1. Ever since hominids evolved into humans, they have observed thatorganisms resemble their blood relatives!
2. For most of human history, people did not know conclusively WHY people resembled their families!
3. The work of many, many, many people(Mendel, Hershey, Chase, Avery, Watson, Crick et al) over many, many, many years led to thedetermination that DNA is why organisms resemble their relatives. You mean I resemble you because I have your DNA? EWW! GROSS!
4. The following is what you must know about genetics (the study of genes, DNA and heredity)….
6. the thread-likestructures called …
7. many ….
8. for example: a human cell has many thousands of genes.
9. (how we look) Hey pop, we share thesame recipes! I’ll alert the media.
10. Make an inference about these men’s genes.
11. Is it obvious that these men MUST share some of the same genes…because they share physical traits?
12. Organisms with very similar DNA sequences are related
13. In there is only .
14. In there is only .
15. : the( cell), the ( ). . The and is NOT identical to either.
16. Due to gene recombination during fertilization no two offspring are exactly identical.
17. huge amount of ( ) Same parents but none are exactly identical! Sexual reproduction at work!
18. Karishma & Kareena Kapoor (Bollywood actresses) have the same mother & father but don’t resemble each other! Crossing over & gene recombination at work! Me cuter than she!
19. Now answer# 1-12
20. The molecule (the recipes from making a particular life-form) Resembles a double twisted ladder.
21. (nitrogen bases)the letters:
22. ONLY .ONLY (in DNA).
23. Fill in the blanks!
24. A-T, C-G!A A G T
25. Fill in the blanks!
26. Fill in the blanks! G A T
27. (the recipe) fortelling a cell what to do.
28. If the sequence of nucleotide bases in DNA is changed. The change in the DNA causes a change in the organism’s genes. This is called a .
30. A mutation changes an organism’s recipe Oops!
31. some mutations are harmless, What am I going to do? My future in-laws will be others are very bad! here any minute! It’s a little crispy
32. Who could have Once in a while a mutation guessed that they’d like confers a genetic advantage!soup and ice We were cream!!!! original!
33. A mutation can happen in ANY body cell. a mutation can make a cell cancerous! Cancer: an uncontrolled growth & division of cells. Caused by a mutation in the DNA of just one cell! The mutated cell passes its bad genes as
34. Although a mutation can happen in ANYbody cell, .
35. Peter parker gained his powers from a radioactive spider. Hispowers could only be passed to his offspring, IF the mutation were encoded in his gametes (sex cells).
36. (mutation-causing agents):
37. This picture has been on several regents exams…
38. What is mutation A?
39. What is mutation A? a
40. What is mutation B?
41. What is mutation B?
42. What is mutation C?
43. What is mutation C?
44. sickle cell anemia is the result of single mutation
45. Now answer #13- 39.
46. DNA replication:
47. DNA replicates by semi-conservative replication.
48. The central dogma of genetics(How DNA makes us who we are)
49. The central dogma of genetics: .
51. Step 1: DNA gives instruction to mRNA on how to make a protein.
52. Step 2: mRNA leaves the nucleus & takesthe instructions on how to make a proteinto ribosomes (the cell’s protein factories).
53. Step 3: the ribosomes, use instructions tohave tRNA bring the correct amino acids.
54. Step 4: the ribosomes bond the correctamino acids (in peptide bonds) to form a specific protein.
55. The sequence of amino acid gives the protein its particular shape…
56. The protein’s shape gives the protein its function
57. The protein’s function give the organism its trait.
58. This is the Universal Genetic Code Chart…it shows the messenger RNA codes and the Amino Acids they code for.
59. The three letter codons with theA’s, U’s, C’s and G’s, (such as UCU, or GAU etc) are the mRNA segments….
60. The “PHE”, “LEU”, “SER” ETC are the amino acids….
61. “PHE” is the amino acid phenylalanine “LEU” is leucine “SER” is serine etc
62. You must be able to use this chart:
64. What does the codon: code for?
65. What does the codon: code for?
66. What does the codon: code for?
67. What does the codon: code for?
68. The chart is like a translation of twodifferent languages (mRNA’s language & Amino Acid’s language)
69. The following is how the genetic code in DNA becomes an amino acid:
70. 1. : . Since it CAN’T leave the nucleus, DNA essenger . DNA onlyspeaks “DNA language”. mRNA transcribes (writes down) the recipe but in the language of RNA!We need tomake some We would like to Yes, sir. one proteins. make a protein. the coming Order for recipe is : , can the right up! me! chef make it? Messenger RNA chromosomes What’s of DNA GUG is GUG? I what I ASKED for call CAC, CAC! sir
71. 2. the and the the (the Hey Chef protein factories) Ribosome!we have a special customer order!The recipe is . Do you have the ingredients to make it? No mRNA Problem!
72. 3. : the , the ribosomesthe and tells tRNA to get the correct protein. mRNA Hey tRNA, thesaid . customer is waiting! That’s Please get me some ! asap! Right away, chef ribosomes! is right? Ribosome: the protein chef Yes!
73. Finally Here’s your Looks VAL, the delicious!ribosome says to enjoy! Just what we wanted!
74. Remember this picture it show transcription
75. Now answer 40-55
76. Gene expression:
77. All the cells in an organism’s body have the exact same genes. But, Different cells of the body use different genes
78. the Different cells of an organism’s bodyEXPRESSES different genes but contain all the same DNA. Skin cells express the skin genes. The eye cells express the eye genes. The muscle cells express muscle genes.
79. the Different cells of an organism’sbody EXPRESSES different genes but contain the same DNA.
80. the Different cells of an organism’sbody EXPRESSES different genes but contain the same DNA.
81. the Different cells of an organism’sbody EXPRESSES different genes but contain the same DNA.
82. WHY don’t cells use EVERY gene? Because it would to express genes that they don’t to use!
83. Environmenteffects gene expression.
84. The environment can influence which genes are expressed
85. Some animals’ fur changes color when the seasons change.
86. Why might seasonal color change be a useful adaptation?
87. seasonal color change is a usefuladaptation because they can camouflage (hide) from predators
88. This white rabbit’s fur can turn black, where an ice pack is placed on his white fur because: theenvironment can influence which genes are expressed
89. These leaves are from the same tree but look very different because: the environment can influence which genes are expressed I have to be large to get lightI don’t have becauseto be large, there is because I very get plenty little of light sunlight where I grow
90. Green grass turns yellow when it doesn’t get any sunlight butturns green again if given sunlight because: the environment can influence which gene expressed
91. These 61 year olds are genetically identical twins but lookvery different. because: the environment can influence which I look “mad genes are expressed I never old” because I smoked, dran smoked, drank k or alcohol and suntanned! suntanned all my life
94. Humans have learned to useorganisms’ genes to benefit humankind. This is called biotechnology .
95. The two types of biotechnology are•Selective breeding•Genetic engineering
96. Selective breeding means:Selecting one plant ( or animal) with a desirable characteristic and breeding it with another plant (or animal) with a different desirable trait, to hopefully get a hybrid offspring with BOTH desirable traits.
97. Humans used selective breeding tocreate FIVE different vegetables from wild mustard….
98. Humans have selectively bred hundreds of dog breeds
99. All the plants and all the animals that humans interact with have been selectively bred by people.
100. When selective breeding works, it produces new species beneficial toman….BUT, there are disadvantages…
101. selective breeding is expensive, time-consuming and there is no guarantee that offspring will have the desired traits.
102. Selectively bred species might have abnormalities Down syndrome?Sterile, disease-prone
103. Now # answer 76-84.
105. Is this creature possible? Spiderdog!, spiderd og! Does whatever a spider can!
106. Humans have learned to use enzymes tocombine the DNA of UNRELATED species, it is called: Genetic engineering I’m the REAL spiderman!
107. How genetic engineering works:
108. 1. Scientists discover a desirable trait in an organism…
109. 2. They identify the gene (the segment of DNA that carries the trait)
110. 3. The gene is cut out of the original organism’s DNA using enzymes
111. 4. The gene is pasted into a neworganism’s DNA using enzymes
112. 5. The new organism is now able to make whatever protein is encoded in the recombined DNA.
113. Before the late 1970’s, diabetics were given sheep insulin, BUT some diabetics were allergic to the sheep antigens in sheep insulin
114. Today, Gene recombination is how insulin for diabetics is made.
115. The human insulin gene is inserted into abacterial DNA using enzymes. The bacteriaget reprogrammed to make human insulin.
116. Why bacteria? Bacteria are relatively easy to transform, easy to grow, can producebillions & billions of copies quickly and its easy to purify the insulin.
117. Remember this picture: it shows genetic engineering.
118. Remember this picture: it shows genetic engineering.
119. Remember this picture: it shows genetic engineering.
120. Remember this picture: it shows genetic engineering.
121. Besides insulin, HGH, steroidshormones like testosterone andestrogen are also made through genetic engineering.
122. Clearly, biotechnology shows great promise to benefit mankind… But there are ethical considerations with gene recombination
123. 1818 Mary Shelley wrote “Frankenstein” aboutabout monster (a new life-form) made from bodiessewn together…the story frightened some people, others thought it was impossible…
124. Today, scientists are learning to surpass Dr. Frankenstein The following pictures are fake, but for how long?