Neuroplasticity-The ability of the brain to grow or shrink in size and mass.
Environmental stimulation, including sight , smell, taste, touch and education is triggering our cells in the Hippocampus region to multiple and thus become larger and more dense (Diamond, 2001; Snowdon, 2002; Perry 2008 )
Technology allows us to look deep into the living brain
The top slide is of healthy dendrites with rich dense connections.
The bottom slide shows how the dendrites look when cellular deterioration has occurred.
Current Hypothesis on Hippocampus wellness and cognitive reserve
Early stage: Plaques and Tangles develop in the Enthornal cortex, essential for making new memories and retrieving old ones.
Middle stage: Over time abnormal cells move higher up through the Hippocampus, responsible for complex memories, events, life experiences.
Last stage: Plaques/tangles move up and across the brain to the Neocortex, eventually preventing orchestration of behavior, eatring and loss of all ADL’s.
TTAP Method structures Right and Left Brain Functioning into protocals
How Activities Stimulate LEFT Brain Functioning
Left Side Creative Art Therapies
Reading------------- Story Boards
Sequential---------- Food, cooking receipts
Concrete------------ Reality orientation, names of objects/people
How Activities Stimulate RIGHT Brain Functioning
The Hippocampus is located in the Limbic system, which is called the seat of our emotions. Art stimulates emotions, thus enriching the mind.
Research in Emotions, Learning and Creativity into Practice
Rich l anguage usage and emotions impacts
Learning and decreases stress.
Dirkx, J. (2001). The Power of Feelings: Emotion, Imagination, and the Construction of Meaning in Adult Learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 89: 63-72.
Serrano, C., Allegri, R., Martelli, M., Taragano, F., Rinalli, P. (2005). Visual art, creativity and dementia facilitates learning. Vertex, 16(64):418-29. Retreived July 10 , 2009 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16314895-structure
Does the TTAP Method provide opportunities for cognitive stimulation?
“ Seeing the patients each week we observed them becoming more active as each week went by. One pt. didn’t want to do anything in the first 3 sessions and then she started wanting to do more and more.”
“ The patients would tell us they were feeling more alive AND how their minds were more alive.”
“ The patients were indeed stimulated cognitively in giving them choices, making decisions, and taking action, this stimulates the brain.”
10 Research Studies on Cognition and the TTAP Method
Hebrew Home for the Aged, (Levine Madori, 2005, 2009) – significant outcomes
Cento de Oro, Spanish Population (Alders, 2009)- significant outcomes
Helen Hayes Rehabilitation Hospital , (Levine Madori & Andreassi, 2009) – significant not published
Seinajoki University, Masters in Social work and HealthCare Division.
This study took pace also through the Government program titles Demke-project. The purpose was to develop program to increase quality of life for individuals with AD, and to increase nursing participation in actually facilitating activities on a dementia unit.
Qualitative study , data collected by pre and post surveys from staff, administration and nursing. Views of the elderly were analyzed.
Outcomes included the overall significant and positive responses from residents on the unit , verbal interviews with staff after the 15 week program, and post collection of data 8 weeks after the intervention. Post intervention found significant increase in activities by nursing on unit.
Tarja Vanska (September, 2009),Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Helsinki Nursing Degree.
Research study designed for large Rehabilitation Hospital for War Veterans. Nursing staff took course in TTAP Method and decided to use as research thesis.
Study had 2 prongs- short-term goal was to investigate if TTAP Method could be used as a therapeutic intervention successfully with those diagnosed with moderate and severe AD.
Secondly, could the TTAP be utilized as part of the nursing responsibility.- this study used 6 steps (meditation& Music, painting, phototherapy, baking, dance)
Results of a 8 week study- Peak in physical performance measures, significant increase in socialization . Participants showed high satisfaction. TTAP thus was found to be both therapeutic and rehabilitative as a method
Collection of Data took place over 20 week period.
Conclusion, TTAP Method through qualitative data collection from staff and residents, themes that arose from survey, observation and actual notes from sessions proved to enhance both the staff leading the group and the residents with moderate dementia living on the unit.
Finnish Alzheimer’s Association awarded 600,000 euro's to study TTAP Method for 3 years. University of HAMK training students to facilitate programming in home and community. 04/18/10
Research Studies Enhancing Cognitive Performance utilizing the TTAP Method™ Linda Levine Madori, Ph.D., ATR-BC,LCAT, CTRS
TTAP Method utilized with 8 individuals’ diagnosed with Mild Alzheimer’s Disease; Cornell University Memory Evaluation Services
Early findings demonstrate significant increase in mood and self perceived increase in cognition
CLOCK DRAWING TEST: Results could be suggestive of organic causes of cognitive impairment. Advantages: simple, non-threatening Sensitivities of up to 86% and specificity of up to 96%. (Samton, 2005) http://neuro.psychiatryonline.org
Changes in cognition “seen” in Clock Drawing ( Cornell study, 2009)
Cultural Change in Healthcare; Medical Model to Social Model
. There were four early pioneering individuals who began to apply social model concepts to nursing home settings that must be recognized to truly understand the evolution of Culture Change history. The early work that these individuals brought to the movement have become known as the following Culture Change philosophies: -- The Eden Alternative -- The Regenerative Community -- Restraint Free / Individualized Care -- Now the TTAP Method™
Certification Course on TTAP Method™, New York, New Jersey, Chicago, Illinois.