Chpt5 evolution
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Chpt5 evolution

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review of evolution

review of evolution

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Chpt5 evolution Chpt5 evolution Presentation Transcript

  • Do Now:read andhighlight theevolution review packet!
  • Things are always changing.
  • People are always changing
  • Cities are always changing
  • fashion changes
  • Even our footwear changes
  • Man! My dogs are barking! GROWL!Whoof!
  • too!
  • Human beings have trouble believing that individuals, cities and fashions change overtime….. for most of human history, people didn’t think that . , some still believe this!
  • WHY?
  • WHY?
  • we can cities in our lifetimes….
  • we can fashions in ourI used to lifetimes…. Now I’m only into likeclassical things. !
  • we can people in our lifetimes….
  • Because of the time intervals needed for evolutionary change, (thousands of years, millions of years, billions of years) for most ofhuman history, people had no idea that species couldevolve.
  • For most of human history, people thought that living things were ALWAYS the same way they appear NOW! They were wrong!
  • The pioneering work of science over a long period of time…..
  • AFTER Darwin and proven that living things evolve.
  • Earth is 4.5 billions of years old- plenty of time for evolution to happen
  • Evolutionary trees:
  • . . . which species are more which are closely .• They show the species the species.
  • How to read an evolutionary tree diagram: • Species A is the of all the other species.( ) • Species D, E and F are all ( ). • Species B and C are (still alive in the present)( ) • Species E and F are more closely related to each other than to species D. ( )
  • Some typical evolution tree diagram questions:
  • Which species the common ancestor of all the other species?
  • A is the common ancestor of all the other species. All the branches lead back to it.
  • Name the 6 species that are now extinct. SUPPORT your answer.
  • C, D, H, L, O and P are all extinct. we know they are extinct because the tree diagrams show their branches ending in the past.
  • When did species L go extinct?
  • ~30 million years ago.
  • Which species are still alive? SUPPORT your answer.
  • J, K & M, are still alive, because the diagram shows them in the present time.
  • Which species is the common ancestor of J and K?
  • I is the common ancestor J & K branch from it.
  • Which species are the most closely related O & P or O AND H? SUPPORT your answer.
  • O & P are more related to each other because they’re on the same branch.
  • Which species has the most similar DNA to species J? support your answer.
  • Species J & K have the most similar DNA. They’re on the same branch.
  • The following are some evolutionary tree diagrams from past regents.
  • What is a “fossil”?
  • What is a “fossil”?
  • Now answer 1-27.
  • Charles Darwin devised (the theory of evolution): The theory of natural selection says four things: 1. many many variations in populations. 2. always . 3. for the 4. tend to competitions
  • 1. many, many, many of organisms
  • 2. always . They have the ’s limited resources
  • 3. Because resources are limited, Mine! . NOMINE! MINE! OURS! No mine! NO OURS! NOMINE! MINE!
  • 4.competitions I took this away You’re a good from another bird “breadwinner”. just for you! Yes I’ll marry Will you marry me? you! I hope our offspring come out just like you! THE WINNER!
  • , the of naturalselection the big changes of
  • :
  • Species walk a tightrope through life… by !
  • Species try to find food… Hey Paul, Finally do you some hear “grub” something? Yeah! I’m so hungry, I can eat a horse! You’re ALWAYS hearing “something”. Eat some of this delicious grass and stop worrying so much!
  • I’m out of here!And species try food! Who “wasted” their money on a bike now? Paul! Wait for me!
  • Living things are in a fight; for , , hierarchical position and they don’t ! The habitat, the niche, the cheese 1..2..3.. Minnie Mouse are !!! Why do I see stars?
  • Every individual born through sexualreproduction is a unique and born with a unique mixture traits.
  • ( meiosis) ( fertilization);different & .
  • My momma said: Sexual reproduction islike a box of chocolates, you don’t know what you’re gonna get.
  • Sexual reproduction could produce anorganism that is sweeter than others….
  • Sexual reproduction could produce an organism with a harder shell….
  • Sexual reproduction could even produce an organism with a stronger immune system against new diseases!
  • “ ”!
  • means
  • Example: in “I am Legend”, thesecharacters were “fit” because they were immune to the Crippen Virus! They survived while all the “unfit’ died out.
  • Now answer 28- 57.
  • • Geographic isolation is different (separated) by oceans or mountains etc.• They are in different environments, having different foods, facing different dangers. they .
  • Example: geographic isolation has turned the African and Asian elephants into different species. WHY?
  • These are the Galapagos Islands.Darwin spent a few weeks studying the isolated organisms there.
  • especially the(evolution).
  • These are Darwin’s finches.
  • each ofthat were similar but
  • and the geographic isolation .
  • the .
  • you WILL see this chart on the regents exam. You MUST know how to interpret it!
  • the outer circle shows the finch’s bill and its name.
  • the next two inner circles describe the type of bill.
  • the innermost circle shows the type of food the finch eats.
  • what kind of bill does the large ground finch have and what type of food does it eat?
  • why is the small ground finch able to share an island with the woodpecker finch?
  • What would happen to the warbler finch if all the animals died on its island?
  • Now answer 58-81.
  • :1. Mutations2. Crossing over during meiosis3. Gene recombination
  • : are . If themutation happens .
  • If superheroes existed, their powers could ONLY be passed to offspring though their gametes!
  • Environmental stresses like increasedexposure to radiation can lead to moremutations and increased rates evolution Increased rate of evolution
  • 2. producing unique gametes.
  • :random random random !
  • Note: (and evolution canbe slower to happen) .
  • Note: , evolution can be slower to happen because .
  • Evolutionary change: .
  • Evolution can be a change instructure, function or behavior.
  • Structural change:(similar bones) ing
  • similar bones showing evolution from a common ancestry
  • similar bones showing evolution from a common ancestry
  • similar bones showing evolution from a common ancestry
  • similar bones showing evolution from a common ancestry
  • similar body partsshowing evolution from a common ancestry
  • Now answer 82- 94.
  • Evidence of evolutionantibiotic-resistant bacteria, pesticide-resistant insects.
  • Some bacteria are pathogens (cause diseases)
  • Antibiotics are cures that kill bacteria
  • Most bacteria are killed by antibiotics, but some bacteria are evolving resistance.
  • Darwinian evolution: bacteria-style!
  • Genetic variations exist in the bacteria population.
  • The environment changes (antibiotics are introduced)
  • The unfit die. The fittest survive.
  • The fittest pass their successful genes to their offspring
  • The antibiotics has “forced” the non-resistant bacteria population to evolve into a drug- resistant population!
  • Darwinian evolution: insect-style
  • Variations exist in an insect population,some are pesticide-resistant, but most are non-resistant.
  • The environment changes. humans spray pesticides (bug spray)….
  • Many of the non- resistant are unfit & die.The pesticide-resistant are fit and insects live to have babies.
  • After several generations, the insect population has evolved due to the pesticide spraying.
  • Now answer 95- 101.
  • Faster or slower evolution
  • Some people don’t believe in evolution(especially human evolution) because theydon’t see organisms changing before their eyes! IF evolution is true, why don’t I see monkeys turn into people, huh?
  • One could NOT see human evolution because we are very long-lived & take a long time toreproduce! Evolution in us is slow & takes many, many, many, many, many, generations for the changes to be apparent.
  • offerconclusive .
  • Insects have a short reproductive cycle(many generations in a short time) bacteria reproduce every twenty minutes. Onebacteria can become millions in a few days.
  • We can insects and especiallybacteria evolve almost in front of our eyes…and this is a threat to humans
  • ! Our turn to spray YOU humans! This is MRSA, theFlesh-eating Bacteria. It evolved from“Staph” and is drug- resistant!
  • • Species go extinct all the time.• Scientists estimate that 99% of all life that has lived on Earth is now extinct!
  • Why do some species go extinct and other don’t? Variations!
  • .many
  • Ex. Koala bears live on one continent andonly eat one kind of plant. If there habitat were destroyed, they would face extinction.
  • Humans eat anything, live anyway, do any job. They have so many many varieties of survival strategies.
  • And now your independent work: complete all the even questions in the packet.Miss K, Mr. G or Mr. E will do the odd ones! NOOOOOOOOOOOOO NOOOOOOOOOO!!!!!!! OOO!!!!!!!!!!!!!! NOOOOOOOOOOOO!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!