evolution: bacteria-style!
101. Genetic variations exist in the bacteria population.
102. The environment changes (antibiotics are introduced)
103. The unfit die. The fittest survive.
104. The fittest pass their successful genes to their offspring
105. The antibiotics has “forced” the non-resistant bacteria population to evolve into a drug- resistant population!
106. Darwinian evolution: insect-style
107. Variations exist in an insect population,some are pesticide-resistant, but most are non-resistant.
108. The environment changes. humans spray pesticides (bug spray)….
109. Many of the non- resistant are unfit & die.The pesticide-resistant are fit and insects live to have babies.
110. After several generations, the insect population has evolved due to the pesticide spraying.
111. Now answer 95- 101.
112. Faster or slower evolution
113. Some people don’t believe in evolution(especially human evolution) because theydon’t see organisms changing before their eyes! IF evolution is true, why don’t I see monkeys turn into people, huh?
114. One could NOT see human evolution because we are very long-lived & take a long time toreproduce! Evolution in us is slow & takes many, many, many, many, many, generations for the changes to be apparent.
115. offerconclusive .
116. Insects have a short reproductive cycle(many generations in a short time) bacteria reproduce every twenty minutes. Onebacteria can become millions in a few days.
117. We can insects and especiallybacteria evolve almost in front of our eyes…and this is a threat to humans
118. ! Our turn to spray YOU humans! This is MRSA, theFlesh-eating Bacteria. It evolved from“Staph” and is drug- resistant!
119. • Species go extinct all the time.• Scientists estimate that 99% of all life that has lived on Earth is now extinct!
120. Why do some species go extinct and other don’t? Variations!
122. Ex. Koala bears live on one continent andonly eat one kind of plant. If there habitat were destroyed, they would face extinction.
123. Humans eat anything, live anyway, do any job. They have so many many varieties of survival strategies.
124. And now your independent work: complete all the even questions in the packet.Miss K, Mr. G or Mr. E will do the odd ones! NOOOOOOOOOOOOO NOOOOOOOOOO!!!!!!! OOO!!!!!!!!!!!!!! NOOOOOOOOOOOO!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!