A) always lessB) always greaterC) always the sameD) sometimes less and sometimes greater1. Compared to the density of liquid water, the density ofan ice cube isA) decrease B) increaseC) remain the same2. As a stationary airmass is heated, its density willgenerally3. Base your answer to the following question on The data table below shows the mass and volume of threesamples of the same mineral. [The density column is provided for student use.]A) B)C) D)Which graph best represents the relationship between the density and the volume of these mineral samples?
4. Base your answer to the following question on thediagrams below, which represent two different solid,uniform materials cut into cubes A and B.A) less B) greaterC) the sameAssume cube B was broken into many irregularly shapedpieces. Compared to the density of the entire cube, thedensity of one of the pieces would beA) B)C) D)5. Which graph most likely illustrates a cyclic change?A) cyclic and predictableB) cyclic and unpredictableC) noncyclic and predictableD) noncyclic and unpredictable6. Which description of change is most closely associatedwith ocean tides and moon phases?7. Base your answer to the following question on Thecartoon below presents a humorous look at science.A) has less mass B) has more massC) is less dense D) is more denseThe correct explanation of why ice floats is that,compared to liquid water, solid ice
8. Base your answer to the following question on Thediagram below represents the development of ouruniverse from the time of the Big Bang until the present.Letter A indicates two celestial objects.A) asteroid belts B) terrestrial planetsC) spiral galaxies D) eccentric cometsThe present-day celestial objects labeled A are bestidentified as9. Base your answer to the following question on the calendar model shown below of the inferred history of theuniverse and on your knowledge of Earth science. The 12-month time line begins with the Big Bang onJanuary 1 and continues to the present time, which is represented by midnight on December 31. Severalinferred events and the relative times of their occurrence have been placed in the appropriate locations onthe time line.State one piece of evidence used by scientists to support the theory that the Big Bang event occurred.
10. According to the data below, what is the exact shape ofthe Earth?A) slightly flattened at both the Equator and the PolesB) slightly bulging at both the Equator and the PolesC) slightly flattened at the Equator and slightlybulging at the PolesD) slightly flattened at the Poles and slightly bulgingat the EquatorA) Polaris is located directly over the Tropic ofCancerB) Polaris is the brightest and most easily locatedstarC) the altitude of Polaris is equal to the observerslatitudeD) the position of Polaris changes with the seasons11. The North Star (Polaris) can be used for navigation inEarths Northern Hemisphere becauseA) 43º B) 47º C) 75º D) 90º12. From Utica, New York, Polaris is observed at analtitude of approximatelyA)B)C)D)13. Which diagram best shows the altitude of Polarisobserved near Buffalo, New York?14. The diagram below shows an observer on Earthmeasuring the altitude of Polaris.A) 90º N B) 66.5º NC) 43º N D) 23.5º NWhat is the latitude of this observer?
A) a type of solar systemB) a constellation visible to everyone on EarthC) a region in space between the orbits of Mars andJupiterD) a spiral-shaped formation composed of billions ofstars15. The Milky Way galaxy is best described asA) spherical in shapeB) 4.6 billion years oldC) composed of stars revolving around EarthD) one of billions of galaxies in the universe16. Most scientists believe the Milky Way Galaxy isA) solar system, Milky Way, universeB) Milky Way, solar system, universeC) universe, Milky Way, solar systemD) Milky Way, universe, solar system17. In which sequence are the items listed from least totalmass to greatest total mass?18. Base your answer to the following question on the topographic map below, which shows a small island inan ocean. Points A, B, C, and D represent surface locations on the island. The symbol 134 represents anelevation on the hilltop. Elevations are measured in feet and distances are measured in miles.Explain how the contour lines on the map indicate that the north side of the island has the steepest slope.
A) The Earth actually moves around the Sun at a rateof 15º per hour.B) The stars actually move around the center of thegalaxy at a rate of 15º per hour.C) The Earth actually rotates at a rate of 15º per hour.D) The stars actually revolve around the Earth at arate of 15º per hour.19. Why do stars appear to move through the night sky atthe rate of 15 degrees per hour?A) Foucault pendulumB) phases of the MoonC) position of the Sun at solar noonD) geocentric model of the solar system20. Evidence that the Earth rotates on an axis is providedby the Coriolis effect and theA) rotates on its axisB) revolves in its orbitC) is tilted on its axisD) has an elliptical orbit21. The path of a Foucault pendulum provides evidencethat Earth22. The diagram below represents a Foucault pendulum in abuilding in New York State. Points A and A are fixedpoints on the floor.A) appear to change position due to Earths rotation.B) appear to change position due to Earthsrevolution.C) continue to swing between A and A due to inertia.D) continue to swing between A and A due to airpressure.As the pendulum swings for six hours, it willA) high and low-pressure beltsB) the Earths revolutionC) the equatorial calmsD) the Earths rotation23. What causes the Coriolis effect?A) rate of rotationB) period of revolutionC) angle of tiltD) average surface temperature24. The Coriolis effect would be influenced most by achange in the EarthsA) rotation of the EarthB) revolution of the EarthC) unequal heating of the EarthD) variations in salinity of the Earths oceans25. Ocean currents exhibit the Coriolis effect as a result oftheA) the Moon B) JupiterC) the Sun D) the Milky Way26. Which celestial feature is largest in actual size?A) galaxy ® solar system ® universe ® planetB) solar system ® galaxy ® planet ® universeC) planet ® solar system ® galaxy ® universeD) universe ® galaxy ® solar system ® planet27. In which list are celestial features correctly shown inorder of increasing size?A) B)C) D)28. Which diagram best represents the full-moon phase ofthe Moon as seen from the Earth?
29. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which represents a model of theEarth-Moon system as viewed from above the North Pole. The numbers 1 through 8 represent positions ofthe Moon as it revolves around Earth. The parts of the diagram lettered A through D show how the Moonsphases appear to an observer in New Jersey.A) decrease, only B) increase, onlyC) decrease, then increase D) increase, then decreaseAs the Moons phase changes from first quarter to last quarter, the visible portion of the Moon as observedfrom Earth will
30. Base your answer to the following question on the graph below, which shows the maximum altitude of theMoon, measured by an observer located at a latitude of 43° N during June in a particular year. The namesand appearance of the four major Moon phases are shown at the top of the graph, directly above the date onwhich the phase occurred.A) B) C) D)Which diagram best represents the Moon’s phase observed on June 11?A) June 21 B) July 10C) August 21 D) August 3131. On which date does maximum insolation usually occurin New Jersey?A) March 21 B) June 21C) June 21 D) December 2132. In Maine, which day has the shortest duration ofinsolation?
33. Base your answer to the following question onthe diagram below, which shows the apparent paths ofthe Sun at the beginning of each season for an observerat a location in Connecticut.A) June 21 B) August 21C) September 23 D) December 21Which day of the year is represented by path A?Base your answers to questions 34 and 35 on thediagram below which represents the apparent daily pathof the Sun across the sky in the Northern Hemisphere onthe dates indicated.A) June 21 B) September 23C) March 21 D) December 2134. At noon on which date would the observer cast thelongest shadow?A) The Sun appears to move across the sky at arate of 1º per hour.B) The Suns total daytime path is shortest on thisdate.C) Sunrise occurs north of east.D) Sunset occurs south of west.35. Which observation about the Suns apparentpath at this location on June 21 is best supportedby the diagram?36. Base your answer to the following question on thegraph below, which shows the average monthlytemperatures at cities A, B, C, and D. The latitude ofeach city is also indicated.A) A B) B C) C D) DWhich city will have the longest duration of insolationon June 21?
37. Base your answer to the following question on The diagram below shows four surfaces of equal area thatabsorb insolation.A) A B) B C) C D) DWhich letter represents the surface that most likely absorbs the greatest amount of insolation?A) reflector of electromagnetic energyB) refractor of electromagnetic energyC) radiator of electromagnetic energyD) convector of electromagnetic energy38. An object that is a good absorber of electromagneticenergy is also a goodA) convector B) reflectorC) radiator D) refractor39. An object that is a good absorber of electromagneticenergy is most likely a goodA) light colored and smoothB) light colored and roughC) dark colored and smoothD) dark colored and rough40. Which of these characteristics identify an Earth surfacethat is likely to be the best absorber of insolation?A) less than the original specimens half-lifeB) greater than the original specimens half-lifeC) the same as the original specimens half-life41. If a radioactive material were cut into pieces, thehalf-life of each piece would be42. Base your answer on the diagram below whichrepresents a cube of radioactive material (figure A) cutinto eight identical cubes (figure B).A) 1/8 as long B) 1/64 as longC) 8 times longer D) the sameCompared to the half-life of the material in figure A, thehalf-life of the material in each small cube in figure B isA) carbon-14 B) potassium-40C) rubidium-87 D) uranium-23843. Which radioactive substance has the longest half-life?A) 5.7 years B) 570 yearsC) 5,700 years D) 5,700,000 years44. What is the half-life of carbon-14?
45. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which represents a model of aradioactive sample with a half-life of 5000 years. The white boxes represent undecayed radioactivematerial and the shaded boxes represent the decayed material after the first half-life.A) carbon-14 B) potassium-40 C) uranium-238 D) rubidium-87Which radioactive isotope has a half-life closest in duration to this radioactive sample?A) granite B) sandstoneC) basalt D) rhyolite46. The oceanic crust is thought to be composed mainly ofA) low density and is maficB) low density and is felsicC) high density and is maficD) high density and is felsic47. When two tectonic plates collide, oceanic crust usuallysubducts beneath continental crust because oceaniccrust is primarily composed of igneous rock that has48. Base your answer to the following question on Thediagram below represents a cross section of a portion ofthe Earths crust.A) The oceanic crust is thicker than the mantle.B) The continental crust is thicker than the oceaniccrust.C) The continental crust is composed primarily ofsedimentary rock.D) The crust is composed of denser rock than themantle is.Which statement about the Earths crust is bestsupported by the diagram?
49. Base your answer to the following question on theEarth Science Reference Tables.A) more mafic and less denseB) more mafic and more denseC) more felsic and less denseD) more felsic and more denseCompared to continental crust, oceanic crust isA) thinner and composed of graniteB) thinner and composed of basaltC) thicker and composed of graniteD) thicker and composed of basalt50. Compared to Earths oceanic crust, Earths continentalcrust isA) a glacier on a summer dayB) magma from an erupting volcanoC) steam from heated ground waterD) an ocean current beginning at the Equator51. An example of a heat sink isA) reflected by a heat sinkB) refracted by a heat sinkC) scattered by a heat sinkD) absorbed by a heat sink52. When a heat source loses energy, that energy isA) crustal upliftB) volcanic eruptionsC) continental glaciationD) crustal erosion53. The presence of marine fossils at elevations high abovesea level provides good evidence forA) marine fossils in the Rocky MountainsB) sediment in the Gulf of MexicoC) trenches in the Pacific Ocean floorD) igneous rock deep within the Earth54. The best evidence of crustal uplift would be providedbyA) moist and warm B) moist and coldC) dry and cold D) dry and warm55. Chemical weathering occurs most rapidly in climateswhich areA) cools the surroundings when it evaporatesB) dissolves many of the minerals that make up rocksC) has a density of about one gram per cubiccentimeterD) has the highest specific heat of all common earthmaterials56. Water is a major agent of chemical weathering becausewaterA) hydrosphere and lithosphereB) mesosphere and thermosphereC) hydrosphere and atmosphereD) lithosphere and atmosphere57. Chemical weathering will occur most rapidly whenrocks are exposed to theA) cold and humid B) cold and aridC) hot and humid D) hot and arid58. Chemical weathering of rocks occurs most rapidly in aclimate that isA) a warm, dry climateB) a cold, dry climateC) a warm, moist climateD) a cold, moist climate59. Chemical weathering would be most effective in60. Base your answer to the following question on Thediagram below shows a process called frost wedging.A) weathering B) cementingC) metamorphism D) depositionFrost wedging is an example of
A) clockwise and toward the centerB) clockwise and away from the centerC) counterclockwise and toward the centerD) counterclockwise and away from the center61. In the Northern Hemisphere, in which direction doessurface wind circulate in a high-pressure air mass?A) clockwise and inwardB) clockwise and outwardC) counterclockwise and inwardD) counterclockwise and outward62. In which direction do the surface winds blow around ahigh-pressure system in the Northern Hemisphere?A) clockwise and toward the centerB) clockwise and away from the centerC) counterclockwise and toward the centerD) counterclockwise and away from the center63. In the Northern Hemisphere, the movement of air in alow-pressure center is64. Base your answer to the following question on the satellite image below, which shows a NorthernHemisphere hurricane.A) clockwise and outward B) clockwise and inwardC) counterclockwise and outward D) counterclockwise and inwardWhat is the usual surface wind pattern around the eye of Northern Hemisphere hurricanes?A) refractors B) radiatorsC) reflectors D) convectors65. In general, good absorbers of electromagnetic radiationare also good
A) The Earth is traveling faster in its orbit inFebruary.B) The altitude of the noon Sun is greater inFebruary.C) The insolation in New York is greater in July.D) The Earth is closer to the Sun in July.66. What is the primary reason New York State is warmerin July than in February?A) 35°C B) 40°C C) 45°C D) 50°C67. The highest air temperature ever recorded in Albany,New York, was 104°F, which occurred on July 4, 1911.This temperature is equal toA) dark colored with a rough surfaceB) dark colored with a smooth surfaceC) light colored with a rough surfaceD) light colored with a smooth surface68. A person in Florida worked outdoors in sunlight forseveral hours on a day in July. Which type of clothingshould the person have worn to absorb the leastelectromagnetic radiation?A) high temperature toward regions of lowtemperatureB) high pressure toward regions of low pressureC) high precipitation toward regions of lowprecipitationD) high humidity toward regions of low humidity69. Wind moves from regions ofA) gradient of the air pressure fieldB) value of the Coriolis effectC) moisture content of the airD) rotational velocity of the Earth70. Wind velocity is most directly dependent on the71. Base your answer to the following question on on thediagram below, which represents a satellite image ofHurricane Gilbert in the Gulf of Mexico. Each Xrepresents the position of the eye of the storm on thedate indicated.A) counterclockwise and toward the centerB) counterclockwise and away from the centerC) clockwise and toward the centerD) clockwise and away from the centerThe surface wind pattern associated with HurricaneGilbert was72. Base your answer to the following question onthe diagram below, which represents a cross section ofthe shoreline of Lake Erie.A) low air pressure to areas of high air pressureB) high air pressure to areas of low air pressureC) low air humidity to areas of high air humidityD) high air humidity to areas of low air humidityThe direction of the wind shown in this diagram isprobably due to air moving from areas of
A) air pressureB) Coriolis forceC) dewpoint temperatureD) cloud cover73. Which factor most directly affects the wind speedbetween two locations?74. Base your answer to the following question on Thetable below shows air temperatures and dew pointtemperatures at different elevations above sea level.A) raindrops B) ozoneC) ice crystals D) sleetClouds that form at an elevation of 3 kilometers willmost likely be composed of75. The chart below shows the air temperature and thedewpoint temperature near the ground at a givenlocation for four consecutive days. All temperatureswere recorded at noon.A) Relative humidity was highest on day 1.B) The greatest amount of water vapor was in theatmosphere on day 2.C) The base level for cloud formation was highest onday 3.D) The chance of precipitation was greatest on day 4.Which statement is best supported by the data?A) Humidity is decreasing.B) Temperature is decreasing.C) Skies are clearing.D) A storm is approaching.76. Which weather change is most likely indicated byrapidly falling air pressure?A) humidity differencesB) air pressure differencesC) the revolution of EarthD) the rotation of Earth77. What is the primary cause of winds?A) the atmosphere is relatively dryB) the air is at its saturated vapor pressureC) the air pressure is highD) transpiration equals evaporation78. The relative humidity is 100% when79. Base your answer to the following question on theweather station model shown below.State the relative humidity.
80. Base your answer to the following question on on the station models below, which show various weatherconditions recorded at the same time on the same day at four different cities.A) Chicago B) Detroit C) Buffalo D) UticaWhich city had the lowest relative humidity?81. Base your answer to the following question on The diagram below shows the temperature readings on aweather instrument.A) 8% B) 11% C) 32% D) 60%Based on these readings, the relative humidity of the air is closest to82. Base your answer to the following question on thediagram below, which shows the frontal boundarybetween mT and cP air masses.A) cold front B) warm frontC) occluded front D) stationary frontIf the front at ground level is moving toward city B.which type of weather front is shown?
83. Base your answer to the following question on the weather map below, which shows two fronts associatedwith a low-pressure system.Which type of weather front has entered New York State?
84. Base your answer to the following question on the weather map below, which shows surface weatherconditions over the central United States at 1:00 a.m. for a day in May. Shaded areas representprecipitation.A) a warm front B) a cold front C) an isotherm D) an isobarThe boundary between the cP and mT air masses shown on the map is calledA) B)C) D)85. Which graph best represents the relationship betweenporosity and particle size for soil samples of uniformsize, shape, and packing?
86. The diagrams below represent three containers, A, B, and C, which were filled with equal volumes ofuniformly sorted plastic beads. Water was poured into each container to determine porosity and infiltrationtime.A) B)C) D)Which data table best represents the porosity and infiltration time of the beads in the three containers?
87. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram, data and information below. The diagrambelow represents part of the laboratory setup for an activity to investigate the effects of particle size onpermeability, porosity, and water retention. Three separate tubes were used, each containing 300 millilitersof beads of uniform size. Bead sizes were 4 millimeters, 7 millimeters, and 12 millimeters in diameter,respectively.A) B)C) D)Which graph best represents the infiltration times for these three particle sizes?
A) the rocks geologic ageB) the rocks hardnessC) the rocks porosityD) the rocks color88. Which is most important in determining the amount ofground water that can be stored within a rock?A) The apparent diameter of the Sun would decrease.B) The amount of insolation received by the Earthwould increase.C) The time for one Earth rotation (rotation period)would double.D) The time for one Earth revolution (orbital period)would decrease.89. If the distance between the Earth and the Sun wereincreased, which change would occur?A) cyclic and predictableB) cyclic and unpredictableC) noncyclic and predictableD) noncyclic and unpredictable90. As viewed from Earth, the Suns apparent diameter hasshown which type of change over a period of 10 years?A) existed during a large part of the Paleozoic EraB) has no living relatives found on Earth todayC) existed over a wide geographic areaD) has been found in New York State91. One reason Tetragraptus is considered a good indexfossil is that Tetragraptus92. Base your answer to the following question on Thethree cross sections of sedimentary bedrock shownbelow represent widely separated surface exposures oflayers that contain fossils. Letters A, B, C, and Drepresent four different marine fossils found in theserock layers.A) A B) B C) C D) DWhich letter best represents an index fossil?93. The geologic columns A, B, and C in the diagramsbelow represent widely spaced outcrops of sedimentaryrocks. Symbols are used to indicate fossils found withineach rock layer. Each rock layer represents the fossilrecord of a different geologic time period.A) B)C) D)According to the diagrams for all three columns, whichwould be the best index fossil?A) lived on landB) lived in shallow waterC) been preserved by volcanic ashD) existed for a geologically short time94. In order for an organism to be used as an index fossil,the organism must have been geographicallywidespread and must have95. Base your answer to the following question on thediagram of a mountain shown below. The arrowsrepresent the direction of airflow over the mountain.A) compresses and warmsB) compresses and coolsC) expands and warmsD) expands and coolsAs the air moves up the windward side of the mountain,the air
96. Base your answer to the following question on Thecross section below shows the flow of winds over amountain ridge.A) on the leeward side, in a mP air massB) on the leeward side, in a cT air massC) on the windward side, in a mT air massD) on the windward side, in a cP air massThe heaviest rainfall would most likely occur on whichside of this mountain and in which type of air mass?97. A desert often forms on the leeward side of a mountainrange, as shown in the cross section below.A) compresses and warmsB) compresses and coolsC) expands and warmsD) expands and coolsAfter most of the moisture is removed from the air onthe windward side, deserts form on the leeward sidebecause the sinking air
98. Base your answer to the following question on the field map below, which shows the average annualprecipitation in New York State for the past 25 years. Isoline values represent inches per year.A) closer to a large body of water B) at a higher latitudeC) at a lower elevation D) in the prevailing southerly wind beltJamestown received more rainfall per year than Elmira. A reason for this difference is that Jamestown islocatedA) The water causes cooler summers and colderwinters.B) The water causes cooler summers and warmerwinters.C) The water causes hotter summers and warmerwinters.D) The water causes hotter summers and colderwinters.99. What effect does a large body of water usually have onthe climate of a nearby landmass?A) California CurrentB) Florida CurrentC) Labrador CurrentD) North Pacific Current100. What is the name of the warm ocean current that flowsalong the east coast of the United States?A) Brazil CurrentB) Peru CurrentC) South Equatorial CurrentD) North Pacific Current101. What is the name of the cool ocean current that flowsalong, the west coast of South America?A) West Wind DriftB) Gulf StreamC) North Equatorial CurrentD) California Current102. Which current is a cool ocean current that flowscompletely around Earth?
103. In the diagram below, the arrow shows the direction ofstream flow around a bend.A) A B) B C) C D) DAt which point does the greatest stream erosion occur?104. Base your answer to the following question on Thediagram below shows points A, B, C, and D on ameandering stream.A) A B) B C) C D) DAt which point does the greatest stream erosion occur?105. The diagram below represents a winding stream. Atwhich location is stream erosion most likely to begreater than stream deposition?A) A B) B C) C D) D
106. Base your answer to the following question on The model shown below illustrates stream erosion betweenlocations A and B in the stream.A) decrease and the rate of erosion to decreaseB) decrease and the rate of erosion to increaseC) increase and the rate of erosion to decreaseD) increase and the rate of erosion to increasePlacing a second block under location A will cause the streams velocity to