The Techniquespersistence of vision-Persistence of vision is a commonly-accepted although somewhat controversialtheory which states that the human eye always retains images for a fraction of asecond (around 0.04 second). This means that everything we see is a subtle blend ofwhat is happening now and what happened a fraction of a second ago.In film and video, this phenomena is widely believed to account for our ability toperceive a sequence of frames as a continuous moving picture. However this ideawas debunked in 1912 and there is no scientific evidence to suggest that persistenceof vision works in this way. Rather, it is thought that the illusion of continuousmotion is caused by unrelated phenomena such as beta movement (the brainassuming movement between two static images when shown in quick succession).Despite this, persistence of vision continues to be incorrectly taught in schools as thephysiological mechanism behind videos illusion of movement.
The TechniquesStop-frame-Stop-motion animation (or stop-action) is the painstaking process of photographinga model, moving it a miniscule amount, then photographing it again. Finally, youstring the photographs together and the tiny movements appear to be action. Thisform of animation is the simplest to use and is great for beginners.For instance, SethGreen, an actor who has a love of action figures but no prior animation experience,co-created Robot Chicken with Matthew Senreich. They employ toys, sets that aremore like dioramas, dollhouse props and clay (for facial expressions) in their stop-motion videos to create some pretty hysterical skits.Though I say this technique simple, because the concept is easy to understand andexecute, that does not mean stop-motion is not time-consuming or cannot besophisticated.In the hands of an artist, stop-motion animation can be very realistic, stylistic andmoving. Films like Corpse Bride by Tim Burton show that stop-motion isnt a genre,but a medium that allows artists to create whatever they imagine. Each character inthis film has several versions of bodies and heads in order to capture the mosthuman movements and expressions. The sets are also created with the sameattention to detail, creating a dark, beautiful world.
The TechniquesFrame Rates-In motion pictures, television, and in computer video displays, the frame rate is thenumber of frames or images that are projected or displayed per second. Frame ratesare used in synchronizing audio and pictures, whether film, television, or video. Inmotion pictures and television, the frame rates are standardized by the Society ofMotion Picture and Television Editors (SMPTE). SMPTE Time Code frame rates of 24,25 and 30 frames per second are common, each having uses in different portions ofthe industry. The professional frame rate for motion pictures is 24 frames per secondand, for television, 30 frames per secondThis is the same when it comes to stop motion animation as each difference in themodels action is a separate frame and a general frame rate is used to synchronisethe images with sounds and timing
PioneersJoseph Plateau-History… In 1832, Belgian physicist Joseph Plateau and his sons introduced the phenakistoscope ("spindle viewer"). It was also inventedindependently in the same year by Simon von Stampfer of Vienna, Austria, who called his invention a stroboscope. Plateausinspiration had come primarily from the work of Michael Faraday and Peter Mark Roget (the compiler of Rogets Thesaurus).Faraday had invented a device he called "Michael Faradays Wheel," that consisted of two discs that spun in opposite directionsfrom each other. From this, Plateau took another step, adapting Faradays wheel into a toy he later named thephenakistoscope.How it works…The phenakistoscope uses the persistence of motion principle to create an illusion of motion. Although this principle had beenrecognized by the Greek mathematician Euclid and later in experiments by Newton, it was not until 1829 that this principlebecame firmly established by Joseph Plateau.The phenakistoscope consisted of two discs mounted on the same axis. The first disc had slots around the edge, and thesecond contained drawings of successive action, drawn around the disc in concentric circles. Unlike Faradays Wheel, whosepair of discs spun in opposite directions, a phenakistoscopes discs spin together in the same direction. When viewed in amirror through the first discs slots, the pictures on the second disc willWhat became of it…After going to market, the phenakistoscope received other names, including Phantasmascope and Fantoscope (andphenakistiscope in Britain and many other countries). It was quite successful for two years until William George Hornerinvented the zoetrope, which offered two improvements on the phenakistoscope. First, the zoetrope did not require a viewingmirror. The second and most influential improvement was that more than one person could view the moving pictures at thesame time.
PioneersWilliam Horner ZoetropeHistory…The zoetrope was invented in 1834 in England by William Horner. He called it the Daedalum (the wheel of the devil). It didntbecome popular until the 1860s, when it was patented by makers in both England and America. The American developer,William F. Lincoln, named his toy the zoetrope, which means wheel of life.How it works…The zoetrope worked on the same principles as the phenakistiscope, but the pictures were drawn on a strip which could be setaround the bottom third of a metal drum, with the slits now cut in the upper section of the drum. The drum was mounted on aspindle so that it could be spun, and viewers looking through the slits would see the cartoon strip form a moving image. Thefaster the drum is spun, the smoother the image that is produced.What became of it…Both the zoetrope and phenakistiscope provided the break in the images by the black space between adjacent slits in the discor drum. However, this design was adapted by Emile Reynaud in Paris in 1877 to form the praxinoscope. It used a drum, just asthe zoetrope had, with the images drawn on a band placed around the inside of the cylinder. However, rather than having slitsthrough which the images were viewed, the cartoon strip was reflected in a series of mirrors, mounted in a ring set halfwaybetween the outer edge of the drum and the central axle. When the drum was spun, the viewer watched the progression ofimages in the mirrors. A candle set above the axle allowed the images to be seen more clearly.Two years later, Reynaud developed the design to create the praxinoscope theatre. With the drum now set into a wooden box,the lid of the box carried a hole through which the viewer saw a background scene that set the images on the cartoon strip incontext.
PioneersThomas Edison-Thomas Edison is best known for his development of the electric light bulb and thephonograph. He was also the first person successfully to demonstrate moving pictures to thepublic. His early experiments followed the same pattern as his phonograph, with the picturesrecorded on to a wax cylinder. However, by 1889, he had passed the project to a youngScotsman, William Kennedy Laurie Dickson, who began work on a camera using celluloid film,This camera was called the kinetograph.The kinetograph It used rolls of film about 35mm wide, and these film strips carried rows ofholes down the sides to allow the film to be pulled through the camera at an even rate. Theserows of holes still appear on both ciné-film and films for use in ordinary cameras. Dicksondeveloped a viewer for the films which was called a kinetoscope. You can see from the picturethat it could only be used by one person at a time, looking through the viewing piece at the topof the box. The film ran backwards and forwards round a series of pulleys, and was held as acontinuous loop, so that it could be watched over and over again without rewinding.
PioneersThe Lumière Brothers –Auguste and Louis Lumière came from Lyon in France, where they worked in their fathersphotographic factory. In 1894, they saw Edisons kinetoscope in Paris, and decided to design acamera of their own. By February of the next year they had produced a working model of theirciné camera, which they called a cinématographe. The machine was in fact not only a camerabut could be used, together with a magic lantern, to project the films which the brothers hadtaken.The films produced by the Lumières camera were usually about 50 seconds long. They weretaken in one shot, with the camera kept fixed on a tripod, looking the same way all the time.The first one which was ever to shown to an audience was an image of the workers leaving thefactory in Lyon. (You can see this film at the Stanford Humanities Laboratory.) This showing wasalso the first time that an audience had seen moving pictures projected onto a screen, sinceEdisons kinetoscope used a peep-show viewer rather than a projected image.The first public screening of one of the Lumières films was given on 28 December 1895 in Paris.This date is often taken to mark the birth of the cinema, although Edison and even Le Princeand Donisthorpe had photographed moving pictures before then. After the screening, thebrothers began commercial production of their camera, which was soon in demand across theworld. The age of the cinema had begun.
Genres And FormsAnimation is used in many sections of the mediaFor example animation has been used to create TV Animations. These are programmes that useanimation as a type of video format. For example a lot of childrens TV shows use animationand stop start motion, such as Shaun the sheep by BBC and Wallace and gromit also made bythe same stop motion creators.Cinema- Stop motion animation and just graphic animation has been used throughout cinema.It has been included in all genres from action to romance. It is used as a way to create a sceneswhich are unable to be created in real life, often due to it being too unrealistic i.e includingspace features. Or being too dangerous. An example of this is in the modern film avatar. Thiswas done using CGI a form of animation which allowed the creator to manufacture wholeworlds digitally. On of the first animated films was steamboat willy created by Disney. This wasthe first animation which included sound.Advertising- animation is often used in modern advertisement because it can introduce newfeatures to adverts to be more innovative, and thus be more successful in advertising. Onadvert that used animation or CGI was the lynx Chocolate advert which features a man made ofchocolate. This was all created using animation and CGI but would have been impossiblewithout it.
Genres And FormsMusic Videos. Some music videos use animation to create un realistic scenes to help portraythe music. One of the first animated music videos was ‘Sledgehammer’ by peter gabrial. Thisfeatures peter gabriel as the main character singing to the son, however using stop motionanimation more creative things are added to the scenes.Computer Games. All computer games are created via graphics. This meansthey have all been created as a graphical animation. This is used to createworlds on which the player, plays in.
DevelopersWillis O’Brien-In 1949, 16 years after his ground breaking work on "King Kong", Willis OBrien worked as Chief Technician onanother gorilla picture for Merian C. Cooper and Ernest B. Shoedsack called "Mighty Joe Young". A young RayHarryhausen would animate most of the animation, but OBrien did come up with the designs for the film. Atthe 1950 Academy Awards, OBrien was awarded an Oscar for Best Visual Effects. This along with "King Kong",are often considered his greatest achievements.Here is an early clip of stop-motion photography used to animate dinosaurshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u2PjgxnyyQoRay Harryhausen-Raymond Frederick "Ray" Harryhausen (born June 29, 1920) is an American visual effects creator, writer andproducer. He created a brand of stop-motion model animation known as ‘Dynamation’Among his most notable works are his animation on Mighty Joe Young (with pioneer Willis OBrien) (1949), The7th Voyage of Sinbad (his first colour film) and Jason and the Argonauts, featuring a famous sword fight againstseven skeleton warriors.Before the advent of computers for camera motion control and CGI, movies used a variety of approaches toachieve animated special effects. One approach was stop-motion animation which used realistic miniaturemodels (more accurately called model animation), used for the first time in a feature film in The Lost World(1925), and most famously in King Kong (1933).
Contemporary WorkThe Brothers Quay- Stephen and Timothy Quay, identical twins, were born in Norristown, near Philadelphia, in 1947.After graduating in 1969 from the Philadelphia College of Art, where they studied illustration and graphics, they won ascholarship to the Royal College of Art, London. At the School of Film and Television they made their first short films(mostly lost), and met fellow student Keith Griffiths, who first collaborated with them on Nocturna Artificialia (1979),funded by the BFI Production Board. Working together as Koninck Studios, with Griffiths producing, the Quays havemaintained a steady output of surreal and fastidious puppet animation films, supplemented by design work for opera,theatre and ballet. To help finance their avant-garde projects they have also worked on TV commercials, channelidentification footage, and numerous music videos, including the Stille Nacht series, and, less characteristically, PeterGabriels Sledgehammer.The Quays are renowned for their craftsmanlike methods and their unusual sources of inspiration. Apart from theirpuppets, which typically look like old dolls abused by many generations of children, they construct their own sets,arrange the lighting, and operate the cameras. The films draw heavily on twentieth-century European visual and literaryculture, especially the surrealist and expressionist traditions represented by the Polish writer Bruno Schulz, the painterMax Ernst, and their fellow director of puppet films, the Czech Jan Svankmajer. As with Svankmajer, the Quays cinemais short on conventional narrative but long on enigmatic visuals; music usually plays a major part in creating a bizarre,sinister atmosphere.Here is a montage video of some of the brothers Quay work -http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zedjLOK5uyUTim Burton-
Contemporary WorkTim Burton-Timothy Walter "Tim" Burton (born August 25, 1958) is an American film director, film producer, writer and artist. He is famous forhis dark, quirky-themed movies such as Beetlejuice, Edward Scissorhands, The Nightmare Before Christmas, Ed Wood, SleepyHollow, Corpse Bride, Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street, 9 and Dark Shadows and for blockbusters such as Pee-wees Big Adventure, Batman, Batman Returns, Planet of the Apes, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory and Alice in Wonderland,which was the second highest-grossing film of 2010, and the twelfth highest-grossing film of all time.Burton is known for using recurring collaborators on his works; among them are Johnny Depp, who has become a close friend ofBurton since their first film together; musician Danny Elfman, who has composed scores for all but five of the films Burton hasdirected and/or produced; and domestic partner Helena Bonham Carter. He also wrote and illustrated the poetry book TheMelancholy Death of Oyster Boy & Other Stories, published in 1997, and a compilation of his drawings, sketches and otherartwork, entitled The Art of Tim Burton, was released in 2009.Here is a link to a video showing the creative and artistic side of Tim Burton and his reasoning behind his filmshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mANsedYvsBs